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Internalism and externalism

Internalism and externalism are two opposing ways of explaining various subjects in several areas of philosophy. These include human motivation, justification and truth; the distinction arises in many areas of debate with distinct meanings. Internalism is the thesis that no fact about the world can provide reasons for action independently of desires and beliefs. Externalism is the thesis. In contemporary moral philosophy, motivational internalism is the view that moral convictions are intrinsically motivating; that is, the motivational internalist believes that there is an internal, necessary connection between one's conviction that X ought to be done and one's motivation to do X. Conversely, the motivational externalist claims that there is no necessary internal connection between moral convictions and moral motives; that is, there is no necessary connection between the conviction that X is wrong and the motivational drive not to do X.. These views in moral psychology have various implications.

In particular, if motivational internalism is true an amoralist is unintelligible. An amoralist is not someone, immoral, rather it is someone who knows what the moral things to do are, yet is not motivated to do them; such an agent is unintelligible to the motivational internalist, because moral judgments about the right thing to do have built into them corresponding motivations to do those things that are judged by the agent to be the moral things to do. On the other hand, an amoralist is intelligible to the motivational externalist, because the motivational externalist thinks that moral judgments about the right thing to do not necessitate some motivation to do those things that are judged to be the right thing to do. There is a distinction in ethics and action theory made popular by Bernard Williams, concerning internal and external reasons for action. An internal reason is something that one has in light of one's own "subjective motivational set"—one's own commitments, goals, etc. On the other hand, an external reason is something that one has independent of one's subjective motivational set.

For example, suppose that Sally is going to drink a glass of poison, because she wants to commit suicide and believes that she can do so by drinking the poison. Sally has an internal reason to drink the poison. However, one might say that she has an external reason not to drink the poison because though she wants to die, one ought not kill oneself no matter what—regardless of whether one wants to die; some philosophers embrace the existence of both kinds of reason, while others deny the existence of one or the other. For example, Bernard Williams argues that there are only internal reasons for action; such a view is called internalism about reasons. Externalism about reasons is the denial of reasons internalism, it is the view. Consider the following situation. Suppose that it's against the moral law to steal from the poor, Sasha knows this. However, Sasha doesn't desire to follow the moral law, there is a poor person next to him. Is it intelligible to say that Sasha has a reason to follow the moral law right now though he doesn't care to do so?

The reasons externalist answers in the affirmative, since he believes that one can have reasons for action if one does not have the relevant desire. Conversely, the reasons internalist answers the question in the negative; the reasons internalist claims. The reasons internalist claims the following: the moral facts are a reason for Sasha's action not to steal from the poor person next to him only if he wants to follow the moral law. In short, the reasoning behind reasons internalism, according to Williams, is that reasons for action must be able to explain one's action. Speaking, internalist conceptions of epistemic justification require that one's justification for a belief be internal to the believer in some way. Two main varieties of epistemic internalism about justification are access internalism and ontological internalism. Access internalists require that a believer must have internal access to the justifier of her belief p in order to be justified in believing p. For the access internalist, justification amounts to something like the believer being aware of certain facts that make her belief in p rational, or her being able to give reasons for her belief in p.

At minimum, access internalism requires that the believer have some kind of reflective access or awareness to whatever justifies her be

The Duchess (horse)

The Duchess was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare best known for winning the classic St Leger Stakes in 1816. In a racing career which lasted from March 1815 until October 1819 she competed in thirty-three races and won nineteen times, she was still unnamed when winning three races as a two-year-old in 1815, when she was one of the leading juveniles in the north of England. In the following year she was named Duchess of Leven, shortened to The Duchess when she was sold to Sir Bellingham Graham, she won seven of her nine races as a three-year-old, including the Gold Cup at Pontefract and the St Leger at Doncaster. The Duchess remained in training for a further three seasons, winning five times in 1817, twice in 1818 and twice in 1819, beating many leading horses of the time including Blacklock, Doctor Syntax and Filho da Puta. After her retirement from racing, The Duchess had some success as a broodmare; the Duchess was a bay mare bred by Mr Ellerker and was the fifth of eight foals produced by Ellerker's mare Miss Nancy.

The Duchess was the only classic winner sired by a son of Sir Peter Teazle. Cardinal York was based at Mr T Kirby's stable at York, where he was standing at a fee of seven guineas in 1816; until 1913, there was no requirement for British racehorses to have official names, the horse who became known as The Duchess competed in 1811 as Mr. W. Wilson's b. f. by Cardinal York, dam by Beningbrough. Mr Wilson's filly made her first appearance at Catterick Bridge Racecourse on 30 March 1815 when she finished third in the one mile Yearling Stakes: it was to be her only defeat of the season; the filly recorded her first win at York Racecourse on 31 May, when she won a sweepstakes from a single opponent. At the next York meeting in August she won another sweepstakes at odds of 2/1 before ending her season at Doncaster Racecourse in September. On the day following Filho da Puta's victory in the St Leger, Wilson's filly defeated three opponents in a sweepstakes over the Two-Year-Old course. Before the start of the 1816 season, Wilson's filly was named Duchess of Leven.

On 18 April at Catterick Bridge Duchess of Leven made her first appearance as a three-year-old when she defeated Windlass to win the Filly Stakes over one and a half miles. At York in May Duchess of Leven was matched against colts for the first time in the York Spring St Leger Stakes; the success of the St Leger at Doncaster had led other major courses, including York and Newmarket to use the name for their own long distance races for three-year-olds. The filly finished third in the race behind the Duke of Leeds' colt Rasping. On the following afternoon, Duchess of Leven began a six race winning sequence when she beat Woodpecker Lass, five other fillies in a sweepstakes over one and a half miles. In June, the filly appeared at Newcastle Racecourse in Northumberland where she defeated Lord Strathmore's filly over one mile. After a two-month break, Duchess of Leven returned to York in August where she won a sweepstakes over one and three quarter miles from Mr Petre's bay filly. On 11 September, Wilson's filly was matched against older horses in the Gold Cup at Pontefract Racecourse.

Racing over a distance of four miles, she won from the four-year-old gelding Everlasting, with the favourite Shepherd in third place. Following her race at Pontefract, Duchess of Leven was bought by Sir Bellingham Graham of Norton Conyers, a noted Master of Foxhounds, renamed The Duchess. On 23 September, The Duchess was one of a field of ten colts and three fillies to contest the forty-first running of the St Leger at Doncaster, she was the fourth choice in the betting at odds of 12/1 behind the filly Maritornes and the colts Rasping and Lucifer. Ridden by Ben Smith, she won the classic from Richard Watt's colt Captain Candid, with Rasping in third. Three days running over the St Leger course and distance, The Duchess won a sweepstakes for fillies, beating Wathcote Lass "in a canter"; the Duchess ended her season at Richmond in October. Racing on soft ground she finished second, beaten a head by Leopold in the four mile Richmond Gold Cup, with the favourite Filho da Puta in third; the report of the race in the Sporting Magazine claimed that the filly should have won comfortably, but her inexperienced rider, believing he had won the race by overcoming the challenge of Filho da Puta, eased her down towards the finish and was caught in the last strides.

She ended the season with earnings of 1,820 guineas. The Duchess did not race as a four-year-old until July, when she started favourite for the Gold Cup at Preston and finished third behind the six-year-old Doctor Syntax. On her next appearance in August she finished second to Maritornes in a subscription race at York, with Captain Candid in third. On 10 September, The Duchess returned to Pontefract and won the Gold Cup for the second time, beating Mr Lambton's Silenus. Two weeks The Duchess ran at the St Leger meeting at Doncaster, where she had four engagements. On 22 September, the day on which Ebor won the St Leger, The Duchess won a prize of 50 guineas without having to race, when Richard Watt's colt Cacambo failed to appear for a scheduled match race. Two days The Duchess again won without having to gallop when she was allowed to walk over for a sweepstakes over the St Leger course; the same day, she contested the Doncaster Stakes, a weight-for-age race over four miles. The Duchess won Captain Candid.

On the following day, The Duchess was pitted against the leading three-year-old colt Blacklock in the Doncaster Club Stakes over two miles. She conceded fifteen pounds to the colt and won at odds of 4/7; the Duc

MV Nottingham (1941)

MV Nottingham was a passenger and cargo vessel operated by the New Zealand Shipping Company in 1941. She was spotted by the German submarine U-74 on 7 November 1941. Nottingham tried to ram the U-boat but the attack was unsuccessful and the ship was torpedoed and sunkIt was her first voyage from Glasgow to New York. There were no survivors, she was carrying a cargo of Scotch Whisky. The persons lost are commemorated on the Tower Hill Memorial, panel 74. Lionel Bain, Second Engineer Officer, Age 38. Son of Alexander and Marie Bain, of Huntly, Aberdeenshire. Frederick George Barber, Age 25. Son of Samuel John and Susan A. Barber, of Plaistow, Essex. Donald James Bolton, Able Seaman, Age 20. James Montague Bullock, Third Engineer Officer, Age 53. Harry Kingsley Cockerill, Chief Officer, Age 37. Son of Henry Robert and Ethel M. Cockerill. S. A. Bernard Conlin, Age 32. Arthur Algernon Cooper, Age 46. Son of Algernon and Florence Emily Vaughan Cooper. Charles Crawford, Second Refrigerator Engineer, Age 20. Son of Frederick J. A. and Ethel Crawford, of St.

Just in Penwith, Cornwall. Arthur Edward Cross, Age 48. Son of George Henry and Annie Elizabeth Cross. Jeffrey Hewison Dance, First Radio Officer, Age 26. Arthur Ernest Day, Age 20. Son of Mrs. M. Day, of Dagenham, Essex. Douglas Charles Fake, Able Seaman, Age 21. Son of Albert Charles and Amy Cecelia Fake. Ernest Fallone, Fifth Engineer Officer, Age 30. Douglas Ferguson, Chief Engineer Officer, Age 52. Son of George and Margaret Ferguson. Joseph Fletcher, Second Radio Officer, Age 24. Son of Joseph and Margaret Fletcher, of Liverpool. Frank Henry George Fowler, Age 23. Son of Edwin Charles Daniel and Gertrude Beatrice Fowler. Philip Galbraith, Chief Refrigerator Engineer, Age 39. Hubert Alfred Green, Assistant Steward, Age 30. Son of Alfred and Mary A. Green, of Green Street Green, Kent. Harold James Green, Deck Boy, Age 17. Son of James and Winnifred Irene Rose Green, of East Ham, Essex. William Gregory, Age 29. James Michael Hanlon, Third Officer, Age 26. Son of James and Florence Emily Hanlon, of Sutton, Surrey Thomas Frederick Hardy, Ordinary Seaman, Age 21.

William Arthur Hatton, Ordinary Seaman, Age 18. Son of Charles and Emily Johanna Hatton, of Forest Gate, Essex. Herbert James Haydon, Able Seaman, Age 35. Frederick Nolan Heath, Able Seaman, Age 25. Son of Charles Henry and Florence Amy Mary Heath. Henry W Hosford, Age 36. Son of Eliza Hosford, of Stratford, Essex. Wilfred Edward Jones, Assistant Steward, Age 21. Harold William Kimber, Able Seaman, Age 21. Son of Violet Kimber, of Thornton Heath, Surrey. William Letchford, Age 24. Son of William George and Lillian Letchford. Edward John Long, Age 26. Son of William John and Mary Long, of Plaistow, Essex. George Lothian, Galley Boy, Age 17. Son of Thomas and Mary J. Lothian. Thomas Malcolm, Fourth Engineer Officer, Age 31. William Charles Metherell, Age 50. Frank Leslie Mitchell, Ordinary Seaman, Age 18. Son of Harold Frederick and Lilian Alice Mitchell, of Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. William Morgan, Age 37. Husband of Elizabeth Morgan, of Lisburn, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. William Bruce McKenzie, First Electrician, Age 27.

Son of William and Christina McKenzie, of Edinburgh. Maurice Brian O'Keeffe, Assistant Steward, Age 18. Son of Maurice and Lillian O'Keeffe, of Canning Town, Essex. Leslie Edward Parrish, Age 32. Son of Edith Eleanor Parrish, of Manor Park, Essex. James Ian Paterson, Second Officer, Age 24. Son of Capt. James Paterson, M. C. Scots Guards, of Jessie Paterson, of Edinburgh William Mackey Pendleton, Engineer Officer, Age 21. Son of William and Lilian Eleanor Pendleton, of Liverpool. Laurence George Pieretti, Age 25. Francis Cecil Pretty OBE, DSC, Age 51. Son of Edward and Helen Jane Pretty. Kim Woolmer Blake Prior, Fourth Officer, Age 23. Son of Dudley Blake Prior and Gill Blake Prior. Frederick Riches, Ordinary Seaman, Age 32. Son of Frederick and Rosina Riches. Robert Lewis Rowlands, Able Seaman, Age 22. Son of Deck Hand Robert Rowlands, Naval Auxiliary Personnel, died on active service 22 July 1940, Ellen Rowlands, of Holyhead, Anglesey. Charles John Savill, Ordinary Seaman, Age 19. Henry William Shaltz, Assistant Cook, Age 20.

Son of Alice Ada Shaltz, of Plaistow, Essex. George Simpson, Steward's Boy, Age 16. Son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Simpson, of Dumfries. John Rose Thornton Sinclair, Engineer Officer, Age 27. Son of Robert and Frances Mary Sinclair, of Christchurch, New Zealand. William Charles Smith, Age 26. Husband of Ann Smith, of Forest Gate, Essex. Edward Somers, Able Seaman, Age 35. Son of Patrick and Margaret Somers. Henry Joseph Lawrence Stevens, Age 25. Son of Henry Richard Sansora Stevens and Mary Ann May Stevens, of West Cowes, Isle of Wight. Stanley William Todd, Third Radio Officer, Age 21. Son of James Stanley Todd and Rose Pauline Todd, of Southwater, Sussex. Alexander Frank Tree, Age 39. Duncan Campbell Tyre, Junior Engineer Officer, Age 27. Son of James and Mary Campbell Tyre. Harry Edward Williams, Chief Cook, Age 30. Son of James and Ellen Williams.

Shaolin King of Martial Arts

Shaolin King of Martial Arts is a 2002 Chinese wuxia television series directed by Chang Hsin-yen, Liu Jiacheng and Wu Chia-tai. It starred Wu Jing, Chunyu Shanshan, Gao Haiyan, Huang Yi, Yu Chenghui, Ji Chunhua, Yu Hai and Xu Xiangdong in the leading roles; the story is set in the late Ming dynasty, when corrupt officials dominate the government and the aggressive wokou raid China's coastal regions. General Qi Jiguang and his cousin, Qi Jiyu, organise a military force called the'Qi Family Army' to resist the invaders, they score several victories over the enemy. Oshima Masao, the wokou chief, is not content with defeat, so he bribes the eunuch Tong Dabao, a close aide of the incompetent emperor, to spread slanderous rumours about the Qi Family Army in the hope that the emperor will order the army to be disbanded. Qi Jiyu, assisted by his son Qi Shaozheng, manages to find evidence of Tong's treachery, intends to report Tong to the emperor. However, Tong finds out, destroys the evidence, has Qi Jiyu arrested and imprisoned.

Tong attempts to induce Qi Jiyu into accusing Qi Jiguang of treason by tempting him with promises of riches and fame but Qi Jiyu refuses. Qi Jiyu secretly tells Qi Shaozheng to warn the Qi Family Army about Tong's plot. Tong Dabao is furious, he orders the execution of Qi Jiyu and his clan, places a huge bounty on Qi Shaozheng's head. Qi Shaozheng flees to Shaolin Monastery for refuge and is accepted by Abbot Zhiyi as a student and is renamed "Tanzhi"; when Tong Dabao discovers that Qi Shaozheng has survived, he sends the Jinyiwei to surround Shaolin and threatens to destroy the monastery if the monks do not hand over Qi. The monks refuse to capitulate. Zhiyi dies in the blaze. Before his death, Zhiyi instructed a monk called Sanjiao to protect Tanzhi and bring the latter to the Southern Shaolin Monastery. Tanzhi and Sanjiao encounter numerous dangers along the way. While in the wilderness, Tanzhi is injured but is saved by a girl called Xiaoni, is forced by her grandfather to marry her; the old man is a former soldier in the Qi Family Army.

When he learns of Tanzhi's true identity, he decides to allow the boy to proceed with his journey, much to his granddaughter's dismay. Tanzhi and Sanjiao join a performance troupe by accident, where Tanzhi develops feelings for the maidens Baihe and Honglian, they leave after driving away Tong Dabao's henchmen and arrive in Southern Shaolin, where Tanzhi becomes a student of Abbot Yuanzhao. In Southern Shaolin, Tanzhi befriends several seniors and meets a group of young nuns living near the monastery, he gets involved in another romantic relationship with a Japanese girl who disguised herself as a man so that she can infiltrate Shaolin and learn martial arts. Tanzhi trains hard in martial arts to fulfil his quest for justice. With strong backing and support from his friends and allies, he rebuilds the Qi Family Army and succeeds in defeating and driving away the wokou, he uses the powerful skills he mastered to avenge his family. Wu Jing as Tanzhi / Qi Shaozheng Yaqi as Xiaoni Chunyu Shanshan as Sanjiao Gao Haiyan as Fajing Huang Yi as Ounü Yu Chenghui as Tong Dabao Ji Chunhua as Tanfei Yu Hai as Shantong Xu Xiangdong as Yuanzhao Xu Huanshan as Old Man Wang Yu as Zhiyi Tan Qiao as Fayan Xiao Yuewen as Faling Sui Shuyang as Faneng Chen Jianfeng as Faming Yang Fan as Oshima Masao Wu Yijiang as Dahan Tian Haiyan as Baihe Kexin as Honglian Jin Demao as Yu Fei Ding Xiaowa as Lihua Shu Yan as A'xiang Lin Jie as Meihua Zhao Lianfen as Juhua Shi Xiaohu as Wufan Hao Yuan as Ruolan Liu Fang as A'mu Zhang Hao as Gui Silang Lü Qiang as Badachui Huang Haibing as Emperor Shaolin King of Martial Arts on

Arcadians (video game)

Arcadians is a fixed shooter for the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron programmed by Nick Pelling and released by Acornsoft. It is similar to the Namco arcade game Galaxian; the player controls a ship at the bottom of the screen, able to shoot upwards but only so that one shot is on screen at any given time. Above him a pack of aliens move from left to right back. From time to time an alien or group of aliens will attempt to dive bomb the player. Once all aliens have been shot the player advances a stage and faces a more difficult variation on the same challenge. Subsequently, a license to publish this title was granted to Superior Software, it was re-released on their compilation The Acornsoft Hits Volume 2

1885 Newfoundland general election

The 1885 Newfoundland general election was held on 31 October 1885 to elect members of the 15th General Assembly of Newfoundland in the Newfoundland Colony. The Reform Party had been created by Robert Thorburn on a platform of "Protestant Rights" after supporters of the Orange Order abandoned the Whiteway government after sectarian riots in 1885 against the government's'denominational compromise'. Whiteway's Conservative Party was destroyed as a result and Whiteway founded a new Liberal Party. Thorburn's new party swept to power but soon turned away from its sectarian agenda by inviting Catholic Liberals into the Cabinet. Bay de Verde Stephen R. March Reform A. J. W. McNeilly Reform Bonavista Bay James L. Noonan Reform Alfred B. Morine elected in 1886 Abraham Kean Reform Frederick White Reform Burgeo-LaPoile Alexander M. Mackay Reform Burin John E. Peters Reform Henry LeMessurier Reform Carbonear Alfred Penney Liberal Ferryland Daniel Joseph Greene Liberal George Shea Liberal Fortune Bay Robert Bond Independent Harbour Grace James S.

Winter Reform Charles Dawe Reform Joseph Godden Reform Harbour Main John Veitch Liberal Richard MacDonnell Liberal Placentia and St. Mary's James McGrath Liberal W. J. S. Donnelly Liberal George Emerson Liberal Port de Grave George A. Hutchings Reform St. Barbe Albert Bradshaw Reform St. George's Michael H. Carty Liberal St. John's East Robert J. Kent Liberal Thomas J. Murphy Liberal, elected in 1886 Ambrose Shea Liberal Robert J. Parsons Liberal, elected in 1887 Michael J. O'Mara Liberal St. John's West Edward Morris Liberal Patrick J. Scott Liberal James J. Callanan Liberal Trinity Bay Robert Thorburn Reform Walter B. Grieve Reform Twillingate-Fogo Augustus F. Goodridge Reform Smith McKay Reform Michael T. Knight Reform Smallwood, Joseph R. Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador. v. 1. ISBN 0-920508-14-6