A lacrosse helmet is a protective headpiece worn in men's lacrosse, but worn optionally by women's lacrosse players in Australia. Modern helmets consist of a hard plastic, non-adjustable shell with thick padding on the inside, a face mask made of metal bars, a chinstrap used to secure the helmet to the head; some players attach a sun visor shielding the eyes, though these visors are not legal in most leagues. Helmets are required at all levels of organized men's lacrosse, but only required for goalies in women's lacrosse; the main difference between helmets is weight, field of vision, fit. It is important. Most helmets in the game today offer unique ways of adjusting the helmet size so you can customize it to fit your head. Lacrosse helmets are riddled with air vents to decrease its weight. All helmets come with an adjustable chin strap for added protection.. Early lacrosse players did not wear helmets; when lacrosse was played at the 1908 Summer Olympics, neither of the competing teams wore helmets.
At the 1928, 1932 and 1948 Olympics where lacrosse was a demonstration sport, only the United States wore helmets while the opposing teams did not. The 1928 Olympics was the first documented use of lacrosse helmets; the most common manufacturers in men's lacrosse are Cascade, Brine, STX. Following a number of head injuries to female players in the 1980s in South Australia and coaches moved to adopt the optional use of protective headgear in the women's game; as the movement — led by Australian 1986 World Champions players Wendy Piltz and Jenny Williams and South Australia coach Peter Koshnitsky — grew, players were given authorization on a trial basis to wear close-fitting, full-face helmets, first by South Australia and by the governing body, the Australian Women's Lacrosse Council. Further efforts were made to have the optional helmet rule adopted at the international level of play but were unsuccessful. In the United States, the governing body, US Lacrosse requires the use of protective goggles and mouth guards but has not endorsed helmet use with the exception of goal keepers.
A lacrosse ball is the solid rubber ball, used, in with a lacrosse stick, to play the sport of lacrosse. It is white, for Men's Lacrosse, or yellow, for Woman's Lacrosse; the old NCAA specifications are: Mass 140 g – 147 g Diameter 62.7 mm – 64.7 mm Rebound From 1,800 height 1,092 – 1292 mm Rubber content 65%According to the 2015 and 2016 Men's Lacrosse Rules and Interpretations: "The ball shall be white, orange or lime green smooth or textured solid rubber. The ball must meet the current NOCSAE lacrosse ball standard." In further defining the required specifications, the document states: "The measurements for the ball shall include the following: The ball shall be of white, yellow, or orange solid rubber. The ball may measure between 8 inches in circumference; the ball may weigh between 5 and 5 1/4 ounces in weight."Beginning with the 2014 season, all three governing bodies for lacrosse in the United States have mandated that only balls meeting the NOCSAE ball standard may be used for competition.
Balls must be emblazoned with the words "Meets NOCSAE Standard" in order to be deemed legal for play by game officials. Starting no earlier than June 2016, all lacrosse balls will have to meet the new NOCSAE Standard; the main manufacturers of lacrosse balls are Signature Lacrosse, Pearl lacrosse, Champion Sports, Champro Sports East Coast Dyes, Warrior, STX, Brine. Guardian developed a new ball—the Pearl—made of polyurethane. According to its website, it was named the official ball of U. S. Lacrosse in July 2016. Traditional lacrosse balls are made from all natural rubber, are the official ball of all other organizations. Brine is the exclusive supplier of lacrosse balls to Major League Lacrosse. Signature Lacrosse is the exclusive supplier to the National Lacrosse League and Federation of International Lacrosse, is used by most prominent NCAA programs.. In Canadian box lacrosse all balls must be Canadian.
A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective; this can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, manage conflict, solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, rugby, water polo, lacrosse, cricket and the various forms of football and hockey. Team sports are practiced between opposing teams, where the players interact directly and between them to achieve an objective; the objective involves teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar object in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. The meaning of a "team sport" has been disputed in recent years; some types of sports have different rules than "traditional" team sports. These types of team sports do not involve teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points.
For example, rowing, dragon boat racing, track and field among others can be considered team sports. In other types of team sports, there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. In some sports where participants are entered by a team, they do not only compete against members of other teams but against each other for points towards championship standings. For example, motorsport Formula One. In cycling however, team members whilst still in competition with each other, will work towards assisting one a specialist, member of the team to the highest possible finishing position; this process is known as team orders and although accepted was banned in Formula One between 2002 and 2010. After a controversy involving team orders at the 2010 German Grand Prix however, the regulation was removed as of the 2011 season. Through the years, the popularity of team sport has continued to grow, positively influencing not just athletes, but fans and national economies.
All over the world, the impact of team sport can be seen as professional athletes live out their dreams while serving as role models, youth athletes develop life skills and follow in the footsteps of their role models, fans bond over the love of their teams while supporting their economies with their support. Traces of sprinting as a team sport extend back several thousand years - as evidenced in images in the cave in Lascaux in France which depict people running after animals or vice versa. Organized athletics in Greece traditionally date back to 776 BC, with ongoing activity recorded up to 393 BC; these ancient Olympic Games tested warrior skills and consisted of running, jumping or leaping and javelin throw. In the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia, Neolithic-era cave paintings dating to 7000 BC depict a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. Prehistoric cave-paintings in Japan show a sport similar to sumo wrestling. In Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya, a Neolithic rock painting in the cave of swimmers shows evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC.
The term "athlete", according to mythology, derives from the name of Aethlius, the mythological first King of Elis in Greece. The practice of young athletes carrying flaming torches is traced to the King of Elis, under whose supervision the games took place. Before the start of the races gods were invoked by offerings of fruits and vegetables; the winner of the race was crowned with a wreath of olive or laurel and celery sticks were offered as a trophy. In subsequent years monetary attractions were introduced as prize money. However, the practice of offering celery sticks is still in vogue in the 100 m sprint in the Olympics; the present-day pattern of Olympic Games resembles the practice followed in ancient times. Sprint was the coveted event; the 200 m sprint is known in Greek as "short foot race". The 400 m race called diaulos in Greek. Seven team sports are on the program of the Summer Olympics. Cricket's inclusion in the 2024 Summer Olympics depends on the decision of the International Cricket Council and its members.
A cricket tournament formed part of the Summer Olympics in 1900, although only one match was played, between teams representing Great Britain and France. However, the British team was a club touring side and the French players were drawn from expatriates living in Paris. Ice hockey and curling are team sports at the Winter Olympics together with the bobsleigh competition where the men's event has classes for both two-man and four-man sleds, but the women's class is restricted to two persons only. All Olympic team sports include competitions for both women. Team sports portal Major professional sports teams of the United States and Canada Footnotes BibliographyBaofu, Peter; the Future of Post-Human Sports: Towards a New Theory of Training and Winning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-6993-5. Barber, Gary. Getting Started in Track and Field Athletics: Advice & Ideas for Children and Teachers. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4122-3847-2. Filppu, The Benefits of Team Sports, retrieved 13 November 2010 Dyer, William.
Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. San Francisco, Ca.: Jossey-Bass. ISBN
Box lacrosse known as boxla, box, or indoor lacrosse, is an indoor version of lacrosse played in North America. The game originated in Canada in the 1930s, where it is more popular than field lacrosse and is the national summer sport. Box lacrosse is played between two teams of five players and one goalie each, is traditionally played on an ice hockey rink once the ice has been removed or covered; the playing area is called a box, in contrast to the open playing field of field lacrosse. The object of the game is to use a lacrosse stick to catch and pass the ball in an effort to score by shooting a solid rubber lacrosse ball into the opponent's goal; the highest levels of box lacrosse are the National Lacrosse League, Interstate Box Lacrosse Association, Senior A divisions of the Canadian Lacrosse Association, the Western Lacrosse Association, Major Series Lacrosse. While there are 59 total members of the Federation of International Lacrosse, only fifteen have competed in international box lacrosse competition.
Only Canada, the Iroquois Nationals and the United States have finished in the top three places at the World Indoor Lacrosse Championships. Lacrosse is a traditional indigenous people's game and was first encountered by Europeans when French Jesuit missionaries in the St. Lawrence Valley witnessed the game in the 1630s. Lacrosse for centuries was seen as a key element of cultural identity and spiritual healing to Native Americans, it originated as a field game and was adopted first by Canadian and English athletes as a field game settling on a 10 v 10 format. Box lacrosse is a modern version of the game, invented in Canada during the 1920s and 1930s; the roots of indoor lacrosse are obscure, but its invention has been attributed to one Paddy Brennan, a field lacrosse player and referee from Montreal, being annoyed by the constant slowing of play from balls going out of bounds in the field game, experimented with indoor games at the Mount Royal Arena during the early 1920s. Joseph Cattarinich and Leo Dandurand, owners of the National Hockey League's Montreal Canadiens in the 1920s, led the participating ice hockey arena owners to introduce the new sport.
In the 1930s, 6 v 6 indoor lacrosse came to be played in the summer in unused hockey rinks. Canadians adopted the new version of the sport quickly, it became the more popular version of the sport in Canada, supplanting field lacrosse. The form was adopted as the primary version of the game played on Native American reservations in the US and Canada by Iroquois and other Native peoples, it is the only sport in which the American indigenous people are sanctioned to compete internationally, participating as the Iroquois Nationals. However, many field lacrosse enthusiasts viewed the new version of the sport with negativity; the first professional box lacrosse games were held in 1931. That summer, the arena owners formed the International Lacrosse League, featuring four teams: the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Maroons, Toronto Maple Leafs, Cornwall Colts; the league lasted only two seasons. In the wake of the original International Lacrosse League opened the American Box Lacrosse League featuring six teams: two in New York City, one each in Brooklyn, Toronto and Baltimore.
The league played to small crowds on outdoor fields such as Yankee Stadium and Fenway Park, before closing midway through its inaugural season. Lacrosse was declared Canada's National Summer Sport with the passage of the National Sports Act on May 12, 1994; the first box lacrosse match conducted in Australia came about as part of a fund raising appeal for the Queen Victoria Hospital in Melbourne. The Victorian Lacrosse Association was approached by the appeal committee to stage a lacrosse match as part of a multi sport carnival at the Plaza ballroom at St Kilda on 1 July 1931. After a lightning six-a-side tournament format was carried out a few weeks prior, it was decided to play six-a-side for this exhibition game between MCC and a composite team from other clubs, with players wearing rubber shoes and using a softer ball for the match. Newspaper articles at the time suggest that the sport may have been created in Australia, with P. J. Lally of the famous Canadian lacrosse stick manufacturing company requesting a copy of the rules of the game from the VLA Secretary.
By 1933, box lacrosse matches were being played in Adelaide and Perth. This new version of the game however did not overtake the traditional version of lacrosse in popularity in Australia as happened in Canada; the Canadian Lacrosse Association began sponsoring box lacrosse. In 1932, the Mann Cup, the most prestigious lacrosse trophy in Canada, was contended for under box lacrosse rules for the first time; the national senior men's lacrosse championship, awarded since 1901, was competed for under field lacrosse rules. The Mann Cup is an annual tournament that presents the champion of the Western Lacrosse Association and Major Series Lacrosse in a best of seven national championship. A few years in 1937, the Minto Cup, began being awarded under box lacrosse rules to the junior men's champions; the Canadian Lacrosse Association oversees the Mann Cup, the Minto Cup, the Presidents Cup the Founders Cup all under box lacrosse rules. In 1939, a professional box lacrosse league started up in California, called the Pacific Coast Lacrosse Association.
This four team league folded shortly after opening. Professional box lacrosse did not return to the United States again until 1968 when the Portland Adanacs and Detroit Olympics franchises played in the National Lacro
Lacrosse gloves are padded, protective gloves worn by men's lacrosse players. The gloves are designed to protect players' hands and forearms from checks, or legal defensive hitting common in the sport. Gloves consist of thick padding on the back of the hand and forearm covered in leather or canvas material, a palm area made of synthetic and mesh material. A goaltender's gloves may have extra padding for the thumb to protect against injury from shots. While NCAA collegiate rules require that men's gloves have palms covered, other leagues, including post-collegiate club lacrosse, the National Lacrosse League, Major League Lacrosse, international play, permit players to cut out the palm area for greater grip and control of the lacrosse stick. Women's lacrosse rules do not require glove use, except for goalies since hitting is not permitted, but some players use smaller gloves for increased grip and minor protection from incidental contact. There are several things to look at; the size of the glove is an important factor to consider, as well as protective features, what material it is made out of, dexterity.
Many gloves now offer a wrist cuff which can be adjusted by various means to fit securely to your wrist and provide you with maximum comfort and protection. Lacrosse is a high paced game. Running up and down the field can be an intense work out, having gloves that are well ventilated, allowing air to circulate in and around your fingers is crucial. All gloves take a little while to break in; the materials gloves are made out of differ. A glove with a mesh palm may be easier to play with, provide great feel as well as ventilation; when buying lacrosse gloves you want to look for protection, ventilation and flexibility. Baseball glove Batting glove Boxing glove Cycling glove Driving glove Goalkeeper glove Golf gloves MMA gloves Wicket-keeper's gloves
A lacrosse stick or crosse is used to play the sport of lacrosse. Players use the lacrosse stick to handle the ball and to strike or "check" opposing players' sticks, causing them to drop the ball; the head of a lacrosse stick is triangular in shape and is strung with loose netting that allows the ball to be caught, passed, or shot. A wood lacrosse stick is crafted from hickory trees; the lacrosse stick is given its shape through steam bending. Holes are drilled in the top portion of the head and the sidewall, permitting weaving of string, hardened by dipping the in resin. Leather "runners" are strung from the top of the "head" to the "throat" of the stick. Nylon string is woven in to create the pocket; the wooden lacrosse stick dates back to the creation of the sport and is still made by craftsmen around the world. Though modern lacrosse sticks made of plastic have become the overwhelming choice for contemporary lacrosse players, traditional wooden lacrosse sticks are still used by box lacrosse goaltenders and masters players, by women's field lacrosse players.
Wooden sticks are still legal under Canadian Lacrosse Association and NCAA rules but are subject to the same size regulations as modern lacrosse sticks. The only exception to this is the Western Lacrosse Association, which prohibited the use of wooden sticks by non-goaltenders some years ago; the last WLA player to use one was A. J. Smith of the Coquitlam Adanacs, c. 2003–04, grandfathered. In 1970, the first patent for a synthetic lacrosse stick was issued to STX. A modern lacrosse stick consists of a plastic molded head attached to a metal shaft; the head is strung with leather strings to form a pocket. The dimensions of the stick are governed by league rules, such as NCAA rules for collegiate players or FIL rules for international players. In men's lacrosse, the head of the stick must be 6 to 10 inches wide at its widest point under NCAA rules. Most stick are the minimum 6 inches wide; the head of the goalie's stick is much larger and must be between 10 to 12 inches wide under NCAA rules or up to 15 inches wide under FIL rules.
The sidewalls of the head may not be more than two inches tall. The pocket of the head is where the ball is caught, it consists of interwoven string attached to the head. Traditional stringing with leather strings interwoven with nylon has declined in popularity in favor of synthetic mesh stringing. Mesh is made of nylon and comes in a variety of diamond configurations, which can affect the pocket's throwing and retention characteristics; the typical mesh pocket uses four main nylon strings to affix the mesh piece to the head: a topstring, two sidewalls, a bottom string. The topstring is made of a thicker string, in order to resist the abrasive forces that come from scooping the ball up; the sidewalls are used to affix individual mesh diamonds to the sidewall holes on the sidewall of the head. The sidewalls have the most effect on the pocket's performance, as they dictate the placement of the pocket in the head, the tightness of the channel of the pocket, the pocket depth; the bottom string is used to fine-tune the pocket depth, serves to keep the ball from slipping through the bottom of the pocket.
In addition to the four strings used to affix the mesh piece, shooting strings are woven through the diamonds of the mesh in order to help fine-tune the pocket's characteristics. They can either be made of a hockey style lace. Shooting strings are used in straight, U, or V shapes, they serve to increase the pocket's hold on the ball, as well as fine-tune the way. They can act to change the tension of various portions of the pocket, helping to create a "ramp" for the ball to roll along as it exits the pocket; as of the 2013 season, the NCAA has passed a rule stating that shooting strings are limited to an area within a 4-inch arc drawn from the top of the plastic of the scoop. This eliminates U- or V-shaped shooting strings, as they always cross below the 4-inch line; the pocket depth is governed by rule as well. When the ball is placed in the deepest point, the top of the ball must not be below the bottom of the sidewall. Modern handles, more referred to as "shafts," are made of hollow metal, they are octagonal, instead of round, in order to provide a better grip.
Most are made of aluminum, scandium, or alloys, but some shafts are still made from other materials, including wood, plastic, or fiberglass. The open end of the hollow shaft must be covered with tape or a plug made of rubber; the head of the stick is attached to the shaft with a screw to keep it in place. Stick length is governed by NCAA regulations, which require that men's sticks be from 40 to 42 inches long for offensive players, 52 to 72 inches long for defensemen, 40 to 72 inches long for goalies. Offensive players prefer their sticks to be the minimum length in order to give them the advantage of having a shorter stick to protect from defensive checks. Conversely, defensive players prefer their sticks to be the maximum length to permit them the greatest range in covering their offensive player. In 2016, a rules clarification was made by the NCAA Men’s Lacrosse Rules Committee. Questions have arisen regarding the alteration of the shaft circumference; the circumference of the shaft cannot exceed 3 1/2" (8
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass and shoot the ball into the goal; the sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields and equipment: field lacrosse, women's lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men's games, field lacrosse and box lacrosse, are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, shoulder pads, elbow pads; the women's game is played outdoors and does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact. The only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport played indoors that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball; the sport is governed by the Federation of International Lacrosse. Lacrosse is part of the cultural tradition of the Iroquois people, inhabiting what is now New York and Pennsylvania. Lacrosse may have been developed as early as 1100 AD among indigenous peoples in North America.
By the seventeenth century, it was well-established and was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in the territory of present-day Canada. In the traditional aboriginal Canadian version, each team consisted of about 100 to 1,000 men on a field that stretched from about 500 m to 3 km long; these games lasted from sunup to sundown for two to three days straight and were played as part of ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic warfare, or to give thanks to the Creator or Master. Lacrosse played a significant role in the community and religious life of tribes across the continent for many years. Early lacrosse was characterized by deep spiritual involvement, befitting the spirit of combat in which it was undertaken; those who took part did so in the role of warriors, with the goal of bringing glory and honor to themselves and their tribes. The game was said to be played "for the Creator" or was referred to as "The Creator's Game." The French Jesuit missionary Jean de Brébeuf saw Huron tribesmen play the game during 1637 in present-day Ontario.
He called it la "the stick" in French. The name seems to be originated from the French term for field hockey, le jeu de la crosse. James Smith described in some detail a game being played in 1757 by Mohawk people "wherein now they used a wooden ball, about 7.6 cm in diameter, the instrument they moved it with was a strong staff about 1.5 m long, with a hoop net on the end of it, large enough to contain the ball."Anglophones from Montreal noticed the game being played by Mohawk people and started playing themselves in the 1830s. In 1856, William George Beers, a Canadian dentist, founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club. In 1860, Beers codified the game, shortening the length of each game and reducing the number of players to 12 per team; the first game played under Beers' rules was at Upper Canada College in 1867. The new sport proved to be popular and spread across the English-speaking world; the women's game was introduced by Louisa Lumsden in Scotland in 1890. The first women's club in the United States was started by Rosabelle Sinclair at Bryn Mawr School in 1926.
In the United States, lacrosse during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s was a regional sport centered around the Mid-Atlantic states New York and Maryland. However, in the last half of the 20th century, the sport spread outside this region, can be found in most of the United States. According to a survey conducted by US Lacrosse in 2016, there are over 825,000 lacrosse participants nationwide and lacrosse is the fastest-growing team sport among NFHS member schools. Field lacrosse is the men's outdoor version of the sport. There are ten players on each team: three attackmen, three midfielders, three defensemen, one goalie; each player carries a lacrosse stick. A short stick is used by attackmen and midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team may carry a long stick, between 52 and 72 inches long and is used by the three defensemen and sometimes one defensive midfielder; the goalie uses a stick with a head as wide as 12 inches that can be between 72 inches long. The field of play is 110 by 60 yards.
The goals are 80 yd apart. Each goal sits inside a circular "crease", measuring 18 ft in diameter; the goalie has special privileges within the crease to avoid opponents' stick checks. Offensive players or their sticks may not enter into the crease at any time; the mid-field line separates the field into an defensive zone for each team. Each team must keep four players in its defensive zone and three players in its offensive zone at all times, it does not matter which positional players satisfy the requirement, although the three attackmen stay in the offensive zone, the three defensemen and the goalie stay in the defensive zone, the three middies play in both zones. A team that violates this rule is offsides and either loses possession of the ball if they have it or incurs a technical foul if they do not; the regulation playing time of a game is 60 minutes, divided into four periods of 15 minutes each. Play is started after each goal with a face-off. During a face-off, two players lay their sticks on the ground parallel to the mid-line, the two heads of their sticks on opposite sides of the ball.
At the whistle, the face-off-men scrap for the ball by "clamping" it under their stick and fl