Air interdiction known as deep air support, is the use of preventive aircraft attacks against enemy targets that are not an immediate threat, in order to delay, disrupt, or hinder enemy engagement of friendly forces. It is a core capability of all military air forces, has been conducted in conflicts since World War I. A distinction is made between tactical and strategic air interdiction, depending on the objectives of the operation. Typical objectives in tactical interdiction are meant to affect events and locally, for example through direct destruction of forces or supplies en route to the active battle area. By contrast, strategic objectives are broader and more long-term, with fewer direct attacks on enemy fighting capabilities, instead focusing on infrastructure and other supportive assets; the term deep air support relates to close air support and denotes the difference between their respective objectives. Close air support, as the name suggests, is directed towards targets close to friendly ground units, as coordinated air-strikes, in direct support of active engagement with the enemy.
Deep air support or air interdiction is carried out further from the active fighting, based more on strategic planning and less directly coordinated with ground units. Despite being more strategic than close air support, air interdiction should not be confused with strategic bombing, unrelated to ground operations. With air interdiction in World War I, the goal was to isolate the battlefield by strafing and bombing enemy supply lines. Favorite targets were railroad lines and truck convoys. Due to the primitive state of aircraft and weapons technology, as well as the undeveloped nature of air doctrine and tactics, air interdiction missions in World War I were of limited utility; the potential of air interdiction was recognized and during World War II it once again became a major mission of air forces. Although air interdiction operations were conducted in all theaters, the most extensive and analyzed in the English language, were those of the United States and United Kingdom against the Axis.
The Allies launched major air interdiction efforts in the North African and Normandy campaigns. The venues for these three campaigns were markedly different in terms of weather, the enemy’s supply and transportation infrastructure, the availability of intelligence regarding the enemy; as a consequence of these differences, the results of air interdiction varied. The greatest success was in the desert terrain of North Africa, where Axis forces relied on vulnerable and visible sea convoys across the Mediterranean Sea; the Italian campaign, by contrast, was characterized by mountainous terrain, poor weather conditions, shortened German supply lines. The diverse results of these two campaigns taught air planners differing lessons. Air interdiction has continued to play a major role in conflicts since World War II, it has been extensively used in modern conflicts such as Korea, Iraq, in the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, as well as in wars between Israel and the Arab states in the Middle East.
Once again, differing local conditions and political restraints have had an enormous effect on how air interdiction was conducted and the degree to which it was successful. In Vietnam, for example, the strategic interdiction campaign known as Rolling Thunder was unsuccessful; the dense jungle terrain, poor intelligence on enemy movements, political restrictions on targets struck made U. S. air interdiction efforts futile. The flow of supplies and reinforcements from North Vietnam to their units in South Vietnam was not affected. In contrast, coalition air interdiction efforts in the 1991 Gulf War were successful in isolating front-line Iraqi units from their bases in the rear. Intelligence, much of it derived from space and airborne sensors, gave an unusually clear picture of enemy locations, the open desert terrain facilitated air interdiction operations; when assessing air interdiction efforts during the 20th century, it is possible to identify several factors that will affect success. Air superiority permits a more thorough identification and attack of enemy forces and supplies while exposing the attacking aircraft to less risk.
Intelligence regarding enemy dispositions, movements and intentions is crucial. In the North African campaign during World War II, for example, intelligence sources gave the Allies a clear picture of Axis shipping in the Mediterranean. In contrast, in Vietnam the United States had a poor understanding of Vietcong and North Vietnamese activities. Weather and terrain will have a major effect on air interdiction's failure. One factor included here is the ability to conduct air interdiction in marginal weather. Air planners must have realistic objectives, it is impossible to isolate the battle area. Something will always get through, that amount may be enough to sustain the enemy. An enemy, quiescent and stationary consumes few resources while presenting few targets. If, by contrast, enemy forces are attacked and flushed from their defensive positions by friendly surface forces, they will consume far more resources fuel and ammunition. Operation Strangle – attacks to disrupt Axis rail supply lines in Italy The attacks on Axis logistics in France in preparation for Operation Overlord The attacks on the supply lines of North Korea and its allies during the Korean War Attacks on the Ho Chi Minh Trail which continued throughout the
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
Tailored Access Operations
The Office of Tailored Access Operations, now Computer Network Operations, is a cyber-warfare intelligence-gathering unit of the National Security Agency. It has been active since at least circa 1998. TAO identifies, monitors and gathers intelligence on computer systems being used by entities foreign to the United States. TAO is "now the largest and arguably the most important component of the NSA's huge Signals Intelligence Directorate, consisting of more than 1,000 military and civilian computer hackers, intelligence analysts, targeting specialists, computer hardware and software designers, electrical engineers". A document leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden describing the unit's work says TAO has software templates allowing it to break into used hardware, including "routers and firewalls from multiple product vendor lines". According to The Washington Post, TAO engineers prefer to tap networks rather than isolated computers, because there are many devices on a single network.
TAO's headquarters are termed the Remote Operations Center and are based at the NSA headquarters at Fort Meade, Maryland. TAO has expanded to NSA Hawaii, NSA Georgia, NSA Texas, NSA Colorado. Since 2013, the head of TAO is Rob Joyce, a 25-plus year employee who worked in the NSA's Information Assurance Directorate. In January 2016, Joyce had a rare public appearance when he gave a presentation at the Usenix’s Enigma conference. In the Remote Operations Center, 600 employees gather information from around the world. Data Network Technologies Branch: develops automated spyware Telecommunications Network Technologies Branch: improve network and computer hacking methods Mission Infrastructure Technologies Branch: operates the software provided above Access Technologies Operations Branch: Reportedly includes personnel seconded by the CIA and the FBI, who perform what are described as "off-net operations", which means they arrange for CIA agents to surreptitiously plant eavesdropping devices on computers and telecommunications systems overseas so that TAO's hackers may remotely access them from Fort Meade.
Specially equipped submarines the USS Jimmy Carter, are used to wiretap fibre optic cables around the globe. Details on a program titled QUANTUMSQUIRREL indicate NSA ability to masquerade as any routable IPv4 or IPv6 host; this enables an NSA computer to generate false geographical location and personal identification credentials when accessing the Internet utilizing QUANTUMSQUIRREL. The NSA ANT catalog is a 50-page classified document listing technology available to the United States National Security Agency Tailored Access Operations by the Advanced Network Technology Division to aid in cyber surveillance. Most devices are described as operational and available to US nationals and members of the Five Eyes alliance. According to Der Spiegel, which released the catalog to the public on December 30, 2013, "The list reads like a mail-order catalog, one from which other NSA employees can order technologies from the ANT division for tapping their targets' data." The document was created in 2008.
Security researcher Jacob Appelbaum gave a speech at the Chaos Communications Congress in Hamburg, Germany, in which he detailed techniques that the published Der Spiegel article he coauthored disclosed from the catalog. The TAO has developed an attack suite they call QUANTUM, it relies on a compromised router that duplicates internet traffic HTTP requests, so that they go both to the intended target and to an NSA site. The NSA site runs FOXACID software which sends back exploits that load in the background in the target web browser before the intended destination has had a chance to respond. Prior to the development of this technology, FOXACID software made spear-phishing attacks the NSA referred to as spam. If the browser is exploitable, further permanent "implants" are deployed in the target computer, e.g. OLYMPUSFIRE for Windows, which give complete remote access to the infected machine; this type of attack is part of the man-in-the-middle attack family, though more it is called man-on-the-side attack.
It is difficult to pull off without controlling some of the Internet backbone. There are numerous services; the names of some FOXACID modules are given below: By collaboration with the British Government Communications Headquarters, Google services could be attacked too, including Gmail. Finding machines that are exploitable and worth attacking is done using analytic databases such as XKeyscore. A specific method of finding vulnerable machines is interception of Windows Error Reporting traffic, logged into XKeyscore. QUANTUM attacks launched from NSA sites can be too slow for some combinations of targets and services as they try to exploit a race condition, i.e. the NSA server is trying to beat the legitimate server with its response. As of mid-2011, the NSA was prototyping a capability codenamed QFIRE, which involved embedding their exploit-dispensing servers in virtual machines hosted closer to the target, in the so-called Special Collection Sites network worldwide; the goal of QFIRE was to lower the latency of the spoofed response, thus increasing the probability of success.
COMMENDEER is used to commandeer untargeted computer systems. The software is used as a part of QUANTUMNATION, which includes the software vulnerability scanner VALIDATOR; the tool was first described at the 2014 Chaos Commun
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces. A war consists of multiple battles. Battles are well defined in duration and force commitment. A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility. German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that "the employment of battles... to achieve the object of war" was the essence of strategy. Battle is a loanword from the Old French bataille, first attested in 1297, from Late Latin battualia, meaning "exercise of soldiers and gladiators in fighting and fencing", from Late Latin battuere "beat", from which the English word battery is derived via Middle English batri; the defining characteristic of the fight as a concept in Military science has been a dynamic one through the course of military history, changing with the changes in the organisation and technology of military forces.
While the English military historian Sir John Keegan suggested an ideal definition of battle as "something which happens between two armies leading to the moral physical disintegration of one or the other of them", the origins and outcomes of battles can be summarized so neatly. In general a battle during the 20th century was, continues to be, defined by the combat between opposing forces representing major components of total forces committed to a military campaign, used to achieve specific military objectives. Where the duration of the battle is longer than a week, it is for reasons of staff operational planning called an operation. Battles can be planned, encountered, or forced by one force on the other when the latter is unable to withdraw from combat. A battle always has as its purpose the reaching of a mission goal by use of military force. A victory in the battle is achieved when one of the opposing sides forces the other to abandon its mission and surrender its forces, routs the other, or completely annihilates the latter resulting in their deaths or capture.
However, a battle may end in a Pyrrhic victory, which favors the defeated party. If no resolution is reached in a battle, it can result in a stalemate. A conflict in which one side is unwilling to reach a decision by a direct battle using conventional warfare becomes an insurgency; until the 19th century the majority of battles were of short duration. This was due to the difficulty of supplying armies in the field, or conducting night operations; the means of prolonging a battle was by employment of siege warfare. Improvements in transportation and the sudden evolving of trench warfare, with its siege-like nature during World War I in the 20th century, lengthened the duration of battles to days and weeks; this created the requirement for unit rotation to prevent combat fatigue, with troops preferably not remaining in a combat area of operations for more than a month. Trench warfare had become obsolete in conflicts between advanced armies by the start of the Second World War; the use of the term "battle" in military history has led to its misuse when referring to any scale of combat, notably by strategic forces involving hundreds of thousands of troops that may be engaged in either a single battle at one time or multiple operations.
The space a battle occupies depends on the range of the weapons of the combatants. A "battle" in this broader sense may be of long duration and take place over a large area, as in the case of the Battle of Britain or the Battle of the Atlantic; until the advent of artillery and aircraft, battles were fought with the two sides within sight, if not reach, of each other. The depth of the battlefield has increased in modern warfare with inclusion of the supporting units in the rear areas. Battles are, on the whole, made up of a multitude of individual combats and small engagements within the context of which the combatants will only experience a small part of the events of the battle's entirety. To the infantryman, there may be little to distinguish between combat as part of a minor raid or as a major offensive, nor is it that he anticipates the future course of the battle. Conversely, some of the Allied infantry who had just dealt a crushing defeat to the French at the Battle of Waterloo expected to have to fight again the next day.
Battlespace is a unified strategy to integrate and combine armed forces for the military theatre of operations, including air, land and space. It includes the environment and conditions that must be understood to apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission; this includes friendly armed forces. Battles are decided by various factors; the number and quality of combatants and equipment, the skill of the commanders of each army, the terrain advantages are among the most prominent factors. A unit may charge with high morale but less discipline and still emerge victorious; this tactic wa
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society. Although the term may encompass entities such as courts and prisons, it is most applied to those who directly engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders, a task carried out by the police or another law enforcement organisation. Furthermore, although law enforcement may be most concerned with the prevention and punishment of crimes, organizations exist to discourage a wide variety of non-criminal violations of rules and norms, effected through the imposition of less severe consequences. Most law enforcement is conducted by some type of law enforcement agency, with the most typical agency fulfilling this role being the police. Social investment in enforcement through such organizations can be massive, both in terms of the resources invested in the activity, in the number of people professionally engaged to perform those functions.
Law enforcement agencies tend to be limited to operating within a specified jurisdiction. In some cases, jurisdiction may overlap inbetween organizations. Various specialized segments of society may have their own internal law enforcement arrangements. For example, military organizations may have military police. Law enforcement portal Outline of law enforcement – structured list of topics related to law enforcement, organized by subject area Criminal law Superhero
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, it is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is directed at an entire country or region, rather than a fortress or city. While most blockades took place at sea, blockade is still used on land to prevent someone coming into a certain area. A blockading power can seek to cut off all maritime transport to the blockaded country. Blockades restrict the trading rights of neutrals, who must submit for inspection for contraband, which the blockading power may define narrowly or broadly, sometimes including food and medicine. In the 20th century air power has been used to enhance the effectiveness of the blockade by halting air traffic within the blockaded airspace. Close patrol of hostile ports, in order to prevent naval forces from putting to sea, is referred to as a blockade; when coastal cities or fortresses were besieged from the landward side, the besiegers would blockade the seaward side as well.
Most blockades have sometimes included cutting off electronic communications by jamming radio signals and severing undersea cables. Although primitive naval blockades had been in use for millennia, the first successful attempts at establishing a full naval blockade were made by Admiral of the Fleet Edward Hawke during the Seven Years' War. Following the British naval victory at Quiberon Bay, which ended any immediate threat of a major invasion of the British Isles, the British implemented a tight economic blockade on the French coast; this began further weakening France's economy. Hawke took command of the blockading fleet off Brest and extended the blockade of the French coast from Dunkirk to Marseilles; the British were able to take advantage of the Navy's position to develop plans for amphibious landings on the coast. However, these plans were abandoned, due to the formidable logistical challenge this would have posed; the strategic importance of the blockade was cemented during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, during which successful blockades on France were imposed by the Royal Navy, leading to major economic disruptions.
The Union blockade of southern ports was a major factor in the American Civil War, as was the failure of the U-boat blockade in World War I and again in World War II. Julian Corbett and Admiral Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive battles and blockade. A close blockade entails placing warships within sight of the blockaded coast or port, to ensure the immediate interception of any ship entering or leaving, it is both the most difficult form of blockade to implement. Difficulties arise because the blockading ships must remain continuously at sea, exposed to storms and hardship far from any support, vulnerable to sudden attack from the blockaded side, whose ships may stay safe in harbor until they choose to come out. In a distant blockade, the blockaders stay well away from the blockaded coast and try to intercept any ships going in or out; this may require more ships on station, but they can operate closer to their bases, are at much less risk from enemy raids.
This was impossible prior to the 16th century due to the nature of the ships used. A loose blockade is a close blockade where the blockading ships are withdrawn out of sight from the coast but no farther; the object of loose blockade is to lure the enemy into venturing out but to stay close enough to strike. British admiral Horatio Nelson applied a loose blockade at Cádiz in 1805; the Franco-Spanish fleet under Pierre-Charles Villeneuve came out, resulting in the Battle of Trafalgar. Until 1827, blockades, as part of economic warfare, were always a part of a war; this changed when France and Britain came to the aid of the Greek rebels against Turkey. They blockaded the Turkish-occupied coast. War was never declared, however; the first pacific blockade, involving no shooting at all, was the British blockade of the Republic of New Granada in 1837, established to compel New Granada to release an imprisoned British consul. Since 1945, the UN Security Council determines the legal status of blockades and by article 42 of the UN Charter, the Council can apply blockades.
The UN Charter allows for the right of self-defense but requires that this must be reported to the Security Council to ensure the maintenance of international peace. According to the not ratified document San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, 12 June 1994, a blockade is a legal method of warfare at sea but is governed by rules; the manual describes. The blockading nation is free to select anything else as contraband in a list, which it must publish; the blockading nation establishes a blockaded area of water, but any ship can be inspected as soon as it is established that it is attempting to break the blockade. This inspection can occur inside the blockaded area or in international waters, but never inside the territorial waters of a neutral nation. A neutral ship must obey a request to stop for inspection from the blockading nation. If the situation so demands, the blockading nation can request that the ship divert to a known place or harbour for inspection.
If the ship does not stop the ship is subject to capture. If people aboard the ship resist capture, they can be lawfully attacked