A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of called programs; these programs enable computers to perform an wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system; this term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices; this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century; the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers have been increasing ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element a central processing unit, some form of memory; the processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue read the truest computer of Times, the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations; the Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' is from 1897."
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years using one-to-one correspondence with fingers; the earliest counting device was a form of tally stick. Record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers; the use of counting rods is one example. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks; the Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money; the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J. de Solla Price.
It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, c. 1000 AD.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in
Information is the resolution of uncertainty. Information is associated with data and knowledge, as data is meaningful information and represents the values attributed to parameters, knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept; the existence of information can be uncoupled from an observer, which refers to that which accesses information to discern that which it specifies. In the case of knowledge, the information itself requires a cognitive observer to be accessed. In terms of communication, information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That, perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for interpretation, it can be encrypted for safe storage and communication. Information reduces uncertainty; the uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that.
The more uncertain an event, the more information is required to resolve uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information. For example, the information encoded in one "fair" coin flip is log2 = 1 bit, in two fair coin flips is log2 = 2 bits; the concept of information has different meanings in different contexts. Thus the concept becomes related to notions of constraint, control, form, knowledge, understanding, mental stimuli, perception and entropy; the English word derives from the Latin stem of the nominative: this noun derives from the verb informare in the sense of "to give form to the mind", "to discipline", "instruct", "teach". Inform itself comes from the Latin verb informare, which means to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is not clear; the ancient Greek word for form was μορφή and εἶδος "kind, shape, set", the latter word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato to denote the ideal identity or essence of something.'Eidos' can be associated with thought, proposition, or concept.
The ancient Greek word for information is πληροφορία, which transliterates from πλήρης "fully" and φέρω frequentative of to carry through. It means "bears fully" or "conveys fully". In modern Greek the word Πληροφορία is still in daily use and has the same meaning as the word information in English. In addition to its primary meaning, the word Πληροφορία as a symbol has deep roots in Aristotle's semiotic triangle. In this regard it can be interpreted to communicate information to the one decoding that specific type of sign; this is something that occurs with the etymology of many words in ancient and modern Greek where there is a strong denotative relationship between the signifier, e.g. the word symbol that conveys a specific encoded interpretation, the signified, e.g. a concept whose meaning the interpreter attempts to decode. In English, “information” is an uncountable mass noun. In information theory, information is taken as an ordered sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, an output alphabet ϒ.
Information processing consists of an input-output function that maps any input sequence from χ into an output sequence from ϒ. The mapping may be deterministic, it may be memoryless. Information can be viewed as a type of input to an organism or system. Inputs are of two kinds. In his book Sensory Ecology Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a time; some information is important because of association with other information but there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or system. For example, light is a causal input to plants but for animals it only provides information; the colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.
The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense. These are, any dimensionally defined category of objects S, any of its subsets R. R, in essence, is a representation of S, or, in other words, conveys representational information about S. Vigo defines the amount of information that R conveys a
Network interface device
In telecommunications, a network interface device is a device that serves as the demarcation point between the carrier's local loop and the customer's premises wiring. Outdoor telephone NIDs provide the subscriber with access to the station wiring and serve as a convenient test point for verification of loop integrity and of the subscriber’s inside wiring. Generically, an NID may be called a network interface unit, telephone network interface, system network interface, or telephone network box. Australia's National Broadband Network uses the term network termination device or NTD. A smartjack is a type of NID with capabilities beyond simple electrical connection, such as diagnostics. An optical network terminal is a type of NID used with fiber-to-the-premises applications; the simplest NIDs are just a specialized set of wiring terminals. These will take the form of a small, weather-proof box, mounted on the outside of the building; the telephone line from the telephone company will be connected to one side.
The customer connects their wiring to the other side. A single NID enclosure may contain termination for multiple lines. In its role as the demarcation point, the NID separates the telephone company's equipment from the customer's wiring and equipment; the telephone company owns the NID itself, all wiring up to it. Anything past the NID is the customer's responsibility. To facilitate this, there is a test jack inside the NID. Accessing the test jack disconnects the customer premises wiring from the public switched telephone network and allows the customer to plug a "known good" telephone into the jack to isolate trouble. If the telephone works at the test jack, the problem is the customer's wiring, the customer is responsible for repair. If the telephone does not work, the line is faulty and the telephone company is responsible for repair. Most NIDs include "circuit protectors", which are surge protectors for a telephone line, they protect customer wiring and personnel from any transient energy on the line, such as from a lightning strike to a telephone pole.
Simple NIDs contain no digital logic. They have no capabilities beyond wiring termination, circuit protection, providing a place to connect test equipment. Several types of NIDs provide more than just a terminal for the connection of wiring; such NIDs are colloquially called smartjacks or Intelligent Network Interface Devices as an indication of their built-in "intelligence", as opposed to a simple NID, just a wiring device. Smartjacks are used for more complicated types of telecommunications service, such as T1 lines. Plain old telephone service lines cannot be equipped with smartjacks. Despite the name, most smartjacks are much more than a simple telephone jack. One common form for a smartjack is a printed circuit board with a face plate on one edge, mounted in an enclosure. A smartjack may provide signal conversion, converting codes and protocols to the type needed by the customer equipment, it may buffer and/or regenerate the signal, to compensate for signal degradation from line transmission, similar to what a repeater does.
Smartjacks typically provide diagnostic capabilities. A common capability provided by a smartjack is loopback, such that the signal from the telephone company is transmitted back to the telephone company; this allows the company to test the line from the central telephone exchange, without the need to have test equipment at the customer site. The telephone company has the ability to remotely activate loopback, without needing personnel at the customer site; when looped back, the customer equipment is disconnected from the line. Additional smartjack diagnostic capabilities include alarm indication signal, which reports trouble at one end of the line to the far end; this helps the telephone company know if trouble is present in the line, the smartjack, or customer equipment. Indicator lights to show configuration and alarms are common. Smartjacks derive their operating power from the telephone line, rather than relying on premises electrical power, although this is not a universal rule. In fiber-to-the-premises systems, the signal is transmitted to the customer premises using fiber optic technologies.
Unlike many conventional telephone technologies, this does not provide power for premises equipment, nor is it suitable for direct connection to customer equipment. An optical network terminal is used to terminate the fiber optic line, demultiplex the signal into its component parts, provide power to customer telephones; as the ONT must derive its power from the customer premises electrical supply, many ONTs have the option for a battery backup, to maintain service in the event of a power outage. According to Telcordia GR-49, requirements for telecommunications NIDs vary based on three categories of environmental conditions: Normal conditions: This refers to a normal environment, expected in most areas of any service provider. Temperatures are expected to be in the range of −20–32 °C, humidity is expected to be less than 90% RH. No unusual contamination is expected. Severe climatic conditions: These cover environments more severe than those of a normal environment. Temperatures are expected to be in the range of −40–43 °C, humidity may exceed 90% RH.
Jacks installed in NIDs in such environments are known to become contaminated and develop low insulation resistances and low dielectric brea
Command and control
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes... employs human and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions" to achieve the goals of an organization or enterprise, according to a 2015 definition by military scientists Marius Vassiliou, David S. Alberts and Jonathan R. Agre, The term refers to a military system. Versions of the United States Army Field Manual 3-0 circulated circa 1999, define C2 in a military organization as the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. A 1988 NATO definition and control is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated individual over assigned resources in the accomplishment of a common goal. An Australian Defence Force definition, similar to that of NATO, emphasises that C2 is the system empowering designated personnel to exercise lawful authority and direction over assigned forces for the accomplishment of missions and tasks.
The US Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms defines command and control as: "The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Called C2. Source: JP 1"; the edition of the Dictionary "As Amended Through April 2010" elaborates, "Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, communications and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission." However, this sentence is missing from the "command and control" entry for the edition "As Amended Through 15 August 2014."Commanding officers are assisted in executing these tasks by specialized staff officers and enlisted personnel. These military staff are a group of officers and enlisted personnel that provides a bi-directional flow of information between a commanding officer and subordinate military units; the purpose of a military staff is that of providing accurate, timely information which by category represents information on which command decisions are based.
The key application is that of decisions that manage unit resources. While information flow toward the commander is a priority, information, useful or contingent in nature is communicated to lower staffs and units; this term is in common use within the computer security industry and in the context of cyberwarfare. Here the term refers to the influence an attacker has over a compromised computer system that they control. For example, a valid usage of the term is to say that attackers use "command and control infrastructure" to issue "command and control instructions" to their victims. Advanced analysis of command and control methodologies can be used to identify attackers, associate attacks, disrupt ongoing malicious activity. There are a plethora of derivative terms which emphasise different aspects and sub-domains of C2; these terms come with a plethora of associated abbreviations – for example, in addition to C2, command and control is often abbreviated as C2, sometimes as C&C. Command and control have been coupled with Communication / Communications Intelligence Information / Information Systems Computers / Computing Surveillance Target acquisition Reconnaissance Interoperability Collaboration Electronic warfareand others.
Some of the more common variations include: C2I – Command, Control & Intelligence C2I – Command, Control & Information C2IS – Command and Control Information Systems C2ISR – C2I plus Surveillance and Reconnaissance C2ISTAR – C2 plus ISTAR C3 – Command, Control & Communication C3 – Command, Control & Communications C3 – Consultation and Control C3I – 4 possibilities. Command: The exercise of authority based upon certain knowledge to attain an objective. Control: The process of verifying and correcting activity such that the objective or goal of command is accomplished. Communication: Ability to exercise the necessary liaison to exercise effective command between tactical or strategic units to command. Computers: The computer systems and compatibility of computer systems. Includes data processing. Intelligence: Includes collection as well as distribution of information. A command and control center is a secure room or building in a government, military or prison facility that operates as the agency's dispatch center, surveillance monitoring center, coordination office and alarm monitoring center all in one.
Command and control centers are operated by a government or municipal agency. Various branches of the US military such as the US Coast Guard and Navy have command and control centers. T
A telephone line or telephone circuit is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line phone cable service to the premises. Telephone overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network. In 1878, the Bell Telephone Company began to use two-wire circuits from each user's telephone to end offices which performed any necessary electrical switching to allow voice signals to be transmitted to more distant telephones; these wires were copper, although aluminium has been used, were carried in balanced pairs of open wire, separated by about 25 cm on poles above the ground, as twisted pair cables. Modern lines may run underground, may carry analog or digital signals to the exchange, or may have a device that converts the analog signal to digital for transmission on a carrier system.
The customer end of that wire pair is connected to a data access arrangement. In most cases, two copper wires for each telephone line run from a home or other small building to a local telephone exchange. There is a central junction box for the building where the wires that go to telephone jacks throughout the building and wires that go to the exchange meet and can be connected in different configurations depending upon the subscribed telephone service; the wires between the junction box and the exchange are known as the local loop, the network of wires going to an exchange, the access network. The vast majority of houses in the U. S. are wired with 6-position modular jacks with four conductors wired to the house's junction box with copper wires. Those wires may be connected back to two telephone overhead lines at the local telephone exchange, thus making those jacks RJ14 jacks. More only two of the wires are connected to the exchange as one telephone line, the others are unconnected. In that case, the jacks in the house are RJ11.
Older houses have 4-conductor telephone station cable in the walls color coded with Bell System colors: red, yellow, black as 2-pairs of 22 AWG solid copper. Inside the walls of the house—between the house's outside junction box and the interior wall jacks—the most common telephone cable in new houses is Category 5 cable—4 pairs of 24 AWG solid copper. Inside large buildings, in the outdoor cables that run to the telephone company POP, many telephone lines are bundled together in a single cable using the 25-pair color code
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin