The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al
The Ilgachuz Range is a name given to an extinct shield volcano in British Columbia, Canada. It is not a mountain range in the normal sense, because it was formed as a single volcano, eroded for the past 5 million years, it lies on the Chilcotin Plateau, located some 350 kilometres north-northwest of Vancouver and 30 km north of Anahim Lake. The highest peak of the range is Far Mountain; the range supports a unique grassland ecosystem. This type of grassland has not been seen anywhere else in southern British Columbia; the climate is dry. The 280 kilometres long West Road River rises in the Ilgachuz Range and flows east to its confluence with the Fraser River between Prince George and Quesnel, it drains an area of 12,000 km2, dropping over 900 m before joining with the Fraser. The Ilgachuz Range began erupting 6.1 million years ago and has grown since then. Like all of the Anahim volcanoes, the Ilgachuz Range has its origins in the Anahim hotspot—a plume of magma rising from the Earth's mantle in central British Columbia.
The hotspot remains in a fixed position, while the North American Plate drifts over it at a rate of 2 to 3.3 centimetres per year. The upwelling of the hot magma creates volcanoes, each individual volcano erupts for a few million years before the movement of the plate carries it away from the rising magma. However, where hotspots occur under continental crust, basaltic magma is trapped in the less dense continental crust, heated and melts to form rhyolites. Due to their high content of crystals and gasses, rhyolites initiate violent eruptions, though their water content is low and they have a low temperature; the hotspot has existed for at least 13 million years, the Anahim Volcanic Belt stretches 600 kilometres away from the hotspot. More the hotspot has formed the Itcha Range and Nazko Cone, a cinder cone east of the Ilgachuz Range and the youngest Anahim volcano; the Ilgachuz Range is the largest of these, although the Rainbow Range is the largest of all volcanoes in the Anahim Volcanic Belt.
The first recorded ascent of the Ilgachuz Range was by Chilcotin tribes. They have lived in the area for hundreds of years, travelling when necessary to hunt and trap animals such as beaver, moose, to gather plants and roots. Fishing camps were established in the area; the Ilgachuz Range is, or was, an important source of obsidian for the South Carrier and Chilcotin tribes. Obsidian was desired because sharp arrowheads and cutting knives could be made from it. Like all glass and some other types of occurring rocks, obsidian breaks with a characteristic conchoidal fracture, creating razorlike edges, it was used for jewelry. Anahim obsidian was traded extensively throughout the BC Interior and up and down the Coast from Bella Coola. Red ochre used in paint and decoration was obtained from this area; the Ilgachuz Range is the second largest shield volcano in the Anahim Volcanic Belt which includes other nearby ranges, the Rainbow Range and Itcha Range. It stands at 2,410 metres above sea level - shorter than its neighbor, Rainbow Range.
It has a diameter of 25 km. The Ilgachuz Range was created by two chemically separate magmatic periods. Evacuation of the volcano's magma chamber resulted in the failure of one or more centrally located calderas, it is divided into Dome Forming, Intra Caldera and Shield Forming assemblages. The Precaldera Assemblage is best exposed on the east side of Pipe Organ Mountain where it contains a bedded pile over 300 m thick of weakly consolidated, moderately to different, pyroclastics and deposits of uncertain origin. Colours range from mottled green to grey, ochre and white. A green tuffbreccia composed of pumice fragments, feldspar crystals and minor debris is recognizable in several areas; the Dome Forming Assemblages include most of the rhyolite domes, related flows and the Ilgachuz Comendite. The northerly domes are subcircular talus mounds of plate sized pieces of light to dark grey porphyritic, flowbanded rhyolite with minor obsidian. Massive to banded chalcedony blobs and veinlets are related with these domes.
The southern domes are somewhat different in nature, comprising intrusive and extrusive phases of cream colored porphyries. The Sax Dome contains an upper portion of cream coloured, aphanitic to fine quartz porphyry felsite with abnormal green glass filled fractures, a lower unit of microsyenite with red and green glassy zenocrysts; the Intra Caldera Assemblage is best exposed on the north edge of the caldera. The lower unit, indicative of caldera formation, is an epiclastic boulder-landslide deposit bedded and dipping into the caldera. Similar material, grading up into finer debris flows and lahars, has been uncertainly known in the gap between Phacelia Peak and Calliope Mountain suggesting this area is the southern edge of the caldera. Alternatively unsorted breccia and debris deposits exist on the ridge north of Saxifraga Peak indicating the main, or a subsidiary, caldera edge; the Shield Forming Assemblage contains a series of basalt and minor comendite eruptions, is best exposed on Far Mountain and Mount Scot.
The basalts issued from fissure vents located peripheral to the calderas. Brick red cinder deposits are considered to be a late phase of this assemblage. Surrounding and including the range is Itcha Ilgachuz Provincial Park, a 112
Sagebrush is the common name of several woody and herbaceus species of plants in the genus Artemisia. The best known sagebrush is the shrub Artemisia tridentata. Sagebrushes are native to the North American west. Following is an alphabetical list of common names for various species of the genus Artemisia, along with their corresponding scientific name. Many of these species are known by more than one common name, some common names represent more than one species. Alpine sagebrush—Artemisia scopulorum African sagebrush—Artemisia afra Basin sagebrush—Artemisia tridentata Big sagebrush—see Basin sagebrush Bigelow sagebrush—Artemisia bigelovii Birdfoot sagebrush—Artemisia pedatifida Black sagebrush—Artemisia nova Blue sagebrush—see Basin sagebrush Boreal sagebrush—Artemisia arctica Budsage—Artemisia spinescens California sagebrush—Artemisia californica Carruth's sagebrush—Artemisia carruthii Coastal sagebrush—see California sagebrush Dwarf sagebrush—see Alpine sagebrush Fringed sagebrush—Artemisia frigida Gray sagewort—see White sagebrush Island sagebrush—Artemisia nesiotica Little sagebrush—Artemisia arbuscula Longleaf sagebrush—Artemisia longifolia Low sagebrush—see Little sagebrush Michaux sagebrush—Artemisia michauxiana Owyhee sagebrush—Artemisia papposa Prairie sagebrush—see White sagebrush Pygmy sagebrush—Artemisia pygmaea Ragweed sagebrush—Artemisia franserioides Sand sagebrush—Artemisia filifolia Scabland sagebrush—Artemisia rigida Silver sagebrush—Artemisia cana Succor Creek sagebrush—Artemisia packardiae Timberline sagebrush—Artemisia rothrockii Threetip sagebrush—Artemisia tripartita White sagebrush—Artemisia ludoviciana Rines, George Edwin, ed..
"Sage-brush". Encyclopedia Americana
Wenatchee is a city located in north-central Washington and is the largest city and county seat of Chelan County, United States. The population within the city limits in 2010 was 31,925. In 2014, the Office of Financial Management estimated the population at 33,070. Located at the confluence of the Columbia and Wenatchee rivers near the eastern foothills of the Cascade Range, Wenatchee lies on the western side of the Columbia River, across from the city of East Wenatchee; the Columbia River forms the boundary between Douglas County. Wenatchee is the principal city of the Wenatchee–East Wenatchee, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Chelan and Douglas counties. However, the "Wenatchee Valley Area" refers to the land between Rocky Reach and Rock Island Dam on both banks of the Columbia, which includes East Wenatchee, Rock Island, Malaga; the city was named for the nearby Wenatchi Indian tribe. The name is a Sahaptin word that means "river which comes from canyons" or "robe of the rainbow".
Awenatchela means "people at the source ". The city of Wenatchee shares its name with the Wenatchee River, Lake Wenatchee and the Wenatchee National Forest. Wenatchee is referred to as the "Apple Capital of the World" due to the valley's many orchards; the city is sometimes referred to as the "Buckle of the Power Belt of the Great Northwest". The "Power Belt of the Great Northwest" is a metaphor for the series of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Rock Island Dam is located nearest to the middle of this "belt", so was labeled the "Buckle"; this saying is printed at the top of every issue of Wenatchee's newspaper, the Wenatchee World, but is no longer in common use elsewhere. Archeological digs in nearby East Wenatchee have uncovered Clovis stone and bone tools dating back more than 11,000 years, indicating that people migrating during the last Ice Age spent time in the Wenatchee area; the Columbia River and nearby mountains and sagebrush steppes provided an ample supply of food. Clovis points are on display at the Wenatchee Valley Museum & Cultural Center and research findings are available through the Wenatchee World.
Several indigenous villages existed in the area prior to and during Anglo American exploration. The village Nikwikwi'estku was a fishing and gathering camp located in present day downtown Wenatchee. In 1811, North West Company surveyor David Thompson encountered a group of Native American horsemen at Wenatchee and was invited into a village with huts, the largest measuring 209 feet long. Fur traders document friendly relations through the mid 19th century during the smallpox epidemic of 1817 and food shortages in 1841. During the Yakima War in 1856, US Army Colonel Wright intervened on a possible alliance between Yakama and Wenatchi tribes by removing the Wenatchi to Kittitas; the resulting march was estimated to extend five miles long. A contigent stayed behind to fish at Wenatchapam Fishery in preparation for winter. In 1863, Father Respari, a Catholic priest, began his missionary work with the Indians, he was followed some 20 years by Father De Grassi, who built a log cabin on the Wenatchee River near the present town of Cashmere.
Throughout the 19th century, other white settlers came to homestead the land. Wenatchee was platted in September 1888 and incorporated as a city on January 7, 1893; the 1900 U. S. Census counted 451 residents; the Great Northern Railway completed its railroad line between St. Paul and Seattle in 1893, its route through the Wenatchee Valley was significant to the development of this region. The railroad not only provided passenger travel to and from Wenatchee, but it provided for freight service for shipments of wheat and other products to out-of-state markets. By the early 20th century, the Wenatchee Commercial Club, now the Wenatchee Valley Chamber of Commerce, was advertising the region as the "Home of the World's Best Apples." The tree fruit industry provided the economic backbone for the region for a century and still is an important source of revenue. On May 22, 1910, the Wenatchee free speech fight occurred when members of the Industrial Workers of the World were arrested for speaking in the street in front of the local hall of the Socialist Party of America.
The town had freed imprisoned IWW members by June. Again, the men were all released; the Wenatchee Valley boasts one of only two aluminum smelters remaining in the Northwestern United States, at the Alcoa plant in Malaga. The plant announced in November 2015 that it would be shutting down operations on January 5, 2016. Other growing areas of the regional economy are information technology. On October 5, 1931, Clyde Pangborn and his copilot Hugh Herndon landed their airplane, named the Miss Veedol, in the hills of East Wenatchee, thus became the first aviators to fly nonstop across the Pacific Ocean; the 41-hour flight from Sabishiro Beach, Aomori Prefecture, won them the Harmon Trophy for the greatest achievement in flight of 1931. Miss Veedol's propeller is on display at the Wenatchee Valley Cultural Center. In 1936, with the completion of Rock Island Dam, Wenatchee was protected from the summer flooding of the Columbia River, the first of 14 hydroelectric projects on the Columbia began generating electric power.
The reservoirs thus generated made it possible to irrigate hundreds of thousands of acres of farmland in the Columbia Basin. In 1975, Stemilt Growers moved its headquarters from nearby Stemilt Hill to Wenatchee. T
The Kitimat Ranges are one of the three main subdivisions of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, the others being the Pacific Ranges to the south and the Boundary Ranges to the north. The Kitimat Ranges lie between the Nass River and Portland Inlet in the north and the Bella Coola River and Burke Channel on the south, are bounded on their east by the Hazelton Mountains and include the mountainous islands of the North Coastal Archipelago, as well as King Island, which lies between Dean Channel and the aforesaid Burke Channel; some of those islands are part of a separate formation known as the Coastal Trough. Although lower than the neighbouring Pacific Ranges to the south, they are in some ways more rugged, are indented by coastal inlets as well as by fjord-like lake valleys on the Interior side of the range. Bare Top Range Countess of Dufferin Range Kitlope Range North Coastal Archipelago Bell Range Burnaby Range Cape Range Chismore Range Murphy Range Richardson Range Spiller Range Williams Range Wimbledon Range Tenaiko Range Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area Kitimat River Provincial Park Kleanza Creek Provincial Park Khutzeymateen Grizzly Bear Sanctuary Nisga'a Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park Kitlope Heritage Conservancy Rivers within or originating in, or which transit the Kitimat Ranges, are: Brim River Dean River Kemano River Kitimat River Kitlope River Mountain ranges of British Columbia North American Cordillera
The Cariboo Mountains are the northernmost subrange of the Columbia Mountains, which run down into the Spokane area of the United States and include the Selkirks and Purcells. The Cariboo Mountains are within the province of British Columbia, Canada; the range is 7,700 square kilometres in area and about 245 km in length and about 90 km at its widest. East of the range is the Rocky Mountain Trench, in this region the path of the upper Fraser River. To the west the range verges with the Cariboo Plateau through an intermediary "foothill" area known as the Quesnel Highland. Northwestwards the range drops to the Willow River area of the Nechako Plateau, which lies around Prince George. South of the range, northeast of Clearwater a plateau-like mountainous area between the range and the North Thompson River is part of the Shuswap Highland, which crosses the North Thompson and continues into the Shuswap Lake area. N. B; some classification systems assign the Cariboo Mountains to the Cariboo Plateau, which includes the small Marble and Clear Ranges but it is so large and so mountainous a range, with peaks that rival the highest in the Selkirks, that it does not warrant the "plateau" designation.
The Cariboo Mountains subranges include the Mowdish Range. Unlike the other three major subranges of the Columbia Mountains, the Cariboo Mountains have no contact with the Columbia River or its tributaries, but are bounded by the Fraser and its tributary, the North Thompson River (there is a small exception in the Canoe River, which runs into the Rocky Mountain Trench from the eastern end of the range; the Canoe River is on the north side of Albreda Pass, the divide between the North Thompson and the Rocky Mountain Trench. The highest summits in the range are in a group known as the Premier Range whose peaks carry the names of eleven Canadian Prime Ministers, one British Prime Minister, one Premier of British Columbia; the highest peak is Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier at 3,516 m. The most added name to the group is that of Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau; the highest peak in the Cariboo Mountains outside the Premiers Range is Quanstrom Mountain 3,038 m, the northernmost peak in the range over 3,000 m.
Mowdish Range Premier Range Wavy Range Much of the Cariboo Mountains lie in Wells Gray Provincial Park, created in 1939 and the 4th largest in British Columbia. Another section is in Bowron Lake Provincial Park, a popular canoeing circuit east of the preserved gold rush town of Barkerville. Another park in the range is Cariboo Mountains Provincial Park, between Wells Gray and Bowron Lake