Romanesque art is the art of Europe from 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or depending on region. The preceding period is known as the Pre-Romanesque period; the term was invented by 19th-century art historians for Romanesque architecture, which retained many basic features of Roman architectural style – most notably round-headed arches, but barrel vaults and acanthus-leaf decoration – but had developed many different characteristics. In Southern France and Italy there was an architectural continuity with the Late Antique, but the Romanesque style was the first style to spread across the whole of Catholic Europe, from Sicily to Scandinavia. Romanesque art was greatly influenced by Byzantine art in painting, by the anti-classical energy of the decoration of the Insular art of the British Isles. From these elements was forged a innovative and coherent style. Outside Romanesque architecture, the art of the period was characterised by a vigorous style in both sculpture and painting.
The latter continued to follow Byzantine iconographic models for the most common subjects in churches, which remained Christ in Majesty, the Last Judgement and scenes from the Life of Christ. In illuminated manuscripts more originality is seen, as new scenes needed to be depicted; the most lavishly decorated manuscripts of this period were psalters. The same originality applied to the capitals of columns: carved with complete scenes with several figures; the large wooden crucifix was a German innovation at the start of the period, as were free-standing statues of the enthroned Madonna. High relief was the dominant sculptural mode of the period. Colours were striking, primary. In the 21st century: these colours can only be seen in their original brightness in stained glass, a few well-preserved manuscripts. Stained glass became used, although survivals are sadly few. In an invention of the period, the tympanums of important church portals were carved with monumental schemes Christ in Majesty or the Last Judgement, but treated with more freedom than painted versions, as there were no equivalent Byzantine models.
Compositions had little depth, needed to be flexible to be squeezed into the shapes of historiated initials, column capitals, church tympanums. Figures varied in size in relation to their importance. Landscape backgrounds, if attempted at all, were closer to abstract decorations than realism – as in the trees in the "Morgan Leaf". Portraiture hardly existed. During this period Europe grew more prosperous, art of the highest quality was no longer confined, as it was in the Carolingian and Ottonian periods, to the royal court and a small circle of monasteries. Monasteries continued to be important those of the expansionist new orders of the period, the Cistercian and Carthusian, which spread across Europe, but city churches, those on pilgrimage routes, many churches in small towns and villages were elaborately decorated to a high standard – these are the structures to have survived, when cathedrals and city churches have been rebuilt. No Romanesque royal palace has survived; the lay artist was becoming a valued figure – Nicholas of Verdun seems to have been known across the continent.
Most masons and goldsmiths were now lay, lay painters such as Master Hugo seem to have been in the majority, at least of those doing the best work, by the end of the period. The iconography of their church work was no doubt arrived at in consultation with clerical advisors. Precious objects in these media had a high status in the period much more so than paintings – the names of more makers of these objects are known than those of contemporary painters, illuminators or architect-masons. Metalwork, including decoration in enamel, became sophisticated. Many spectacular shrines made to hold relics have survived, of which the best known is the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral by Nicholas of Verdun and others; the Stavelot Triptych and Reliquary of St. Maurus are other examples of Mosan enamelwork. Large reliquaries and altar frontals were built around a wooden frame, but smaller caskets were all metal and enamel. A few secular pieces, such as mirror cases and clasps have survived, but these no doubt under-represent the amount of fine metalwork owned by the nobility.
The bronze Gloucester candlestick and the brass font of 1108–1117 now in Liège are superb examples different in style, of metal casting. The former is intricate and energetic, drawing on manuscript painting, while the font shows the Mosan style at its most classical and majestic; the bronze doors, a triumphal column and other fittings at Hildesheim Cathedral, the Gniezno Doors, the doors of the Basilica di San Zeno in Verona are other substantial survivals. The aquamanile, a container for water to wash with, appears to have been introduced to Europe in the 11th century. Artisans gave the pieces fantastic zoomorphic forms. Many wax impressions from impressive seals survive on charters and documents, although Romanesque coins are not of great aesthetic interest; the Cloisters Cross is an unusually large ivory crucifix, with complex carving including many figures of prophets and others, attributed to one of the few artists whose name is known, Master Hugo, who illuminated manuscripts. Like many pieces it was partly coloured.
The Lewis chessmen are well-preserved examples of small
Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
Cross of Cong
The Cross of Cong is an early 12th-century Irish Christian ornamented cusped processional cross, which was, as an inscription says, made for Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht and High King of Ireland to donate to the Cathedral church of the period, located at Tuam, County Galway, Ireland. The cross was subsequently moved to Cong Abbey at County Mayo, from which it takes its name, it was designed to be placed on top of a staff and is a reliquary, designed to hold a piece of the purported True Cross. This gave it additional importance as an object of reverence and was undoubtedly the reason for the object's elaborate beauty; the cross is displayed at the National Museum of Ireland, having been in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. It is considered one of finest examples of metalwork and decorative art of its period in Western Europe; the cross consists of an oak cross, covered in gold, niello, bronze, enamel, coloured glass, other ornamentation. In addition to traditional Irish design features from Insular art, the cross displays some Viking and Romanesque influences, including'strapwork' decoration in the Urnes style.
It has been suggested. The decoration includes minute golden filigree work in an intertwined pattern called on front and back. From the base heads of beasts on each side grip the cross in their mouth, a feature found in German crosses; the overall shape of the cross was thought to be Romanesque, but recent discoveries have shown similar shapes in much earlier Irish pieces. Some of the original precious stones and glass pieces that studded the cross are now missing. There is a large polished piece of rock crystal in the centre of the cross. Under this was placed the relic of what at the time was believed to be the True Cross; the relic is since lost, was a small fragment of wood only. The crystal is semi-transparent, once enabling the relic to be seen by the viewer; the cross is 30 inches high and the arms are 18 3⁄4 inches in breadth. As a processional cross, the cross was carried mounted on its staff at the head of a religious procession by one of the officiating clergy or altar-servers; such crosses were removed from their staff and placed on the altar during the ceremony.
The reincarnation of centuries-old Irish metalworking techniques, such as the juxtaposition of red and yellow enamel, is seen on the Cross of Cong and Manchan shrine. According to Irish annals, supported by the inscriptions on the cross itself, the cross was made in County Roscommon. In the annals, the cross is sometimes called in the Irish language "an Bacall Buidhe", which translates as "the yellow staff" — a reference to its golden colour; the cross was commissioned by King Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair. In A. D. 1123, according to the Irish annals, a small piece of the purported True Cross arrived in Ireland and was enshrined at Roscommon. The cross appears to have moved to Tuam. At an early date in the mid-12th century, the cross was moved from Tuam to Cong Abbey, an abbey founded by the Augustinians on a much earlier Christian site. In centuries, the exact location of the cross in the Cong area is uncertain but it appears to have been hidden by locals and ecclesiastics in their homes because of religious persecution against Catholics, which reached its peak in Ireland under the penal laws.
In 1680, Ruaidhrí Ó Flaithbheartaigh, the historian from County Galway, saw the cross and copied inscriptions from it. Edward Lhuyd of Wales, Ó Flaithbheartaigh's friend, recorded this fact in his "Archaeologia Britannica", published in 1707. In the 19th century, George Petrie, the Irish antiquarian, was aware that Lhuyd's book mentioned the cross, though he misinterpreted the details. In 1822, Petrie had seen the cross himself when he passed through Cong on a tour he made of Connacht. Petrie told Professor James MacCullagh, about the cross and of its historical value. MacCullagh, using his own money, though not a rich man, afterwards purchased the cross from the Parish Priest of Cong – Fr. Michael Waldron. Fr. Waldron had succeeded Fr. Patrick Prendergast as Parish Priest of Cong, when Fr. Prendergast died in 1829, discovered the cross amongst his belongings. Fr. Patrick Prendergast, an Augustinian, was considered to be the last Abbot of Cong Abbey. Fr. Prendergast had discovered the cross hidden in an old oak chest kept in a house in the village, where it was said to have been kept since about the mid-17th century.
Fr. Prendergast kept the cross in his house, named'Abbotstown', located on a farm in the townland of Ballymagibbon, close to Cong. William Wilde, from this part of Ireland, had seen the cross in his childhood in Fr. Prendergast's possession and stated that at that time the cross was used at Cong chapel at the festivals of Christmas and Easter, when it was placed on the altar during mass. MacCullagh presented the cross in 1839 to the Royal Irish Academy, where it was for a long period one of its most treasured artefacts. About 1890, the cross was transferred to the newly opened National Museum of Science and Art, the predecessor of the National Museum of Ireland, remained in the same building when the National Museum of Ireland was founded in 1925. Today, the cross remains in the National Museum of Ireland, although it was on display in the National Museum of Ireland – Country Life
The Croatian interlace or Croatian wattle, known as the pleter or troplet in Croatian, is a type of interlace, most characteristic for its three-ribbon pattern. It is one of the most used patterns of pre-romanesque Croatian art, it is found on and within churches as well as monasteries built in early medieval Kingdom of Croatia between the 9th and beginning of the 12th century. The ornamental strings were sometimes grouped together with animal and herbal figures. Most representative examples of inscriptions embellished with the interlace include the Baška tablet and the Branimir Inscription. Other notable examples are located near Knin, in Ždrapanj and Žavić by the Bribir settlement, Rižinice near Solin and in Split and Zadar. Croatia has a military decoration called the Order of the Croatian Interlace. Examples: Interlace Croatian pre-Romanesque art and architecture The Croatian "pleter" on Croata.com pticica.com - wattle examples
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs. The zoomorphic style of decoration was used to decorate small objects by warrior-herdsmen, whose economy was based on breeding and herding animals, supplemented by trade and plunder. Animal art is a more general term for all art depicting animals. Scythian art makes great use of animal motifs, one component of the "Scythian triad" of weapons, horse-harness, Scythian-style wild animal art; the cultures referred to as Scythian-style included the Cimmerian and Sarmatian cultures in European Sarmatia and stretched across the Eurasian steppe north of the Near East to the Ordos culture of China. These cultures were influential in spreading many local versions of the style. Steppe jewellery features various animals including stags, birds, bears and mythical beasts; the gold figures of stags in a crouching position with legs tucked beneath its body, head upright and muscles tight to give the impression of speed, are impressive.
The "looped" antlers of most figures are a distinctive feature, not found in Chinese images of deer. The species represented has seemed to many scholars to be the reindeer, not found in the regions inhabited by the steppes peoples at this period; the largest of these were the central ornaments for shields, while others were smaller plaques attached to clothing. The stag appears to have had a special significance for the steppes peoples as a clan totem; the most notable of these figures include the examples from: the burial site of Kostromskaya in the Kuban dating from the 6th century BC Tápiószentmárton in Hungary dating from the 5th century BC, now National Museum of Hungary, Budapest Kul Oba in the Crimea dating from the 4th century BC. Another characteristic form is the openwork plaque including a stylized tree over the scene at one side, of which two examples are illustrated here. Large Greek-made pieces include a zone showing Scythian men going about their daily business, in scenes more typical of Greek art than nomad-made pieces.
Some scholars have attempted to attach narrative meanings to such scenes, but this remains speculative. Although gold was used by the ruling elite of the various Scythian tribes, the predominant material for the various animal forms was bronze; the bulk of these items were used to leather belts & personal clothing. In some cases these bronze animal figures when sewn onto stiff leather jerkins & belts, helped to act as armour; the use of the animal form went further than just ornament, these imbuing the owner of the item with similar prowess and powers of the animal, depicted. Thus the use of these forms extended onto the accoutrements of warfare, be they swords, scabbards, or axes. A distinct Permian style of bronze or copper alloy objects from around the 5th–10th centuries AD are found near the Ural mountains and the Volga and Kama rivers in Russia; the study of Germanic zoomorphic decoration was pioneered by Bernhard Salin in a work published in 1904. Salin classified animal art from 400 to 900 AD into three phases.
The origins of these different phases remain the subject of debate. Styles I and II are found across Europe in the art of the "barbarian" peoples during the Migration Period. Style I. First appearing in northwest Europe, first expressed with the introduction of the chip carving technique applied to bronze and silver in the 5th century, it is characterized by animals whose bodies are divided into sections, appear at the fringes of designs whose main emphasis is on abstract patterns. Style II. After about 560–570 Style I, began to be supplanted; the animals of Style II are whole beasts, their bodies elongated into "ribbons" which intertwined into symmetrical shapes with no pretense of naturalism—rarely with legs—tending to be described as serpents, though heads have characteristics of other animals. The animals become subsumed into ornamental patterns interlace. Examples of Style II can be found on the gold purse lid from Sutton Hoo. After about 700 localised styles develop, it is no longer useful to talk of a general Germanic style.
Salin Style III is found in Scandinavia, may be called Viking art. Interlace, where it occurs, becomes less regular and more complex, if not three-dimensional animals are seen in profile but twisted, surreal, with fragmented body parts filling every available space, creating an intense detailed energetic feel. Animals' bodies become hard for the unpractised viewer to read, there is a common motif of the "gripping beast" where an animal's mouth grips onto another element of the composition to connect two parts. Animal style was one component, along with Celtic art and late classical elements, in the formation of style of Insular art and Anglo-Saxon art in the British Isles, through these routes and others on the Continent, left a considerable legacy in Medieval art. Other names are sometimes used: in Anglo-Saxon art Kendrick preferred "Helmet" and "Ribbon" for Styles I and II. Migration Period art Thracian art Persian-Sassanid art patterns Confronted-animals Perm Animal Style: Photo gallery Perm Animal Style Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on and examples of animal style Andreeva, Petya, "Fantastic Be
Motif (visual arts)
In art and iconography, a motif is an element of an image. A motif may be repeated in a pattern or design many times, or may just occur once in a work. A motif may be an element in the iconography of a particular subject or type of subject, seen in other works, or may form the main subject, as the Master of Animals motif in ancient art does; the related motif of confronted animals is seen alone, but may be repeated, for example in Byzantine silk and other ancient textiles. Where the main subject of an artistic work such as a painting is a specific person, group, or moment in a narrative, that should be referred to as the "subject" of the work, not a motif, though the same thing may be a "motif" when part of another subject, or part of a work of decorative art such as a painting on a vase. Ornamental or decorative art can be analysed into a number of different elements, which can be called motifs; these may as in textile art, be repeated many times in a pattern. Important examples in Western art include acanthus and dart, various types of scrollwork.
Many designs in Islamic culture are motifs, including those of the sun, animals such as horses and lions and landscapes. Motifs can be used for propaganda. In kilim flatwoven carpets, motifs such as the hands-on-hips elibelinde are woven in to the design to express the hopes and concerns of the weavers: the elibelinde symbolises the female principle and fertility, including the desire for children. Pennsylvania Dutch hex signs are a familiar type of motif in the eastern portions of the United States, their circular and symmetric design, their use of brightly colored patterns from nature, such as stars, compass roses, hearts, tulips and feathers have made them quite popular. In some parts of Pennsylvania Dutch country, it is common to see these designs decorating barns and covered bridges; the idea of a motif has become used more broadly in discussing literature and other narrative arts for an element in the story that represents a theme. Geometric repeated: Meander, rosette, gul in Oriental rugs, acanthus and dart, Bead and reel, Sauwastika, Adinkra symbols.
Figurative: Master of Animals, confronted animals, velificatio and the Maiden, Three hares, Sheela na gig. Iconography Three hares Richard. Decorative Flower and Leaf Designs. Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-26869-1 Jones, Owen.'The Grammar of Ornament. Dover Publications, Revised edition, ISBN 0-486-25463-1 Welch, Patricia Bjaaland. Chinese art: a guide to motifs and visual imagery. Turtle Publishing, ISBN 0-8048-3864-X Visual motifs Theater of Drawing