Open Tree of Life
The Open Tree of Life is an online phylogenetic tree of life – a collaborative effort, funded by the National Science Foundation. The first draft, including 2.3 million species, was released in September 2015. The Interactive graph allows the user to zoom in to taxonomic classifications, phylogenetic trees, information about a node. Clicking on a species will return its source and reference taxonomy; the project uses a supertree approach to generate a single phylogenetic tree from a comprehensive taxonomy and a curated set of published phylogenetic estimates. The taxonomy is a combination of several large classifications produced by other projects; the project was started in June 2012 with a three-year NSF award to researchers at ten universities. In 2015, a two-year supplemental award was made to researchers at three institutions. Tree of life web project
Protozoa is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris. The protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals", because they possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae. Although the traditional practice of grouping protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy. In some systems of biological classification, Protozoa is a high-level taxonomic group; when first introduced in 1818, Protozoa was erected as a taxonomic class, but in classification schemes it was elevated to a variety of higher ranks, including phylum and kingdom. In a series of classifications proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and his collaborators since 1981, Protozoa has been ranked as a kingdom; the seven-kingdom scheme presented by Ruggiero et al. in 2015, places eight phyla under Kingdom Protozoa: Euglenozoa, Metamonada, Choanozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith, Percolozoa and Sulcozoa.
Notably, this kingdom excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, including the ciliates, dinoflagellates and the parasitic apicomplexans, all of which are classified under Kingdom Chromista. Kingdom Protozoa, as defined in this scheme, does not form a natural group or clade, but a paraphyletic group or evolutionary grade, within which the members of Fungi and Chromista are thought to have evolved; the word "protozoa" was coined in 1818 by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek equivalent of the German Urthiere, meaning "primitive, or original animals". Goldfuss created Protozoa as a class containing; the group included not only single-celled microorganisms but some "lower" multicellular animals, such as rotifers, sponges, jellyfish and polychaete worms. The term Protozoa is formed from the Greek words πρῶτος, meaning "first", ζῶα, plural of ζῶον, meaning "animal"; the use of Protozoa as a formal taxon has been discouraged by some researchers because the term implies kinship with animals and promotes an arbitrary separation of "animal-like" from "plant-like" organisms.
In 1848, as a result of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, the anatomist and zoologist C. T. von Siebold proposed that the bodies of protozoans such as ciliates and amoebae consisted of single cells, similar to those from which the multicellular tissues of plants and animals were constructed. Von Siebold redefined Protozoa to include only such unicellular forms, to the exclusion of all metazoa. At the same time, he raised the group to the level of a phylum containing two broad classes of microorganisms: Infusoria, Rhizopoda; the definition of Protozoa as a phylum or sub-kingdom composed of "unicellular animals" was adopted by the zoologist Otto Bütschli—celebrated at his centenary as the "architect of protozoology"—and the term came into wide use. As a phylum under Animalia, the Protozoa were rooted in the old "two-kingdom" classification of life, according to which all living beings were classified as either animals or plants; as long as this scheme remained dominant, the protozoa were understood to be animals and studied in departments of Zoology, while photosynthetic microorganisms and microscopic fungi—the so-called Protophyta—were assigned to the Plants, studied in departments of Botany.
Criticism of this system began in the latter half of the 19th century, with the realization that many organisms met the criteria for inclusion among both plants and animals. For example, the algae Euglena and Dinobryon have chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but can feed on organic matter and are motile. In 1860, John Hogg argued against the use of "protozoa", on the grounds that "naturalists are divided in opinion—and some will continue so—whether many of these organisms, or living beings, are animals or plants." As an alternative, he proposed a new kingdom called Primigenum, consisting of both the protozoa and unicellular algae, which he combined together under the name "Protoctista". In Hoggs's conception, the animal and plant kingdoms were likened to two great "pyramids" blending at their bases in the Kingdom Primigenum. Six years Ernst Haeckel proposed a third kingdom of life, which he named Protista. At first, Haeckel included a few multicellular organisms in this kingdom, but in work he restricted the Protista to single-celled organisms, or simple colonies whose individual cells are not differentiated into different kinds of tissues.
Despite these proposals, Protozoa emerged as the preferred taxonomic placement for heterotrophic microorganisms such as amoebae and ciliates, remained so for more than a century. In the course of the 20th century, the old "two kingdom" system began to weaken, with the growing awareness that fungi did not belong among the plants, that most of the unicellular protozoa were no more related to the animals than they were to the plants. By mid-century, some biologists, such as Herbert Copeland, Robert H. Whittaker and Lynn Margulis, advocated the revival of Haeckel's Protista or Hogg's Protoctista as a kingdom-level eukaryotic group, alongside Plants and Fungi. A variety of multi-kingdom systems were proposed, Kingdoms Protista and Protoctista became well est
Ocean Biogeographic Information System
The Ocean Biogeographic Information System is a web-based access point to information about the distribution and abundance of living species in the ocean. It was developed as the information management component of the ten year Census of Marine Life, but is not limited to CoML-derived data, aims to provide an integrated view of all marine biodiversity data that may be made available to it on an open access basis by respective data custodians. According to its web site as at July 2018, OBIS "is a global open-access data and information clearing-house on marine biodiversity for science and sustainable development." 8 specific objectives are listed in the OBIS site, of which the leading item is to "Provide world's largest scientific knowledge base on the diversity and abundance of all marine organisms in an integrated and standardized format". Initial ideas for OBIS were developed at a CoML meeting on benthic ocean life in October 1997. Recommendations from this workshop led to a web site at Rutgers in 1998 to demonstrate the initial OBIS concept.
An inaugural OBIS International Workshop was held on November 3–4 1999 in Washington, DC, which led to scoping of the project and outreach to potential partners, with selected contributions published in a special issue of Oceanography magazine, within which OBIS founder Dr. J. F. Grassle articulated the vision of OBIS as "an on-line, worldwide atlas for accessing and mapping marine biological data in a multidimensional geographic context." In May 2000, US Government Agencies in the National Oceanographic Partnership Program together with the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation funded eight research projects to initiate OBIS. In May 2001, the US National Science Foundation funded Rutgers University to develop a global portal for OBIS. In 2001, an OBIS International Committee was formed and its first meeting was held in August 2001; the production version of the OBIS Portal was launched at Rutgers University in 2002 as the web site http://www.iobis.org, serving 430,000 species-based georeferenced data records from 8 partner databases including fish records from FishBase, cephalopods from CephBase, corals from Biogeoinformatics of Hexacorals, mollusks from the Indo-Pacific Mollusc Database and more.
By May 2006, the OBIS Portal was able to access 9.5 million records of 59,000 species from 112 databases, by December 2010 provided access to 27.7 million records representing 167,000 taxon names. As at July 2018, the OBIS website states that the system provides access to over 45 million observations of nearly 120,000 marine species, based on contributions from 500 institutions from 56 countries. In 2009 OBIS was adopted as a project by International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange programme of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO and in 2011, with the cessation of funding for the Rutgers-based secretariat and portal from the Sloan Foundation, an offer of hosting by the Flanders Marine Institute in Oostende, Belgium was accepted to become the long term host for the system and the OBIS secretariat moved from Rutgers University to the IOC Project Office for IODE in Oostende from where OBIS is presently maintained and additional development is carried out, without change of web address.
OBIS is thus now located in Oostende, in the same building, home to VLIZ. VLIZ maintains two taxonomic databases, the World Register of Marine Species and IRMNG, the Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera, both of which feed into taxonomic decisions used to control the display of species-based information in OBIS and provide the taxonomic hierarchy via which OBIS content can be navigated. OBIS is under the direction of IODE with advice from a steering group, the IODE Steering Group for OBIS; the OBIS secretariat, hosted at the UNESCO/IOC project office for IODE in Oostende, includes the OBIS project manager and data manager and in addition to maintaining the OBIS system provides training and technical assistance to its data providers, guides new data standards and technical developments, encourages international cooperation to foster the group benefits of the network. Data available via OBIS cover all groups of organisms that have any association with marine or estuarine habitats including shorelines and the atmosphere above the ocean, such as marine vertebrates.
As available web technologies have developed, the OBIS Portal has been through a number of iterations since its inception in 2002. The system retrieved remote data in real time in response to a user query and used the KGS Mapper to visualize the results. In 2004, centralized metadata indexing and cacheing was introduced leading to faster and more reliable results, the c-squares mapper was added to options for data visualization. In 2010, a full web GIS based system was introduced for the first time along with a new version of the web site which resulted in more detailed and flexible presentation of search results along with a number of new search options. In April 2018, funding was announced to develop a new "2.0" version of OBIS with improved capabilities. And is released on 29 January 2019.. The website URL changed from iobis.org to obis.org. Over the perio
CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere
CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere is one of the current 8 Business Units of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia's largest government-supported science research agency. The CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere Business Unit was formed in 2014 as one of the 10 "Flagship" operational units of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation as part of a major organisational restructure; this Business Unit was formed as a synthesis of the pre-existing CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research, representing the scientific capability, the established Wealth from Oceans Flagship, the route via which much of the relevant Australian government research funding was directed. As at 2016, its Director is Dr. Ken Lee WfO Flagship Director; the O&A Business Unit employs between 350 and 400 staff who are located at its various laboratories including Hobart, Dutton Park, Black Mountain and Floreat Park. For 2016 it was quoted as operating with an annual budget of $108M Australian Dollars with its research organised into the following the following programs: Climate Science Centre.
Certain previous CMAR activities, notably those involving the operation of the Marine National Facility RV Investigator and several scientific collections, are now managed within the separate CSIRO National Facilities and Collections Program. The previous CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research was itself formed as a result of a 2005 merger between the former CSIRO Division of Marine Research, with laboratories in Hobart and Perth, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, with laboratories in Aspendale and Canberra. Additional details of the somewhat convoluted organisational history of the relevant Divisions and their predecessors are available here. Through the 1980s and 1990s the marine Divisions of CSIRO had the use of both the RV Southern Surveyor, equipped for biological as well as oceanographic research, the purpose built RV Franklin for physical and chemical oceanographic research, both of which served at various times as the Marine National Facility for the nation; the last of the vessels to be retired, the Southern Surveyor, was replaced in 2014 by a new purpose built research vessel to serve as the Marine National Facility, the RV Investigator.
Coupled with these major vessels, all capable of significant ocean-going research expeditions, staff were able to use a range of smaller boats and sometimes, charter vessels to carry out research in a range of coastal waters. In February 2016 the chief executive of CSIRO, Dr Larry Marshall, announced that research into the fundamentals of climate science was no longer a priority for CSIRO and up to 110 jobs were feared to be cut from the climate research section of the Oceans and Atmosphere Unit. After overwhelming negative reaction both within Australia and overseas, along with the forced redundancy of prominent climate scientists including the internationally renowned sea level expert Dr John Church, the Australian Government intervened with a directive and promise of new money to support the restoration of 15 jobs and the creation of a new Climate Science Centre to be based in Hobart with a staff of 40, with funding guaranteed for 10 years from 2016, although the expected number of job losses for O&A was still estimated at 75.
While the establishment of the new Centre was described as a "major U-turn in the direction of the CSIRO" and a win for the Turnbull government over the previous CSIRO announcement, the positive reaction from other scientists was qualified by the fact that the new Centre would still represent a net loss to CSIRO's previous capability in this area. A more detailed account of this episode is available elsewhere on Wikipedia here. Kenneth Radway Allen - fisheries biologist, International Whaling Commission panel member, former head of the CSIRO Division of Fisheries and Oceanography in Cronulla Greg Ayers - atmospheric scientist, Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, subsequently Director of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, 2009-2012 John A. Church - renowned climate scientist, winner of a number of medals and Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science co-convening lead author for the International Panel for Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report Shirley Jeffrey - discoverer of chlorophyll C and internationally renowned microalgal researcher, winner of numerous medals and Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science Peter R.
Last - ichthyologist, former curator of the Australian National Fish Collection, responsible for the description of numerous new shark and ray species.
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Ostend is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde and Zandvoorde, the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast. In earlier times, Ostend was a small village built on the east-end of an island between the North Sea and a beach lake. Although small, the village rose to the status of "town" around 1265 when the inhabitants were allowed to hold a market and to build a market hall; the major source of income for the inhabitants was fishing. The North Sea coastline has always been rather unstable and in 1395 the inhabitants decided to build a new Ostend behind large dikes and further away from the always-threatening sea; the strategic position on the North Sea coast had major advantages for Ostend as a harbour but proved to be a source of trouble. The town was taken, ravaged and destroyed by conquering armies; the Dutch rebels, the Gueuzen, took control of the town. The Siege of Ostend, 1601 to 1604, of which it was said that "the Spanish assailed the unassailable and the Dutch defended the indefensible", cost a combined total of more than 80,000 dead or wounded, making it the single bloodiest battle of the Eighty Years' War.
This shocking event set in motion negotiations. When the truce broke down, it became a Dunkirker base. After this era, Ostend was turned into a harbour of some importance. In 1722, the Dutch again closed off the entrance to the world's biggest harbour of Antwerp, the Westerschelde. Therefore, Ostend rose in importance; the Belgium Austriacum had become part of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Emperor Charles VI granted the town the trade monopoly with the Far-East; the Oostendse Compagnie was allowed to found colonies overseas. However, in 1727 the Oostendse Compagnie was forced to stop its activities because of Dutch and British pressure; the Netherlands and Britain would not allow competitors on the international trade level. Both nations regarded international trade. On 19 September 1826 the local artillery magazine exploded. At least 20 people were killed and a further 200 injured; the affluent quarter of d'Hargras was levelled and scarcely a building in the city escaped damage. Disease followed the devastation leading to further deaths.
The harbour of Ostend continued to expand because the harbour dock, as well as the traffic connections with the hinterland, were improved. In 1838, a railway connection with Brussels was constructed. Ostend became a transit harbour to England in 1846. Important for the image of the town was the attention it started to receive from the Belgian kings Leopold I and Leopold II. Both monarchs liked to spend their holidays in Ostend. Important monuments and villas were built to please the Royal Family, including the Hippodrome Wellington horse racing track and the Royal Galleries; the rest of aristocratic Belgium followed and soon Ostend became known as "the queen of the Belgian sea-side resorts". In 1866, Ostend was the venue for a crucial meeting of exile Spanish Liberals and Republicans which laid the framework for a major uprising in their country, culminating in Spain's Glorious Revolution two years later. Ostend was occupied by German forces and used as an access point to the sea for submarines and other light naval forces for much of the duration of World War I.
As a consequence the port was subjected to two naval assaults by the Royal Navy. The town hosted all of the sailing events for the 1920 Summer Olympics for Antwerp. Only the finals of the 12 foot dinghy were sailed in Amsterdam. Ostend hosted the polo events. World War II involved a second occupation of the town by Germany within a period of little more than twenty years. Both conflicts brought significant destruction to Ostend. In addition, other opulent buildings which had survived the wars were replaced with structures in the modernist architecture style. Ostend is known for its sea-side esplanade, including the Royal Galleries of Ostend and fine-sand beaches. Ostend is visited by many day-trippers heading to the beaches during July and August. Tourists from inland Belgium and foreigners arrive by train and head for the closest beach area, the Klein Strand, located next to the pier; the locals and other residents in Belgium occupy the larger beach. Near the beach is a well-preserved section of the fortified Atlantic Wall, open to the public as the Atlantic Wall Open Air Museum located in Raversijde.
One can walk through the streets around Het Vissersplein. At certain times, there are markets in the neighbourhood streets and in the summer the Vissersplein has music festivals; the Vissersplein is a car free zone with many brasseries where patrons can sit outside and have a drink. Towards the port side there are many little fish outlets, beyond that the ferries can be observed docking. Notable sites include: Fort Napoleon, Ostend. Oostende railway station; the Mercator, the ex training sailing ship for Belgian merchant navy officers, now open to the public to view. Hippodrome Wellington, horse racing venue. St Petrus and St Paulus Church, built in Neo Gothic style; the James Ensor museum can be visited in the house where the artist lived from 1917 until 1949. The Mu. Zee (merged from the Provinciaal Museum v
A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, petrified wood, coal, DNA remnants; the totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, evolutionary significance. Specimens are considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old; the oldest fossils are around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils; the development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host. There are many processes that lead to fossilization, including permineralization and molds, authigenic mineralization and recrystallization, adpression and bioimmuration.
Fossils vary in size from one-micrometre bacteria to dinosaurs and trees, many meters long and weighing many tons. A fossil preserves only a portion of the deceased organism that portion, mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous or calcareous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Fossils may consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces; these types of fossil are called trace ichnofossils, as opposed to body fossils. Some fossils are called chemofossils or biosignatures; the process of fossilization varies according to external conditions. Permineralization is a process of fossilization; the empty spaces within an organism become filled with mineral-rich groundwater. Minerals precipitate from the groundwater; this process can occur in small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can produce detailed fossils. For permineralization to occur, the organism must become covered by sediment soon after death, otherwise decay commences.
The degree to which the remains are decayed when covered determines the details of the fossil. Some fossils consist only of skeletal teeth; this is a form of diagenesis. In some cases, the original remains of the organism dissolve or are otherwise destroyed; the remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold. If this hole is filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An endocast, or internal mold, is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail or the hollow of a skull; this is a special form of mold formation. If the chemistry is right, the organism can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, resulting in a nodule forming around it. If this happens before significant decay to the organic tissue fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved. Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization.
Replacement occurs. In some cases mineral replacement of the original shell occurs so and at such fine scales that microstructural features are preserved despite the total loss of original material. A shell is said to be recrystallized when the original skeletal compounds are still present but in a different crystal form, as from aragonite to calcite. Compression fossils, such as those of fossil ferns, are the result of chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules composing the organism's tissues. In this case the fossil consists of original material, albeit in a geochemically altered state; this chemical change is an expression of diagenesis. What remains is a carbonaceous film known as a phytoleim, in which case the fossil is known as a compression. However, the phytoleim is lost and all that remains is an impression of the organism in the rock—an impression fossil. In many cases, however and impressions occur together. For instance, when the rock is broken open, the phytoleim will be attached to one part, whereas the counterpart will just be an impression.
For this reason, one term covers the two modes of preservation: adpression. Because of their antiquity, an unexpected exception to the alteration of an organism's tissues by chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules during fossilization has been the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur fossils, including blood vessels, the isolation of proteins and evidence for DNA fragments. In 2014, Mary Schweitzer and her colleagues reported the presence of iron particles associated with soft tissues recovered from dinosaur fossils. Based on various experiments that studied the interaction of iron in haemoglobin with blood vessel tissue they proposed that solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances the stability and preservation of soft tissue and provides the basis for an explanation for the unforeseen preservation of fossil soft tissues. However, a older study based on eight taxa ranging in time from the Devonian to the Jurassic found that reasonably well-preserved fibrils that represent collagen were preser