Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Investigative Committee of Russia
The Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation has since January 2011 been the main federal investigating authority in Russia. Its name is abbreviated to Sledkom; the agency replaced the Russian Prosecutor General's Investigative Committee and operates as Russia's anti-corruption agency. It is answerable to the President of Russia and has statutory responsibility for inspecting the police forces, combating police corruption and police misconduct and is responsible for conducting investigations into local authorities and federal governmental bodies. On January 21, 2011, President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree appointing Alexander Bastrykin the acting chair of the Prosecutor General's investigative committee, as Sledkom's chairperson. In 2012 President Medvedev began to discuss the possibility of creating a Federal Anti-Corruption Bureau under Sledkom, as part of the campaign against corruption and to combat corruption in the Russian police; the number of agents in the Investigative Committee is 19,156 employees, from January 1, 2012 need to be 21,156 employees.
The number of the Military Investigators is now 2,034 employees. According to the 2012 Law on Amendments to some Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in connection with improving the structure of Preliminary Investigation, it will expand to 60,000 staff by taking over most of the investigators of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Federal Drug Control Service. On January 21, 2011, President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree appointing Alexander Bastrykin the acting chair of the Prosecutor General's investigative committee, as chairperson of the federal investigation agency. Sorochkin Alexander, Vice-Chairman of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation – Head of the Main Military Investigation Department Nyrkov Yuri Mikhailovich Piskarev Vasily Leonenko Yelena Karnaukhov Boris The structure of the Central Administration of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation includes: Central Investigation Department Office for the investigation of important cases involving crimes against persons and public safety Office for the investigation of important cases involving crimes against the state and the economy Office of methodological and analytical support Department of Information Technology and Document Support Main Military Investigation Department General Directorate of procedural controls Directorate of procedural control of the investigating authorities Directorate of procedural control in the sphere of combating corruption Directorate of procedural control over the investigation of important cases Organizational and Analytical Department Division Document Processing The main organizational and Inspections Department Organizational Accountability Office Information and methodological Directorate Directorate for Internal Security Operational services Directorate Document Processing Division and proofreading General Directorate of Forensic Methodical and forensic Directorate Technical and forensic Directorate Organization of forensic Division Document Processing The main software control of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation Economic and Financial Division Logistics Administration Audit Bureau Department management activities for the North Caucasus and Southern Federal Districts Department of organizational and documentation support Central Investigation Department of the North Caucasus Federal District Office for the investigation of important cases Control and management of forensic Department of interagency cooperation, physical protection Organizational and Analytical Department Division Document Processing Investigation Department of the Central Federal District Investigation Department of the North-West Federal District Investigation Department of the Volga Federal District Investigation Department of the Ural Federal District Investigation Departmentof the Siberian Federal District Investigation Department of the Far East Federal District Investigation Department of the Southern Federal District Personnel department The Legal Department Directorate for the interaction with the media Office of International Legal Cooperation The Office for consideration of applications of citizens and Documentation Assistant Office for the Protection of State Secrets Office of Physical Protection Department of procedural control over the investigation of important cases in the federal districts Russia portal Law enforcement portal Official Homepage The Presidential Decree on the Russian Investigative Committee in Russian Russia: Powerful New Investigative Body Begins Work Medvedev sets up independent investigative committee
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Special Investigations Unit
The Special Investigations Unit is the civilian oversight agency responsible for investigating circumstances involving police that have resulted in a death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault of a civilian in Ontario, Canada. The SIU's goal is to ensure that criminal law is applied appropriately to police conduct, as determined through independent investigations, increasing public confidence in the police services. Complaints involving police conduct that do not result in a serious injury or death must be referred to the appropriate police service or to another oversight agency, such as the Ontario Civilian Police Commission or the Office of the Independent Police Review Director; as a civilian law enforcement agency, the SIU has the power and authority to investigate and charge police officers with criminal offences. The SIU is a unique investigative provincial body, overseeing 23,000 police officers from municipal and provincial services. However, the SIU does not have the authority to investigate First Nations constables, or Federal police officers such as Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers or Canadian Forces Military Police officers.
Ontario is the first province to have such a civilian oversight agency in place, one of the few jurisdictions worldwide with an independent civilian agency. As a result, the SIU has become a model of civilian oversight for other jurisdictions in the light of the international movement towards greater civilian accountability of the police. Civilian oversight of police services has become an important accountability mechanism to police powers; the role of the SIU is not to lay charges against police officers but to investigate and to assure the community that the conduct of the police is subject to independent scrutiny. The SIU strives to maintain community confidence in Ontario’s police services by assuring the public that the actions of the police are subject to independent investigations, they are independent of the police and have an arms-length relationship with the government. This means that although the SIU Director reports to the Attorney General, the decision-making on cases and their day-to-day activities are independent of the government.
Before the SIU, police services investigated themselves or in some instances, another police service was assigned to conduct the investigation. In 1988, the Ontario government established the Task Force on Race Relations and Policing as a result of a fatal shooting by police of two Black men. During the hearings conducted by the Task Force, there was public concern, spearheaded by the Black Action Defence Committee, about the integrity of the process in which police officers investigated other police officers of police shootings where a member of the public had been wounded or killed. There was a lack of public confidence in a system; the Task Force’s report recommended changes in the law on the use of force by the police. As a result, the SIU was formed in 1990 under a new Ontario Police Services Act; the SIU was headquartered in Toronto, but in 2000 it moved to the current location at 5090 Commerce Boulevard, Ontario, L4W 5M4. There are two ways that the SIU becomes notified: by public request.
The police are obliged to notify the SIU to report any incidents that may fall within the SIU’s jurisdiction, set out in section 113 of the Police Services Act. The SIU receives and acts on many requests from members of the media, coroners, medical professionals, people who feel the police have injured them. Once the SIU is notified, an Investigative Supervisor gathers information to determine whether the complaint/incident falls within their mandate. If so, they will begin investigating; the objective of every SIU investigation is to determine whether there is evidence of criminal wrongdoing on the part of the police. Although the circumstances of every case are unique, the approach to most investigations is the same; the investigative process begins by assigning a lead investigator and as many investigators, forensic identification technicians, resources as necessary. Investigations involve: Examining the scene and securing all physical evidence. Once all of the facts are gathered, the Director makes a decision whether there are reasonable grounds to lay a criminal charge against a police officer.
SIU investigators come from both civilian and police backgrounds. In the 2006-07 fiscal year, the majority of the full-time investigators came from civilian backgrounds. All of the Unit’s investigators have extensive experience investigating serious incidents, such as deaths, sexual assault allegations, serious assaults and motor vehicle incidents; the average investigative experience among over 40 investigators and forensic identification technicians is 29 years. SIU investigators now have state-of-the-art audio video rooms, secure evidence and file storage facilities and project rooms. In the beginning, due to a shortage of resources, the SIU relied on the OPP for forensic investigation assist
National Police Corps
The National Police Corps is the national civilian police force of Spain. The CNP is responsible for policing urban areas, whilst countryside policing is the responsibility of the Civil Guard, the Spanish gendarmerie; the CNP operates under the authority of Spain's Ministry of the Interior. They handle criminal investigation, judicial and immigration matters; the powers of the National Police Corps varies according to the autonomous communities, Ertzaintza in the Basque Country, Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia, Policía Foral in Navarre are the primary police agencies while BESCAM in the Madrid region is more of a resources provider. In Andalusia, Asturias and Valencia the National Police units are functionally acting directly under the orders of the autonomous communities to which they are attached; the 1986 organic law unifying the separate uniformed and plainclothes branches of the national police was a major reform that required a considerable period of time to be brought into full effect.
The former plainclothes service, known as the Cuerpo Superior de Policía, but referred to as the "secret police" the Cuerpo General de Policía, consisted of some 9,000 officers. Prior to 1986, it had a supervisory and coordinating role in police operations, conducted domestic surveillance, collected intelligence, investigated major crimes, issued identity documents, carried out liaison with foreign police forces; the uniformed service, the Cuerpo de Policía Armada which became the National Police in 1979, was a separate organization with a complement of about 50,000 officers, including a small number of female recruits who were first accepted for training in 1984. The Director General of the National Police Corps, a senior official of the Ministry of Interior, commanded 13 regional headquarters, 50 provincial offices, about 190 municipal police stations. In the nine largest cities, several district police stations served separate sections of the city; the chief of police of each station was in command of both the uniformed and the plainclothes officers attached to the station.
A centrally controlled Special Operations Group was an elite fighting unit trained to deal with terrorist and hostage situations. The principal weapons used by the uniformed police were 9mm pistols, 9mm submachine guns, CETME and NATO 7.62mm rifles, various forms of riot equipment. Their original uniform consisted of dark brown jackets; the initial training phase for recruits to the National Police Corps was nine months, followed by a year of practical training. Promotions to corporal and sergeant major were based on seniority, additional training, performance. In the Franco era, most police officers were seconded from the army. Under a 1978 law, future police officers were to receive separate training, army officers detailed to the police were to be permanently transferred. By 1986 only 170 army officers remained in the National Police Corps. Under the 1986 organic law, military-type training for police was to be terminated, all candidate officers were to attend the Higher Police School at Ávila, which had served as the three-year training center for the Superior Police Corps.
The ranks of the plainclothes corps—commissioners and inspectors of first and third class—were to be assimilated into the ranking system of the uniformed police—colonel, lieutenant colonel, major and lieutenant. Two lower categories—subinspection and basic—would include all nonofficer uniformed personnel; the newly unified National Police Corps was to be responsible for issuing identity cards and passports, as well as for immigration and deportation controls, extradition, gambling controls and supervision of private security forces. Franco's Policía Armada had once been dreaded as one of the most familiar symbols of the regime's oppressiveness. During the 1980s, the police underwent an internal transformation process, being brought to adopt the new democratic spirit of the times; the police supported the constituted government during the 1981 coup attempt. Led by the new police trade union, the police demonstrated in 1985 against right-wing militants in their ranks and cooperated in efforts to punish misconduct and abuses of civil rights by individual officers.
The current sidearm is the Heckler & Koch USP Compact 9x19mm Duties are regulated by the Organic law 2/1986 of March 13, 1986. The issuing of identity documents - ID cards and passports. To control receipts and outgoings of the foreign people and Spaniards. Immigration law and asylum, extradition and expulsion. Gambling enforcement Drug enforcement Collaboration with Interpol and Europol. Control of private security companies General law enforcement and criminal investigation. Born or naturalized Spanish More than 18 years old. At least 1.65 metres tall, for men, 1.60 metres metres for women Not to have been convicted of fraud or dismissed by the state, autonomous or local governments, or prevented from holding public functions. Hold a driving licence of the class specified by the government. Basic Scale: Have or to be in conditions to obtain the Certificate of Bachillerato or equivalent. Executive Scale: Have a Technical Engineer, Technical Architect, Qualified University student or equivalent or top formation degree.
The applicant can choose between an Executive Scale career. Applicants must pass the following basic tests before starting the academy: Physical test Multiple-choice exam Aptitude test Volunte
A detective is an investigator a member of a law enforcement agency. They collect information to solve crime by talking to witnesses and informants, collecting physical evidence, or searching records in databases; this leads them to enable them to be convicted in court. A detective may work for the police or privately. Informally, in fiction, a detective is a licensed or unlicensed person who solves crimes, including historical crimes, by examining and evaluating clues and personal records in order to uncover the identity and/or whereabouts of the criminal. In some police departments, a detective position is achieved by passing a written test after a person completes the requirements for being a police officer. In many other police systems, detectives are college graduates who join directly from civilian life without first serving as uniformed officers; some people argue that detectives do a different job and therefore require different training, qualifications and abilities than uniformed officers.
The opposing argument is that without previous service as a uniformed patrol officer, a detective cannot have a great enough command of standard police procedures and problems and will find it difficult to work with uniformed colleagues. Some are private persons, may be known as private investigators, or as "The Eye That Never Sleeps" – the motto of the Pinkerton Detective Agency or shortened to "private eyes"; the detective branch in most large police agencies is organized into several squads or departments, each of which specializes in investigation into a particular type of crime or a particular type of undercover operation, which may include: homicide, burglary, auto theft, organized crimes, missing persons, juvenile crime, narcotics, criminal intelligence, aggravated assault/battery, sexual assault, computer crime, domestic violence and arson, among others. In police departments of the United States, a regular detective holds the rank of "Detective"; the rank structure of the officers who supervise them varies by department.
In Commonwealth police forces, detectives have equivalent ranks to uniformed officers but with the word "Detective" prepended to it. In some countries, the practice of a detective is not yet recognized in courts and judicial processes. One of these countries is Portugal, where the proof presented loses all significance when collected by a private detective. Under this circumstance, the practice of this activity is in demand and ruled by a code of conduct. Before the 19th century, there were few municipal police departments, though the first had been created in Paris in 1667; as police activities moved from appointees helped by volunteers to professionals, the idea of dedicated detectives did not arise. The first private detective agency was founded by Eugène François Vidocq in Paris in the early 1800s, who had headed a police agency in addition to being a criminal himself. Police detective activities were pioneered in England by the Bow Street Runners and the Metropolitan Police Service in Greater London.
The first police detective unit in the United States was formed in 1846 in Boston. Detectives have a wide variety of techniques available in conducting investigations. However, the majority of cases are solved by the interrogation of suspects and the interviewing of witnesses, which takes time. Besides interrogations, detectives may rely on a network of informants they have cultivated over the years. Informants have connections with persons a detective would not be able to approach formally. Evidence collection and preservation can help in identifying a potential suspect. Criminal investigation: the investigation of criminal activity is conducted by the police. Criminal activity can relate to road use such as speeding, drunk driving, or to matters such as theft, drug distribution, fraud, etc; when the police have concluded their investigation, a decision on whether to charge somebody with a criminal offence will be made by prosecuting counsel having considered the evidence produced by the police.
In criminal investigations, once a detective has suspects in mind, the next step is to produce evidence that will stand up in a court of law. The best way is to obtain a confession from the suspect. In some countries Detectives may lie and psychologically pressure a suspect into an admission or confession as long as they do this within procedural boundaries and without the threat of violence or promises outside their control; this is not permitted in England and Wales where the interview of suspects and witnesses is governed by the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. Physical forensic evidence in an investigation may provide leads to closing a case. Forensic science is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system; this may be in relation to a civil action. Many major police stations in a city, county, or state, maintain their own forensic laboratories while others contract out the services. Detectives may use private records to provide background information on a subject.
Police detectives can search through files of fingerprint records. Police maintain records of people who have committed some misdemeanors. Detectives may search through records of criminal arrests and convictions, photographs or mug shots, of persons arrested, an
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult