Kaiser Family Foundation
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, or just Kaiser Family Foundation, is an American non-profit organization, headquartered in San Francisco, California, it focuses on major health care issues facing the nation, as well as U. S. role in global health policy. The Foundation states that it is a non-partisan source of facts and analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media, the health care community, the general public, its website has been heralded for having the "most up-to-date and accurate information on health policy" and as a "must-read for healthcare devotees." The Foundation publishes research, analysis and journalism about health-care issues, states that much of its research concerns persons with low income or those who are otherwise vulnerable to health-care cost, such as the uninsured, those with chronic illnesses, or Medicaid/Medicare recipients. In addition to domestic U. S. health policy issues, KFF conducts work on the U. S. role in global health policy. In 2010, the Foundation began providing resources for consumers seeking information about the new health insurance law, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with a series of animated videos explaining the health law and health insurance terms as well as a calculator for people to estimate what health insurance coverage would cost them.
Kaiser is well known for public opinion research, documenting the views and experiences of the public on health and related issues – in partnership with major news organizations, such as The Washington Post and the New York Times. Through Kaiser Health News, KFF's editorially independent news service dedicated to coverage of health care policy and politics, the Foundation provides coverage of health policy issues and developments at the federal and state levels in the health care marketplace and health care delivery system; the Foundation sponsors training and site visits for health care reporters. The Foundation works with major media and corporate partners, government agencies and health departments, national leadership and community organizations, other foundations to undertake large-scale public information campaigns on pressing health and social issues on HIV/AIDS, including: It's Your Life; the Foundation worked with UNAIDS in 2004 to launch the Global Media AIDS Initiative at the United Nations to mobilize media in response to the global AIDS pandemic.
Large-scale regional media coalitions operated under auspices of the GMAI, including efforts in Africa, the Caribbean, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and now developing Central and South America. Under Greater Than AIDS – a national public information response to the U. S. epidemic launched in 2009 – the Foundation works with a broad cross section of public and private partners to increase knowledge, reduce stigma and promote actions to stem the spread of HIV. While national in scope, Greater Than AIDS focuses on communities most affected; the Foundation was established in 1948 by Henry J. Kaiser; the Kaiser Family Foundation was set up in Oakland, the same city in which Kaiser Permanente's headquarters were located. The KFF moved to Menlo Park, about 50 miles away from Oakland. In 2018, it relocated to San Francisco, CA; when Mr. Kaiser died in 1967, his second wife, Ale Chester, inherited half of his estate, the other half went to the KFF. Ale sold all of her holdings, moved far away, remarried.
Mr. Kaiser's children received little direct inheritance. In 1977, ten years after Kaiser's death, the conglomerate of disparate Kaiser Industries organizations split apart; the Kaiser Family Foundation was a major owner of these shares: at the time of dissolution, the Foundation owned 32 percent according to Fortune Magazine. By 1985, the foundation no longer had an ownership stake in the Kaiser companies and is no longer associated with Kaiser Permanente or Kaiser Industries; the Foundation is now an independent national organization and two family members, selected by the Board, serve on the Board of Directors of KFF. The Kaiser Family Foundation funded professorial chairs at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, named the Henry J. Kaiser Professorships. Starting in September 1990, KFF CEO Drew Altman directed "a complete overhaul of the Foundation's mission and operating style." Altman changed a "sleepy grant-making organization", into a leading voice and repository for facts and information on health-care issues.
Jim Doyle, former Governor of Wisconsin Kathleen Sebelius, former United States Secretary of Health and Human Services Olympia Snowe, former United States Senator Bill Frist, former Senate Majority Leader Diana Chapman Walsh, former President of Wellesley College Charles Gibson, former anchor of ABC World News Official Kaiser Family Foundation website Kaiserhealthnews.org website GreaterthanAIDS.org – Public Education Campaign Web site with Black AIDS Media Partnership
Sandy is a city in Salt Lake County, United States. The population was 87,461 at the 2010 census; the population is estimated to be about 96,145 according to the July 1, 2017 United States Census. Sandy is home to the Shops at South Town shopping mall, it is the location of the soccer-specific Rio Tinto Stadium, which hosts Real Salt Lake and Utah Royals FC home games, opened on October 8, 2008. The city is developing an urban and transit-oriented city center called The Cairns. A formal master plan was adopted in January 2017 to accommodate regional growth and outlines developments and related guidelines through the next 25 years, while dividing the city center into distinct villages; the plan emphasizes sustainable living, human-scaled architecture, environmentally-friendly design, nature-inspired design while managing population growth and its related challenges. Located at the base of the Wasatch Mountains thirteen miles south of Salt Lake City, Sandy was a area for early settlement; the area was first used by nomadic bands of Paiute and Bannock Indians who roamed along the base of the mountains as they travelled from their winter home at Utah Lake to their summer fishing grounds at Bear Lake.
Permanent settlers first moved into Sandy during the 1860s and 1870s because of the availability of land in the less crowded southern end of the Salt Lake Valley. The original plat was one square mile, situated on an alluvial terrace running north and south along the eastern edge of the Jordan River drainage system and paralleling the mountain range; the origin of its name has not been established with any certainty. Most believed is that Brigham Young named Sandy for its thirsty soil, but there is no historical evidence for this. Another theory is that the name came from a legendary and colorful Scotsman, Alexander "Sandy" Kinghorn, the engineer who ran the first train line to this end of the Salt Lake Valley. Though this seems bolstered by the original name, historians consider it unlikely in view of the short period between the start of the train service and the first instances of the name. In 1863, there were only four homes between Union and Dunyon: the Thayne homestead at 6600 South and 800 East, one in Crescent, one at Dunyon, a fourth outside present-day Sandy boundaries altogether.
Within a few years, Thomas Allsop, a Yorkshire farmer who had immigrated to Utah in 1853, owned half of present-day Sandy from County Road to Fourth East along Alta Road to Lindell Parkway. LeGrand Young owned the land between State Street. Farmers willing to try their hand at the thirsty soil that inspired Sandy's name took up land along State Street, which stretched from downtown Salt Lake City to Point of the Mountain, but it was mining. When silver mining began in Little Cottonwood Canyon, entrepreneurs recognized Sandy's value as a supply station. Three major smelters were located in Sandy, they were the Flagstaff, the Mingo, the Saturn. These made Sandy the territory's most significant smelting center for a number of years; the railroad was significant in determining the course of Sandy's history. Built in 1873, the railroad connected Sandy to Salt Lake City and facilitated the transportation of ore and other products both in and out of the area. A streetcar line in 1907 facilitated the transportation of locals to jobs in Salt Lake City.
When the mines failed in the 1890s, Sandy faltered underwent a significant economic transformation into an agricultural community. The fact that Sandy did not disappear, like so many other mining towns that dwindled with their mother lodes, was due to its location and the spirit of its inhabitants. Sandy was incorporated in 1893 as part of an effort to combat what Mormon inhabitants considered "unsavory" elements in the town. Due to its mine-based beginnings, Sandy was somewhat of a boomtown, unlike the majority of other rural Utah towns. After incorporation, it was as if Sandy had redefined itself. Gone were the large numbers of transient men. By 1900, there was only a handful of saloons and hotels, Sandy began to more resemble other rural Utah towns — a place where everyone knew everyone else. Church, farming and family formed the focus of the inhabitants' world; this pace and way of life continued for more than six decades, interrupted only by wars, the Depression, the changing seasons. No significant jumps in population, economic trends, or social patterns altered the predictable and stable rhythm of life.
In the late 1960s, this rural town changed course with its second boom. It had always been assumed by local leaders and citizens that Sandy would grow outward from its logical and historic center—the nexus of Main and Center streets. However, population growth overwhelmed the physical center as neighborhoods spread out in every direction over the land. During the 1970s, pocket communities took shape, providing the services and shopping traditionally offered by a city. Annexation issues became prominent as Salt Lake County and Sandy vied for control over land and resources. Sandy became a collection of small local communities identified by a youthful, family-oriented population. Although it was perceived as a bedroom community, still is, it has since developed a thriving com
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that has the same chemical substance as the drug, developed and innovated. Generic drugs are allowed for sale after the expiry of the patent of the original drugs; because the active chemical substance is the same, the medical profile of generics is believed to be equivalent in performance. The generic drug has the same active pharmaceutical ingredient as the original, but it may differ in characteristics such as manufacturing process, excipients, color and packaging. Although they may not be associated with a particular company, generic drugs are subject to government regulations in the countries in which of the drug. A generic drug must contain the same active ingredients as the original brandname formulation; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration requires generics to be identical to or within an acceptable bioequivalent range of their brandname counterparts, with respect to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Biopharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, differ biologically from small molecule drugs.
Biosimilars have active pharmaceutical ingredients that are identical to the original product and are regulated under an extended set of rules, but they are not the same as generic drugs as the active ingredients are not the same as those of their reference products. In most cases, generic products become available after the patent protections, afforded to a drug's original developer, expire. Once generic drugs enter the market, competition leads to lower prices for both the original brandname product and its generic equivalents. In most countries, patents give 20 years of protection. However, many countries and regions, such as the European Union and the United States, may grant up to five years of additional protection if manufacturers meet specific goals, such as conducting clinical trials for pediatric patients. Manufacturers, wholesalers and drugstores can all increase prices at various stages of production and distribution. In 2014, according to an analysis by the Generic Pharmaceutical Association, generic drugs accounted for 88% of the 4.3 billion prescriptions filled in the United States."Branded generics" on the other hand are defined by the FDA and NHS as "products that are either novel dosage forms of off-patent products produced by a manufacturer, not the originator of the molecule, or a molecule copy of an off-patent product with a trade name."
Since the company making branded generics can spend little on research and development, it is able to spend on marketing alone, thus earning higher profits and driving costs down. For example, the largest revenues of Ranbaxy, now owned by Sun Pharma, came from branded generics. Generic drug names are constructed using standardized affixes that distinguish drugs between and within classes and suggest their action; when a pharmaceutical company first markets a drug, it is under a patent that, until it expires, the company can use to exclude competitors by suing them for patent infringement. Pharmaceutical companies that develop new drugs only invest in drug candidates with strong patent protection as a strategy to recoup their costs to develop the drug and to make a profit; the average cost to a brand-name company of discovering and obtaining regulatory approval for a new drug, with a new chemical entity, was estimated to be as much as $800 million in 2003 and $2.6 billion in 2014. Drug companies that bring new products have several product line extension strategies they use to extend their exclusivity, some of which are seen as gaming the system and referred to by critics as "evergreening", but at some point there is no patent protection available.
For as long as a drug patent lasts, a brand-name company enjoys a period of market exclusivity, or monopoly, in which the company is able to set the price of the drug at a level that maximizes profit. This profit greatly exceeds the development and production costs of the drug, allowing the company to offset the cost of research and development of other drugs that are not profitable or do not pass clinical trials. Large pharmaceutical companies spend millions of dollars protecting their patents from generic competition. Apart from litigation, they may reformulate a drug or license a subsidiary to sell generics under the original patent. Generics sold under license from the patent holder are known as authorized generics. Generic drugs are sold for lower prices than their branded equivalents and at lower profit margins. One reason for this is that competition increases among producers when a drug is no longer protected by patents. Generic companies incur fewer costs in creating generic drugs—only the cost of manufacturing, without the costs of drug discovery and drug development—and are therefore able to maintain profitability at a lower price.
The prices are low enough for users in less-prosperous countries to afford them. For example, Thailand has imported millions of doses of a generic version of the blood-thinning drug Plavix from India, the leading manufacturer of generic drugs, at a cost of 3 US cents per dose. Generic drug companies may receive the benefit of the previous marketing efforts of the brand-name company, including advertising, presentations by drug representatives, distribution of free samples. Many drugs introduced by generic manufacturers have been on the market for a decade or more and may be well known to patients and providers, although under their branded name. India
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Heber City, Utah
Heber City is a city in northwestern Wasatch County, United States. Heber City was founded by English immigrants who were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the late 1850s, is named after the Mormon apostle Heber C. Kimball, it is the county seat of Wasatch County. The original Heber City town square is located on the west side of Main Street between Center Street and 100 North and houses city offices as well as the historic Wasatch Stake Tabernacle and Heber Amusement Hall; the city was pastoral, focusing on dairy farms and cattle ranching, has since become a bedroom community for Orem, Park City and Salt Lake City. Heber City is governed by Mayor Kelleen Potter along with City Council Members. Within the city limits are Heber Valley, Old Mill, Daniels Canyon and J. R. Smith Elementary Schools, Timpanogos Middle School, Rocky Mountain Middle School, Wasatch High School, Wasatch Alternative High School. An additional school in the Heber Valley is Midway Elementary School.
All of these schools are part of the Wasatch County School District. Utah Valley University maintains a satellite campus just north of Heber City along the US-40 corridor. Heber City supports five LDS stakes, as well as congregations of Southern Baptists, Catholics as part of the Diocese of Salt Lake City, Jehovah's Witnesses. Heber City was first settled in 1859 by James Davis and James Gurr. John W. Witt built the first house in the area; the area was under the direction of Bishop Silas Smith, in Provo. In 1860 Joseph S. Murdock became the bishop over the Latter-day Saints in vicinity. On May 5, 1899, the Wasatch Wave published this on the 40 year anniversary of Heber, "Forty years ago this week, this valley was first settled by a company of enterprising citizens from Provo; this company consisted of John Crook, James Carlile, Jessie Bond, Henry Chatwin, Charles N. Carroll, Thomas Rasband, John Jordan, John Carlile, Wm Giles and Mr. Carpenter, the last five named persons having since died. Forty years ago today, John Crook and Thomas Rasband commenced their first plowing in the beautiful little valley of the Timpanogos.
A wonderful change has taken place of the appearance of the valley since that time. Delightful meadows and fields of waving grain have taken the place of sage brush and willows. Beautiful homes have erected where was heard only the dismal howl of the coyote." Heber City is located at 40°30′24″N 111°24′44″W, at an elevation of 5595 feet. The region in which Heber City is located is known as the Wasatch Back. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles, all of it land. Heber City is in the neighborhood of three large reservoirs, Deer Creek, Strawberry; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Heber City has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; the data in the chart below are from the period 1893 - 2013. Heber City has one of the lowest unemployment rates in Utah. Local developers and business leaders cite that there are not enough jobs in the city itself and wish to improve the city's self-reliance.
Average home prices in the valley doubled from 2002–2008 and the population has grown by 25% in that same time period. Tourism is a year-round industry in the Heber Valley; the winter season features cross-country and downhill skiing, as well as snowboarding and snowmobiling on several trails and the nearby ski resorts of Park City. In the summer and fall, off roading, hunting and other outdoor recreational activities are abundant. Heber is home to the Heber Valley Historic Railroad, known as the Heber Creeper before 1989. Heber City's youth are employed in the surrounding golf courses and specialty shops in Heber City and the surrounding area. Local contractors and farmers are a major source of employment for the youth; the adult population work in Park City, Salt Lake City and Orem. Skiing and Snowboarding is popular among Heber City's youth, many people go to Park City mountain resort, Canyons, or Deer Valley, all of which are in Park City. Farming and ranching is a large force in the economy.
The largest local employer is the Wasatch County School District. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,637 households residing in the city; the population density was 2,113.5 people per square mile. There were 3,637 housing units at an average density of 710.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.7% White, 0.4% African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.4% of the population. There were 3,362 households out of which 50.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.6% were non-families. Of all households 15.9% were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.35 and the average family size was 3.78. The median age was 28.5 years. The median income for a household in the city was $45,394, the median income for a family was $47,481. Males had a median income of $33,816 versus $21,524 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $17,358. About 4.8% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, inclu
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention and treatment of disease, illness and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care, it includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries and individuals influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization, a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be eliminated by deliberate health care interventions; the delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, physiotherapy, dentistry and allied health, along with many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive and rehabilitative care services. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process and may include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care.
Health care can be defined as either private. Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system; such a professional would be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician. Another professional would be a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, health system organization the patient may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services that play a role in the local community, it can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, patients with all types of acute and chronic physical and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
A primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem; the International Classification of Primary Care is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care based on the reason for the patient's visit. Common chronic illnesses treated in primary care may include, for example: hypertension, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders and joint disorders, back problems, disorders of lipid metabolism, upper respiratory tract disease were the most common reasons for accessing a physician.
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care outside of the managed care system through direct primary care, a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or bill for each service in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In context of global population aging, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries; the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy. Secondary care includes acute care: nec
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman