The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. It forms the lateral portion of iliopsoas, providing flexion of the thigh and lower limb at the acetabulofemoral joint; the iliacus arises from the iliac fossa on the interior side of the hip bone, from the region of the anterior inferior iliac spine. It joins the psoas major to form the Iliopsoas as which it proceeds across the iliopubic eminence through the muscular lacuna to its insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur, its fibers are inserted in front of those of the psoas major and extend distally over the lesser trochanter. The iliopsoas is innervated by direct branches from the lumbar plexus. In open-chain exercises, as part of the iliopsoas, the iliacus is important for lifting the femur forward. In closed-chain exercises, the iliopsoas bends the trunk forward and can lift the trunk from a lying posture because the psoas major crosses several vertebral joints and the sacroiliac joint. From its origin in the lesser pelvis the iliacus acts on the hip joint.
Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Thieme. 2006. ISBN 1-58890-419-9. PTCentral Anatomy figure: 40:07-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall." Pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The uterine artery is an artery that supplies blood to the uterus in females. The uterine artery arises from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, it travels to the uterus, crossing the ureter anteriorly, to the uterus by traveling in the cardinal ligament. It travels through the parametrium of the inferior broad ligament of the uterus, it anastomoses the ovarian artery. The uterine artery is the major blood supply to the uterus and enlarges during pregnancy. Round ligament of the uterus ovary uterus vagina uterine tube Uterine artery embolization Uterine leiomyomata Anatomy photo:43:13-0204 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: Branches of Internal Iliac Artery" pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs or the skeleton embedded in it. The pelvic region of the trunk includes the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, below the pelvic cavity, the perineum, below the pelvic floor; the pelvic skeleton is formed in the area of the back, by the sacrum and the coccyx and anteriorly and to the left and right sides, by a pair of hip bones. The two hip bones connect the spine with the lower limbs, they are attached to the sacrum posteriorly, connected to each other anteriorly, joined with the two femurs at the hip joints. The gap enclosed by the bony pelvis, called the pelvic cavity, is the section of the body underneath the abdomen and consists of the reproductive organs and the rectum, while the pelvic floor at the base of the cavity assists in supporting the organs of the abdomen. In mammals, the bony pelvis has a gap in the middle larger in females than in males, their young pass through this gap.
The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the thighs. It includes several structures: the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, the perineum; the bony pelvis is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk. It is subdivided into the pelvic spine; the pelvic girdle is composed of the appendicular hip bones oriented in a ring, connects the pelvic region of the spine to the lower limbs. The pelvic spine consists of the coccyx; the pelvic cavity defined as a small part of the space enclosed by the bony pelvis, delimited by the pelvic brim above and the pelvic floor below. Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by the triradiate cartilage. During puberty, they fuse together to form a single bone; the pelvic cavity is a body cavity, bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which contains reproductive organs and the rectum. A distinction is made between the lesser or true pelvis inferior to the terminal line, the greater or false pelvis above it.
The pelvic inlet or superior pelvic aperture, which leads into the lesser pelvis, is bordered by the promontory, the arcuate line of ilium, the iliopubic eminence, the pecten of the pubis, the upper part of the pubic symphysis. The pelvic outlet or inferior pelvic aperture is the region between the subpubic angle or pubic arch, the ischial tuberosities and the coccyx. Ligaments: obturator membrane, inguinal ligament Alternatively, the pelvis is divided into three planes: the inlet and outlet; the pelvic floor has two inherently conflicting functions: One is to close the pelvic and abdominal cavities and bear the load of the visceral organs. To achieve both these tasks, the pelvic floor is composed of several overlapping sheets of muscles and connective tissues; the pelvic diaphragm is composed of the coccygeus muscle. These arise between the symphysis and the ischial spine and converge on the coccyx and the anococcygeal ligament which spans between the tip of the coccyx and the anal hiatus; this leaves a slit for the urogenital openings.
Because of the width of the genital aperture, wider in females, a second closing mechanism is required. The urogenital diaphragm consists of the deep transverse perineal which arises from the inferior ischial and pubic rami and extends to the urogential hiatus; the urogenital diaphragm is reinforced posteriorly by the superficial transverse perineal. The external anal and urethral sphincters close the urethra; the former is surrounded by the bulbospongiosus which narrows the vaginal introitus in females and surrounds the corpus spongiosum in males. Ischiocavernosus clitoridis. Modern humans are to a large extent characterized by large brains; because the pelvis is vital to both locomotion and childbirth, natural selection has been confronted by two conflicting demands: a wide birth canal and locomotion efficiency, a conflict referred to as the "obstetrical dilemma". The female pelvis, or gynecoid pelvis, has evolved to its maximum width for childbirth—a wider pelvis would make women unable to walk.
In contrast, human male pelvises are not constrained by the need to give birth and therefore are more optimized for bipedal locomotion. The principal differences between male and female true and false pelvis include: The female pelvis is larger and broader than the male pelvis, taller and more compact; the female inlet is oval in shape, while the male sacral promontory projects further. The sides of the male pelvis converge from the inlet to the outlet, whereas the sides of the female pelvis are wider apart; the angle between
External iliac artery
The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis. They proceed inferior along the medial border of the psoas major muscles, they exit the pelvic girdle posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament about one third laterally from the insertion point of the inguinal ligament on the pubic tubercle at which point they are referred to as the femoral arteries. The external iliac artery is the artery used to attach the renal artery to the recipient of a kidney transplant; the external iliac artery arises from the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. It travels inferiorly and laterally, making its way to the lower limb: The abdominal aorta divides to form the "common iliac arteries" in the lower abdomen, these vessels supply blood to the pelvic organs, gluteal region, legs; each common iliac artery descends a short distance and divides into an internal and an external branch. The external iliac artery provides the main blood supply to the legs.
It passes down along the brim of the pelvis and gives off two large branches - the "inferior epigastric artery" and a "deep circumflex artery." These vessels supply blood to the muscles and skin in the lower abdominal wall. The external iliac artery passes beneath the inguinal ligament in the lower part of the abdomen and becomes the femoral artery. Internal iliac artery Common iliac artery Gray's s157 - "The arteries of the lower extremity" Gray's s173 - "The veins of the lower extremity and pelvis" Anatomy photo:43:12-0104 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: The External and Internal Iliac Vessels" Anatomy figure: 43:07-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Sagittal view of the internal iliac artery and its branches in the female pelvis. " Anatomy image:8970 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Hypogastric artery - thefreedictionary.com
Organs are groups of tissues with similar functions. Plant and animal life relies on many organs. Organs are composed of main tissue, "sporadic" tissues, stroma; the main tissue is that, unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally-related organs cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in most multicellular organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria, the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle. In plants there are three main organs. A hollow organ is an internal organ that forms a hollow tube, or pouch such as the stomach, intestine, or bladder. In the study of anatomy, the term viscus is used to refer to an internal organ, viscera is the plural form. 79 organs have been identified in the human body. In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between complete organs.
A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues; the study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant morphology. Classical tools for studying tissues include the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and sectioned, the histological stain, the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades, developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis. Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function form an organ system called a biological system or body system.
The functions of organ systems share significant overlap. For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via the hypothalamus. For this reason, the two systems are studied as the neuroendocrine system; the same is true for the musculoskeletal system because of the relationship between the muscular and skeletal systems. Common organ system designations in plants includes the differentiation of root. All parts of the plant above ground, including the functionally distinct leaf and flower organs, may be classified together as the shoot organ system. Animals such as humans have a variety of organ systems; these specific systems are widely studied in human anatomy. Cardiovascular system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart and blood vessels. Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, stomach, gallbladder, intestines, colon and anus. Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid and adrenals, i.e. adrenal glands.
Excretory system: kidneys, ureters and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine. Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, adenoids and spleen. Integumentary system: skin and nails of mammals. Scales of fish and birds, feathers of birds. Muscular system: movement with muscles. Nervous system: collecting and processing information with brain, spinal cord and nerves. Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, vulva, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles and penis. Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, trachea, bronchi and diaphragm. Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage and tendons; the study of plant organs is referred to as plant morphology, rather than anatomy – as in animal systems.
Organs of plants can be divided into reproductive. Vegetative plant organs include roots and leaves; the reproductive organs are variable. In flowering plants, they are represented by the flower and fruit. In conifers, the organ that bears the reproductive structures is called a cone. In other divisions of plants, the reproductive organs are called strobili, in Lycopodiophyta, or gametophores in mosses; the vegetative organs are essential for maintaining the life of a plant. While there can be 11 organ systems in animals, there are far fewer in plants, where some perform the vital functions, such as photosynthesis, while the reproductive organs are essential in reproduction. However, if there is asexual vegetative reproduction, the vegetative organs are those that create the new generation of plants. Many societies have a system for organ donation, in which a living or deceased donor's organ is transplanted into a person with a failing organ; the transplantation of larger solid organs requires immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection or graft-versus-host disease.
There is considerable interest throughout the world in creating laboratory-grown or artificial organs. The English word "organ" dates back in reference to any musical instrument. By the late 14th
The iliolumbar artery is the first branch of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. The iliolumbar artery turns upward behind the obturator nerve and the external iliac artery and vein, to the medial border of the psoas major, behind which it divides into: Lumbar branch of iliolumbar artery Iliac branch of iliolumbar artery 1. Last lumbar→iliolumbar 2. Lateral sacral↔lateral sacral 3. Middle sacral→lateral sacral 4. Superior hemorrhoidal→middle hemorrhoidal 5. Medial femoral circumflex→inferior gluteal 6. Medial femoral circumflex↔obturator 7. Lateral femoral circumflex→superior gluteal 8. Deep iliac circumflex→superior gluteal 9. Deep iliac circumflex→external iliac 10. Last lumbar→superior gluteal 11. Last lumbar→deep iliac circumflex 12. Iliolumbar→deep iliac circumflex; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 621 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:44:10-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Radiology image: Pelvis:15PelArt from Radiology Atlas at SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy figure: 43:07-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Illustration at mrcog-wiseowl.com
Inferior vesical artery
The inferior vesical artery or inferior vesicle artery is an artery in the pelvis that supplies the lower part of the bladder. The inferior vesical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, it arises in common with the middle rectal artery, is distributed to the fundus of the bladder. In males, it supplies the prostate and the seminal vesicles; the branches to the prostate communicate with the corresponding vessels of the opposite side. Some texts consider it to be found only in males, cite the vaginal artery as the homologous structure in females. Other texts consider it to be present in both females. In these contexts, the inferior vesical artery in females is a small branch of a vaginal artery. Superior vesical artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 615 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman