A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig. A sloop has only one head-sail; the most common rig of modern sailboats is the Bermuda-rigged sloop. A modern sloop carries a mainsail on a boom aft of the mast, with a single loose-footed head-sail forward of the mast. Sloops are either fractional-rigged. On a masthead-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches at the top of the mast. On a fractional-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches to the mast at a point below the top 3/4 of the way to top, or 7/8 or some other fraction. Compared to a masthead-rigged sloop, the mast of a fractional-rigged sloop may be placed farther forward. After the cat rig which has only a single sail, the sloop rig is one of the simpler sailing rig configurations. A sloop has two sails, a mainsail and a headsail, while the cutter has a mainsail and two or more headsails. Next in complexity are the ketch, the yawl and the schooner, each of which has two masts and a minimum of three sails. A sloop has a simple system of mast rigging -- a backstay and shrouds.
By having only two sails, the individual sails of a sloop are larger than those of an equivalent cutter, yawl or ketch. Until the advent of lightweight sailcloth and modern sail-handling systems, the larger sails of a sloop could be a handful. So, until the 1950s, sailboats over 10 metres length overall would use a cutter rig or a two-mast rig. After the advent of modern winches and light sailcloth, the sloop became the dominant sailing rig type for all but the largest sailboats. No rig type is perfect for all conditions. Sloops, with their paucity of spars and control lines, tend to impart less aerodynamic drag. Compared to other rigs, sloops tend to perform well when sailing close hauled to windward and offer a sound overall compromise of abilities on all points of sail. Cutters and yawls are preferred to sloops when venturing far offshore, because it is easier to reef small sails as the wind increases, while still keeping the boat balanced. To maximize the amount of sail carried, the classic sloop may use a bowsprit, a spar that projects forward from the bow.
The foresail may be a jib, which does not overlap the mast more than 10 to 20 percent, or a much larger genoa. The genoa's large overlap behind the mainsail helps to guide the airflow and thereby makes the mainsail more effective. For downwind sailing, the jib or genoa may be replaced by larger curved sails known as spinnakers or gennakers. Nowadays, by far the most common sloop rig, for yachts and dinghies, is the Bermuda rig, the optimal rig for upwind sailing. Originating from the island of Bermuda in the 17th century, the Bermuda rig is simple, yet may be tuned to be maneuverable and fast; the main disadvantage is the large size of the sails on larger vessels. It is less successful sailing downwind, when the addition of a spinnaker becomes necessary for faster progress in all but the strongest winds. However, the spinnaker is an intrinsically unstable sail requiring continuous trimming. An alternative downwind sailplan, more stable but slower, is the "wing on wing". Here, the main is swung wide to lee while the jib is swung wide to windward.
However the "wing on wing" configuration tends to dip the bow, requiring crew to move aft to counterbalance the dip. The wing on wing configuration cannot be heeled over to decrease waterline whereas the spinnaker configuration can be. If not tended the main can go slack to the point of being dangerously close to jibing; the jib will have that same tendency and being to windward, will snap a-lee but with no boom and being forward of the mast will make for a far less dangerous move than that of the main. A slack main when to leeward can be brought back under control by hauling on the mainsheet to bring it back in contact with the wind when on the aft quarter to windward but if the wind comes around onto the aft quarter of what had been to lee, the boat must be brought further a-lee to keep the wind strong on the main. Jamaican sloops had beams that were narrower than ocean-going Bermuda sloops, could attain a speed of around 12 knots, they carried gaff rig. The keel of Jamaican sloops would be between 50–75 feet, but could be built longer.
Jamaican sloops were built near the shore and out of cedar trees, for much the same reasons that Bermudian shipwrights favoured the Bermuda cedar: these were resistant to rot, grew fast and tall, had a taste displeasing to marine borers. Cedar was favoured over oak as the latter would rot in about 10 years, while cedar would last for nigh on 30 years and was lighter than oak. Since piracy was a significant threat in Caribbean waters, merchants sought ships that could outrun pursuers; that same speed and maneuverability made them prized and more targeted by the pirates they were designed to avoid. When the ships needed to be de-fouled from seaweed and barnacles, pirates needed a safe haven on which to car
Varberg is a locality and the seat of Varberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden with 27,602 inhabitants in 2010. Varberg and all of Halland are well known for their "typical west coast" sandy beaches. In Varberg the coast changes from wide sandy beaches to rocky terrain that continues north into the Bohuslän archipelago and as far as the North Cape. Varberg is a charming and popular summer resort and many people from inland cities such as Borås are either moving to Varberg or holidaying there. Varberg is located in a terrain of plains, it is without trees and green areas, in its place are bald rocks and sand. The Swedish authoritative author and bishop Esaias Tegnér described it in 1826 as the least appealing place in Sweden, used in the marketing of Varberg; the sandy beaches are however popular in the summer. Another main factor in Varberg is its natural surroundings; the landscape further inland has rolling hills with lakes and forests in contrast to the flatter coastal areas. Varberg has an oceanic climate that although moderate by Swedish standards, still retains quite large seasonal variation.
Summers are in general cooler than both in Halmstad and Gothenburg, with highs being moderated by the marine airflow. Although this moderation occurs, some summer days can be warm, some winter nights see severe frosts; the highest recorded temperature since 1901 is 33.6°C on July 31, 2018 and the lowest is -25.5°C in January 1942. A fortress called Varberg was erected in the 1280s as part of a chain of military establishments along the coast, in what was Danish territory. In the middle of the 14th century, the old settlement "Getakärr" 1 kilometre north of the fortress took its new name from the fortress; the town was moved 5 km northwards around the year 1400. It was rebuilt near the fortress. In 1645 Halland passed from Denmark to Sweden by the Treaty of Brömsebro for a period of 30 years, it had at that time about 600 inhabitants. The transfer was made permanent by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658; the town was moved again to the location were the city centre is today. The city was devastated by a huge fire in 1863 and was subsequently rebuilt with stone or brick houses.
In 1890 the population figure had passed 4,000 and with industrialization it reached 8,500 in 1930. The local government reform of 1971 made Varberg the seat of the much larger Varberg Municipality, with a current population of close to 56,000 inhabitants. Although several houses were torn down in the 1970s, most of the city center still remains intact. Varberg's fortress is its most notable historical building because of its size as it has no architectural uniformity, it was first built with new parts being built in successions. Near Varberg there is the VLF transmitter Grimeton, an interesting radio-technical facility and classified by UNESCO to be a World Cultural Heritage site, it can be visited during the summer. Bexell Cottage is located in the area; the following sports clubs are located in Varberg: Varbergs BoIS FC Varbergs GIF FK Lilla Träslövs FF Varberg Vipers Varberg is a member city of Eurotowns network Sophie Gustafson, golfer Kamchatka, hard rock band Sven Nylander, 400m hurdler Mathilda Ranch, early Varberg photographer Stefan Selaković, footballer Margareta Svensson, performer, television personality Dafina Zeqiri, singer Niclas Eliasson, footballer Some material from sv:Varberg Cyber City article Varberg from Nordisk familjebok Varberg Municipality - Official site Halland County Museum at Varberg - Official site
A mainsail is a sail rigged on the main mast of a sailing vessel. On a square rigged vessel, it is the largest sail on the main mast. On a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, it is the lowest and largest and the only sail rigged aft of the main mast, is controlled along its foot by a spar known as the boom. A sail rigged in this position without a boom is called a trysail, is used in heavy weather. Traditional fore-and-aft rigs used a four-sided gaff rigged mainsail, sometimes setting a gaff topsail above it; the modern Bermuda rig uses a triangular mainsail as the only sail aft of the mast coordinated with a jib for sailing upwind. A large overlapping jib or genoa is larger than the mainsail. In downwind conditions a spinnaker replaces the jib; some mainsails are "full-batten" mainsails, meaning the batten extends all the way from the mast to the leeach of a sail. A partial batten extends from the mast partway to the leech. Battens enable the mainsail to project farther away from the mast. However, there is some cost associated with the battens themselves, "batten pockets" need to be sewn into the sail, "batten cars" may be needed to allow the sail to be raised and lowered.
A mainsail may be fixed to the boom via slugs, cars, or a bolt-rope, or may be "loose-footed," meaning it is only attached at the tack and clew. Before Nathanael Greene Herreshoff's invention of sail tracks and slides in the 1880s, mainsails were limited in height. Traditional mainsails were held against the mast by hoops; this meant a traditional mainsail could be raised no higher than the first point a rope or wire was required to keep the mast upright. Reefing
A spinnaker is a sail designed for sailing off the wind from a reaching course to a downwind, i.e. with the wind 90–180° off bow. The spinnaker fills with wind and balloons out in front of the boat when it is deployed, called flying, it is constructed of lightweight fabric nylon, is brightly coloured. It may be optimised for a particular range of wind angles, as either a reaching or a running spinnaker, by the shaping of the panels and seams; the spinnaker is called a kite, or a chute because it somewhat resembles a parachute in both construction and appearance. This should not be confused with the spinnaker chute, a hull fitting sometimes used for launching and recovering the spinnaker. A purported etymology has the first boat to carry this sail being a Cowes yacht named Sphinx, from which "Sphinx's Acre" and "Spinnaker". A spinnaker is used for sailing with the direction of the wind. Symmetrical spinnakers have large amounts of camber. Both lift and drag propel the boat forward. Reaching spinnakers have less camber.
A well designed spinnaker will have taut leading edges. Such a sail will have a smooth curve when filled, with no bubbles or depressions caused by inconsistent stretching of the fabric. Any deviations from a smooth curve will cause the airflow over the leeward side of the sail to separate causing a reduction in lift and reduced performance. There are two main categories of spinnakers and asymmetric depending on whether a plane of symmetry exists for that particular sail. Asymmetric spinnakers operate more like a jib, generating lift from the side, rather than the top like a symmetric spinnaker; this makes asymmetrics a better choice on reaching courses than symmetric spinnakers, which excel when running. While a equipped racing boat might have a number of spinnakers, both symmetric and asymmetric, to cover all courses and wind conditions, cruising boats always use an asymmetric, due to the broader application and easier handling afforded by the asymmetric; the symmetric one is the most classic type, running symmetrical alongside the boat controlled by lines known as a sheet and a guy running from the lower two corners of the sail.
The windward line, or guy, is attached to the corner called the tack of the sail, is stabilized by a spinnaker pole. The leeward line is called the sheet, it is used to control the shape of the sail. The spinnaker pole must be moved in each gybe, is quite difficult for beginners to use. However, it can be sailed in all downwind wind directions. Symmetric spinnakers when sailing across the wind develop most of their lift on the forward quarter, where the airflow remains attached; when set for reaching, the leading edges of a symmetric spinnaker should be nearly parallel to the wind, so the flow of air over the leading edge remains attached. When reaching, the sail camber allows only some attached flow over the leeward side of the spinnaker. On running the spinnaker is angled for maximum drag, with the spinnaker pole at right angles to the apparent wind; the symmetric spinnaker requires care when packing, since the three corners must be available on the top of the packing. Asymmetrical spinnaker resembling large jibs and flown from spinnaker poles are not a new idea and date back to at least the 19th Century.
However in the 1980s a new concept appeared. Since the 1960s many faster sailing craft, starting with catamaran classes, had discovered that it is faster to sail downwind on a series of broad reaches with efficient airflow across the sail rather than directly downwind with the sails stalled; this technique had developed to the extent that in bar conversation at the end of one season Andrew Buckland observed that the 18s had sailed all season without pulling the spinnaker pole back from the forestay and that all the systems could be simplified by eliminating the pole and setting the spinnaker from a fixed bowsprit. The concept evolved to a sail with a loose luff much more like a conventional spinnaker than the old jib style asymmetric sails. Julian Bethwaite was the first to rig and sail a boat with one the next season, followed shortly by Andrew Buckland; the first modern offshore sailboats to incorporate a retractable bow sprit and an asymmetric spinnaker was the J/Boats J/105. The concept has spread through the sailing world.
The tack of the sail may be attached at the bow like a genoa but is mounted on a bowsprit a retracting one. If the spinnaker is mounted to a special bowsprit, it is possible to fly the spinnaker and the jib at the same time; the asymmetric has two sheets much like a jib, but is not attached to the forestay along the length of the luff, but only at the corners. Unlike a symmetric spinnaker, the asymmetric does not require a spinnaker pole, since it is fixed to the bow or bowsprit; the asymmetric is easy to gybe since it only requires releasing one sheet and pulling in the other one, passing the sail in front of the forestay. Asymmetrics are less suited to sailing directly downwind than spinnakers, so instead the boat will sail a zig-zag course downwind, gybing at the corners. An asymmetric spinnaker is effective on fast planing dinghies as their speed generates an apparent wind on the bow allowing them to sail more directly downwind, it is particu
Pelle Helmer Petterson is a Swedish sailor and yacht designer. He is the son of Helmer Petterson and Norwegian born Borgny Petterson born Holm, studied design at the leading Pratt Institute in New York from 1955 through 1957, he is best known for designing the Maxi brand of sailing boats, which are still among the most common sailing boats in Swedish waters. He designed Volvo's successful sports car, the P1800, while he was a student of Pietro Frua. Petterson has three children. There is a line of sailing clothing and sports wear bearing the name Petterson, under the Brand Name Pelle P. which are designed by his daughter, Cecilia. His other daughter, Ulrika "Icka", lives in the U. S. and is married to an American yachtsman and professional sailor. He has won Olympic bronze and Olympic silver in the Starboat class, he won World Cup medals in the Soling Class and participated in the America's Cup several times. He won Olympic medals for Starboat racing in 1964 and 1972, he won the World Championship title in the Star class at the 1969 Worlds in San Diego, USA.
He skippered the Swedish America's Cup Challenges in 1977 and 1980. 14 May 2004 he received the Swedish Business Award for Outstanding Achievements of the first grade from the West Swedish Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Amongst previous recipients are Arvid Carlsson Nobel laureate, Ingvar Kamprad founder of Ikea and Pehr G. Gyllenhammar former CEO of Volvo. 19 November 2004 he received a prestigious award from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.8 June 2010 he received from H. M the King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden the King's Medal for outstanding contributions as a yachtsman and boat designer; as of 27 September 2015 Maxi 77 Monark 540 pellepetterson.se
A genoa sail is a type of large jib or staysail that extends past the mast and so overlaps the main sail when viewed from the side, sometimes eliminating it. It was called an "overlapping jib" and a Genoa jib, it is used on twin-masted boats such as yawls and ketches. Its larger surface area increases the speed of the craft in light to moderate winds; the term jib is the generic term for any of an assortment of headsails. The term genoa refers to a type of jib, larger than the 100% foretriangle, the triangular area formed by the point at which the stay intersects the mast, deck or bowsprit, the line where the mast intersects deck at the rail. Colloquially the term is sometimes used interchangeably with jib. A working jib is no larger than the 100% foretriangle. A genoa is larger, with the leech overlapping the mainsail. To maximize sail area, the foot of the sail is parallel and close to the deck when close hauled. Genoas are categorized by a percentage representing their area relative to the 100% foretriangle.
Sail racing classes specify a limit to genoa size. Genoas are classified by their size. Number 2 genoas are in the range of 125–140%. Working jibs are defined by the same measure 100% or less of the foretriangle. Under Performance Handicap Racing Fleet rules, most boats are allowed 155% genoas without a penalty. Maximizing the sail area can cause more difficult handling, it may be harder to tack a genoa than a jib, since the overlapping area can become tangled with the shrouds and/or mast unless tended during the tack. Genoas are popular in some racing classes, since they count only the foretriangle area when calculating foresail size. In boats where sail restrictions do not apply, genoas of 180% overlap can be found, although those over 150% are rare because the additional area is shadowed by the mainsail when close hauled and generates diminishing returns in terms of power per actual sail area; the gennaker has been around for several decades now, as the name suggests, it is a hybrid between a genoa and a symmetrical spinnaker.
A brand name of North Sails, the gennaker started as a cruising sail based on the Code 0 spinnakers used on racing boats. Gennakers and similar code 0 variants offered by other makers are larger than genoas, they have a much greater camber for generating larger amounts of lift when reaching. Flat-cut gennakers can be effective for angles as low as 60–70 degrees. Spinnakers perform much better when running because the main sail blocks the wind of gennaker above 135–150 degrees; the famous Swedish sailor and shipowner Sven Salén first used the genoa on his 6 m R-yacht May-Be by the 1926 in Coppa di Terreno in Genoa, hence the name. He used it during the Scandinavian Gold Cup's races of 1927 in Oyster Bay. Sven Salén pioneered the parachute spinnacre. A similar type of jib was in use for centuries by the fishermen in the Netherlands with their Botter type ships; the fishermen relied on the combination of a large jib while fishing so the mainsail could remain unused. After fishing the fisherman's jib helped to get the fish to markets fast.
A correct explanation of the interaction between jib and mainsail was published by aerodynamicist and yachtsman Arvel Gentry in 1981, "is much more complicated than the old theories imply". This states that the believed explanation of the slot effect is "completely wrong" and shows that this is not due to the venturi effect accelerating the air in the slot. Instead it is shown that the air in the slot is slowed down and its pressure increased reducing the tendency of the mainsail to stall, that the mainsail reduces the air pressure on the lee side of the jib accelerating that airflow, that the mainsail increases the angle at which the air meets the luff of the jib, allowing the boat to point higher. Gentry points out that proper understanding of sail interaction allows better sail trimming
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice or on land over a chosen course, part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail, too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction to mobilize the power of the wind; the forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into cruising. Cruising can include extended offshore and ocean-crossing trips, coastal sailing within sight of land, daysailing; until the mid of the 19th century, sailing ships were the primary means for marine commerce, this period is known as Age of Sail.
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating between 5500 and 5000 BCE. Polynesian oceanfarers traveled vast distances of open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as stick charts. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails and rigging. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic. Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world. According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod mast to support a sail that allowed a reed craft to travel upriver with a following wind, as late as 3,500 BCE.
Such sails evolved into the square-sail rig. Such rigs could not sail much closer than 80° to the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs appear to have evolved in Southeast Asia—dates are uncertain—allowing for rigs that could sail as close as 60–75° off the wind; the physics of sailing arises from a balance of forces between the wind powering the sailing craft as it passes over its sails and the resistance by the sailing craft against being blown off course, provided in the water by the keel, underwater foils and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice by the runners of an ice boat, or on land by the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle. Forces on sails depend on the speed and direction of the craft; the speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the "apparent wind"—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind.
Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails with respect to the apparent wind, each sail is providing motive force to the sailing craft either from lift-dominant attached flow or drag-dominant separated flow. Additionally, sails may interact with one another to create forces that are different from the sum of the individual contributions each sail, when used alone; the term "velocity" refers both to direction. As applied to wind, apparent wind velocity is the air velocity acting upon the leading edge of the most forward sail or as experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailing craft reach a constant forward velocity for a given true wind velocity and point of sail; the craft's point of sail affects its velocity for a given true wind velocity. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from the wind in a "no-go" zone, 40° to 50° away from the true wind, depending on the craft.
The directly downwind speed of all conventional sailing craft is limited to the true wind speed. As a sailboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is sheeted further out as the course is further off the wind; as an iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on an iceboat is sheeted in for all three points of sail. Lift on a sail, acting as an airfoil, occurs in a direction perpendicular to the incident airstream and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on angle of attack, sail shape, air density, speed of the apparent wind; the lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail being higher than the ave