Interest bearing notes refers to a grouping of Civil War era paper money-related emissions of the US Treasury. The grouping includes the one- and two-year notes authorized by the Act of March 3, 1863, which bore interest at five percent per annum, were a legal tender at face value, were issued in denominations of $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 and $1000; the grouping frequently includes the early civil war treasury notes which matured in either sixty days or two years and bore interest at six percent and the seven-thirties which matured in three years and bore interest at 7.3 percent—though both of these latter issues lacked legal tender status. Reference texts used by currency collectors will sometimes include compound interest treasury notes and Refunding Certificates in this grouping as well. Images are courtesy of the National Numismatic Collection at the National Museum of American History. Friedberg, Arthur L.. Paper Money of the United States: A Complete Illustrated Guide With Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute.
ISBN 978-0-87184-520-7. Retrieved 14 February 2014. Hessler, Gene; the Engraver’s Line – An Encyclopedia of Paper Money & Postage Stamp Art. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-36-3. Hessler, Gene. U. S. Essay and Specimen Notes. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-62-2
Nakharar was a hereditary title of the highest order given to houses of the ancient and medieval Armenian nobility. Medieval Armenia was divided into large estates, which were the property of an enlarged noble family and were ruled by a member of it, to whom the title of nahapet "chief of the family" or tanuter "master of the house" was given. Other members of a nakharar family in their turn ruled over smaller portions of the family estate. Nakharars with greater authority were recognized as ishkhans; this system has been labelled as feudal for practical purposes. The estate as a whole was ruled by a single person, it was nonetheless considered the property of his whole enlarged family, so that, if the ruler died heirless, he was succeeded by a member of a different branch of the family. Furthermore, it was allowed to alienate a part of the family estate only to another member of the family or by permission of the whole enlarged family; this may explain why Armenian feudal families were endogamic, in order not to scatter parts of their property, as would have happened if they had to give a part of their property to another family as dowry.
Endogamic marriages had a religious reason too before Christianity, because Armenian paganism favoured marriages between relatives highly. Each nakharar had his own army, depending on his domain; the national force or "royal cavalry" was under the sparapet, a commander-in-chief who presided over the whole of the nation. After the country's Christianization and courts were all run by the Armenian clergy. In 4th-century Armenia, as in Parthia, large estates were hereditarily possessed by noble families and ruled by one of their members; the whole enlarged family was devoted to the worship of the same ancestors, lived in small fortified villages and spent most part of their time in hunting and in banqueting. Furthermore, each nakharar family had a particular social function: in Armenia a member of the Arshakuni family was chosen as king, a sort of primus inter pares; the origin of the nakharars seems to stretch back to pagan Armenia, which coexisted with the Roman and Parthian Empires, they are mentioned to have pillaged many pagan temples when Armenia's conversion to Christianity began under Tiridates III.
The nakharars survived the fall of the Arshakuni dynasty and the subsequent placement of the Marzban Governor-Generals by Sassanid king, allowed a great deal of autonomy for the vassal state, up until the attempted conversion of Armenia to Zoroastrianism by Yazdegerd II, in which Vartan Mamikonian led a rebellion, through the Battle of Vartanantz convinced the Persians that conversion would come at too high a price leading to the Nvarsak Treaty. In western Armenia under Byzantine rule, Justinian's reforms removed the martial role of the nakharars, as well as attempting to annex estates from Armenian nobles; the nakharars, angered at their restriction in power, began a full-scale insurrection that had to be quelled through swift military intervention sparking war with the Sassanids. Though weakened by numerous invasions and the legal reforms of Kings, the nakharar structure remained unchanged for many centuries and was eliminated during the Mongol invasions in the thirteenth century. Certain aspects of the nakharar system remained intact in Armenia until the early 20th century, when the noble class was altogether abolished by the Bolsheviks
Desidustat is an investigational drug for the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials on desidustat have been done in Australia. In a Phase 2, double-blind, 6-week, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging and efficacy study, a mean Hb increase of 1.57, 2.22, 2.92 g/dL in Desidustat 100, 150, 200 mg arms was observed. It is undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials. Desidustat is being developed for the treatment of anemia, where erythropoietin and its analogues are drugs of choice. Desidustat is a prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitor. In preclinical studies, effect of desidustat was assessed in normal and nephrectomized rats, in chemotherapy-induced anemia. Desidustat demonstrated hematinic potential by combined effects on endogenous erythropoietin release and efficient iron utilization. Desidustat can be useful in treatment of anemia of inflammation since it causes efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation.. In January 2020, Zydus entered into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings for development and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China.
Under the license agreement, CMS will pay Zydus an initial upfront payment, regulatory milestones, sales milestones and royalties on net sales of the product. CMS will be responsible for development and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China