Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law. The word is used to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced; some kind of limitation on the trade in alcohol can be seen in the Code of Hammurabi banning the selling of beer for money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they shall throw her into the water."In the Western world, one of the great moral issues of the nineteenth century was slavery, but once that battle was won, social moralists turned to their next targets, one of, prohibition. In the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Prohibition movements in the West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly empowered women as part of the political process supporting policies that curbed alcohol consumption.
The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries: 1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, for shorter periods in other provinces in Canada 1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands. Rum-running or bootlegging became widespread, organized crime took control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, although a few locations continued prohibition for many more years. In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned. Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan.
In Bangladesh, alcohol is somewhat prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country; the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion. In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public. Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarcation overseas for their own private consumption, non-Muslims who are at least the age of 18 are allowed to bring in not more than two bottles of liquor and twelve cans of beer per person into the country. In India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but most states do not have prohibition and sale/consumption is available in 25 out of 29 states. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the union territory of Lakshadweep. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol.
Election days and certain national holidays such as Independence Day are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted but consumption is allowed. Some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region. Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. All people are banned from drinking alcohol but some people trade and sell it illegally. Alcohol sales are banned in small shops and convenience stores; the consumption and brewing of, trafficking in liquor is against the law. Alcohol is banned only for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic sharia law. Alcoholic products can be found in supermarkets, specialty shops, convenience stores all over the country. Non-halal restaurants typically sell alcohol; the Maldives ban the import of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on resort islands and may not be taken off the resort. Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977.
Since only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for alcohol permits. The monthly quota is dependent upon one's income, but is about five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 180 million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol; the Murree Brewery in Rawalpindi was once the only legal brewery. The ban is enforced by the country's Islamic Ideology Council, but it is not policed. Members of religious minorities, however sell their liquor permits to Muslims as part of a continuing black market trade in alcohol. There are only rest
Ohio History Connection
Ohio History Connection is a non-profit organization incorporated in 1885 as The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society "to promote a knowledge of archaeology and history in Ohio". Until May 24, 2014, the organization was known as the Ohio Historical Society. Ohio History Connection exists to interpret, preserve and make available evidence of the past, to provide leadership on furthering knowledge and appreciation of the prehistory and history of Ohio and of the broader cultural and natural environments of which Ohio is a part, its predecessor was founded by Brig. Gen. Roeliff Brinkerhoff in 1875; that society became dormant, was revived at the urging of Governor George Hoadly in 1885. Ohio History Connection operates dozens of state historic sites across Ohio, its headquarters is the 250,000-square-foot Ohio History Center in Columbus, Ohio, a Brutalist concrete structure. Extensive exhibits cover Ohio's history from the Ice Age to the present; the Center includes state archives and library spaces, a gift shop, administrative and educational facilities.
The 1989 Smithsonian Guide to Historic America described the Center as "probably the finest museum in America devoted to pre-European history." The Ohio History Connection has appointed a Curator of Archaeology, to oversee the museum's archaeological collection, since 1894: Warren K. Moorehead,1894–1897 Clarence Loveberry, 1897–1898 Lucy Allen, 1898 William Corless Mills, 1898–1921 Henry C. Shetrone, 1921–1928 Emerson Greenman, 1928–1935 Richard G. Morgan, 1936–1948 Raymond S. Baby, 1948–1979 Martha Potter Otto, 1974–2009 Ohio Village, a reconstructed 1890s-era town, is a living museum on the grounds of the Ohio History Center. In 2002, budget cuts forced the Ohio Village to close except for special events and tour groups. Since 2012, it is open to visitors from Memorial Day to Labor Day and for special events such as the Country Living Fair, All Hallows Eve, Dickens of a Christmas; the village houses the renowned a vintage base ball club. Since 1981, the Muffins have promoted the preservation of the game as it was played in 1860.
Competitions are played every year. Ohio History Connection provides educators with resources for the state's schools. Field trips, outreach programs, educational kit trunks are available to assist teachers with supplemental learning in their classrooms. Offered are distance learning courses. Affiliated with the Ohio History Connection is the Ohio Educational Resources Center, which loans materials to assist teachers with their lessons; the society provides public programs that include speakers, theatrical productions, workshops, holiday gatherings, presentations. The topics of these programs range from the Underground Railroad to the role of the state in other historical events. Ohio History Connection publishes Ohio History Central, an extensive online encyclopedia of Ohio history. Ohio History Central consists of over 3,000 entries about Ohio's natural history and history; the entries are complemented by nearly 2,000 images. The site is searchable, users may browse entries by category, media, time period, or geographic region within the state.
Special features include image galleries, Ohio Quick Facts, Ohio Across Time, Useful Links. Registered users can create personal scrapbooks using any of the encyclopedia's entries and images. Ohio History Connection maintains an online archive of Ohio History, a peer reviewed scholarly journal first published by the society in 1887, since 2007 by the Kent State University Press. Ohio History Connection operates a statewide network of historical and natural history sites. Admission is free for members. In some cases, Ohio History Connection has contracted with other organizations for management Custer Memorial, New Rumley Fort Laurens, Bolivar McCook House, Carrollton Museum of Ceramics, East Liverpool Quaker Meeting House, Mount Pleasant Schoenbrunn Village, New Philadelphia Shaker Historical Museum, Shaker Heights Tallmadge Church, Tallmadge Youngstown Historical Center, Youngstown Zoar Village, Zoar Neil Armstrong Air and Space Museum, Wapakoneta Cedar Bog, Urbana Cooke House, Sandusky Fallen Timbers, Toledo Fort Amanda, Lima Fort Meigs, Perrysburg Fort Recovery Glacial Grooves State Memorial, Kelleys Island Hayes Presidential Center, Fremont Indian Mill Museum, Upper Sandusky Inscription Rock, Kelleys Island Lockington Locks Piqua Historical Area Flint Ridge State Memorial Hanby House Harding Home Harding Tomb Logan Elm Newark Earthworks: Great Circle Earthworks Newark Earthworks: Octagon Earthworks Newark Earthworks: Wright Earthworks Ohio History Center Ohio Village Shrum Mound Wahkeena Preserve Adena Mansion Davis Memorial Dunbar House Fort Ancient Fort Jefferson Fort Hill State Memorial Grant Birthplace Grant Boyhood Home Grant Schoolhouse Harrison Tomb Miamisburg Mound National Afro-American Museum & Cultural Center Rankin House Serpent Mound Story Mound Stowe House Big Bottom, Stockport Buckeye Furnace, Wellston Buffington Island Campus Martius, Marietta Leo Petroglyph McCook Monument National Road/Zane Grey Museum, New Concord Ohio River Museum, Marietta Our House Ephraim C.
Dawes, Civil War veteran and trustee of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society History of Ohio Ohio in the American Civil War History of Cleveland, Ohio Ohio History Connection website Ohio Historical Marker Program Ohio Village Muffins Ohio History Central: An Online Encyclopedia of Ohio History
A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education or a secondary school. In the United States, "college" may refer to a constituent part of a university or to a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, but "college" and "university" are used interchangeably, whereas in the United Kingdom, South Asia, Southern Africa and Canada, "college" may refer to a secondary or high school, a college of further education, a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher education provider that does not have university status, or a constituent part of a university. In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of people living together under a common set of rules. Aside from the modern educational context - nowadays the most common use of "college" - there are various other meanings derived from the original Latin term, such as Electoral college.
Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to: a constituent part of a collegiate university, for example King's College, Cambridge, or of a federal university, for example King's College London a liberal arts college, an independent institution of higher education focusing on undergraduate education, such as Williams College or Amherst College a liberal arts division of a university whose undergraduate program does not otherwise follow a liberal arts model, such as the Yuanpei College at Peking University an institute providing specialised training, such as a college of further education, for example Belfast Metropolitan College, a teacher training college, or an art college In the United States, college is sometimes but a synonym for a research university, such as Dartmouth College, one of the eight universities in the Ivy League A sixth form college or college of further education is an educational institution in England, Northern Ireland, The Caribbean, Norway, Brunei, or Southern Africa, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels, BTEC, HND or its equivalent and the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or school-level qualifications such as GCSEs.
In Singapore and India, this is known as a junior college. The municipal government of the city of Paris uses the phrase "sixth form college" as the English name for a lycée. In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title. In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or independent primary and secondary school as distinct from a state school. Melbourne Grammar School, Cranbrook School and The King's School, Parramatta are considered colleges. There has been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as "colleges". In the state of Victoria, some state high schools are referred to as secondary colleges, although the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne is still named Melbourne High School. In Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, "college" is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, some older ones. In New South Wales, some high schools multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary colleges".
In Queensland some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, but state schools offering only secondary education are called "State High School". In Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, "college" refers to the final two years of high school, the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a shorter version of matriculation college. In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes", a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation; this is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational and ability levels. Some private secondary schools choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless; some secondary schools elsewhere in the country ones within the separate school system, may use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
In New Zealand the word "college" refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. In South Africa, some secondary schools private schools on the English public school model, have "college" in their title, thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John's College. Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges". In Sri Lanka the word "college" refers to a secondary school, which signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limit
Repeal of Prohibition in the United States
The repeal of Prohibition in the United States was accomplished with the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 5, 1933. In 1919, the requisite number of state legislatures ratified the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, enabling national prohibition one year later. Many women, notably members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, were pivotal in bringing about national Prohibition in the United States, believing it would protect families and children from the effects of alcohol abuse. Around 1820, "the typical adult white American male consumed nearly a half pint of whiskey a day". Historian W. J. Rorabaugh, writing on the factors that brought about the start of the temperance movement, Prohibition in the United States, states: As whiskey consumption rose after the American Revolution, it attracted attention. Medical doctors were among the first to notice the increase. More patients were having the shakes from involuntary withdrawal from alcohol, delirium tremens nightmares and psychoses were on the rise, solo drinking of massive quantities in binges that ended with the drinker passing out became the new drinking pattern.
Doctors such as Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and onetime chief physician of the Continental Army, who had first warned against the overuse of whiskey and other distilled spirits during the Revolution, became alarmed. Experts recognized that over time, drinkers needed to increase their use of alcohol to gain the same sense of euphoric satisfaction from drinking. Down that road was chronic drunkenness or what would be called alcoholism. Medical schools included warnings to students, but most physicians in the early 1800s believed that alcohol was an important medicine. Physicians favored laudanum, opium dissolved in alcohol. Laudanum miraculously ended the craving for alcohol. Children's nurses used laudanum to quiet babies. To Rush, the issue was not just about health, he published many newspaper pamphlets hostile to distilled spirits. His best known work, An Inquiry into the Effects of Spirituous Liquors, went through at least twenty-one editions and had sold 170,000 copies by 1850.
The Philadelphia doctor argued that democracy would be perverted and destroyed if voters were drunken sots. Public safety in a republic required an electorate capable of wise judgment about political matters. Drunkenness made for bad voters. Rush and others worried about how distilled spirits damaged society in terms of crime and family violence. Many serious crimes, including murder, were committed under the influence of alcohol; the unemployed or unemployable drunkard abandoned his family s that the wife and children sometimes faced starvation while the husband and father debauched himself. Liquor use was associated with gambling and prostitution, which brought financial ruin and sexually transmitted diseases. Drunkenness led to wife beating and child abuse. To many Americans, it appeared that the United States could not be a successful republic unless alcoholic passions were curbed; the proponents of National Prohibition believed that banning alcoholic beverages would reduce or eliminate many social problems drunkenness, domestic violence, mental illness, secondary poverty.
Some scholarly literature regarding the effect of prohibition has held that popular claim that prohibition was a failure is false. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkennness, rates of absenteeism. Mark H. Moore, a professor at Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, with respect to the effects of prohibition: Alcohol consumption declined during Prohibition. Cirrhosis death rates for men were 29.5 per 100,000 in 1911 and 10.7 in 1929. Admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis declined from 10.1 per 100,000 in 1919 to 4.7 in 1928. Arrests for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct declined 50 percent between 1916 and 1922. For the population as a whole, the best estimates are that consumption of alcohol declined by 30 percent to 50 percent. "rates for cirrhosis of the liver fell by 50 percent early in Prohibition and recovered promptly after Repeal in 1933."
Moore found that contrary to popular opinion, "violent crime did not increase during Prohibition" and that organized crime "existed before and after" Prohibition. The historian Jack S. Blocker Jr. stated that "Death rates from cirrhosis and alcoholism, alcoholic psychosis hospital admissions, drunkenness arrests all declined steeply during the latter years of the 1910s, when both the cultural and the legal climate were inhospitable to drink, in the early years after National Prohibition went into effect." In addition, "once Prohibition became the law of the land, many citizens decided to obey it". During the Prohibition era, rates of absenteeism decreased from 10% to 3%. In Michigan, the Ford Motor Company documented "a decrease in absenteeism from 2,620 in April 1918 to 1,628 in May 1918." Journalist H. L. Mencken, writing in 1925, believed the opposite to be true:Five years of Prohibition have had, at least, this one benign effect: they have disposed of all the favorite arguments of the Prohibitionists.
None of the great boons and usufructs that were to follow the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment has come to pass. There is not more. There is not more. There is not more; the cost of government is not vastly greater. Respect for law has not increased, but diminishe