Ray Milton Blanchard is an American-Canadian sexologist, best known for his research studies on transsexualism and sexual orientation. He has published research studies on phallometry and several paraphilias, including autoerotic asphyxia. Blanchard was born in New Jersey, he received his A. B. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1967 and his Ph. D. from the University of Illinois in 1973. He conducted postdoctoral research at Dalhousie University until 1976, when he accepted a position as a clinical psychologist at the Ontario Correctional Institute in Brampton, Canada. There, Blanchard met Kurt Freund, who became his mentor. Freund was conducting research in chemical castration for sex offenders. In 1980, he joined the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. In 1995 Blanchard was named Head of Clinical Sexology Services in the Law and Mental Health Programme of the CAMH, where he served until 2010, he is an adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. He served on the American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV Subcommittee on Gender Identity Disorders and was named to the DSM-5 committee.
According to the Web of Science, Blanchard's scientific articles have been cited more than 1800 times, with an h-index of 27. Blanchard has conducted research on factors that influence the development of sexual orientation, including biological factors, he has proposed a theory known as older brother effect. This theory is that the more older brothers a man has, the greater the probability is that he will have a homosexual sexual orientation; the number of older sisters has no effect, however. The same is not true for lesbians—neither the number of older brothers nor the number of older sisters appears to be related to the sexual orientation of women; the fraternal birth order effect has been described by one of its proponents as "the most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men", with each older brother increasing a man's odds of being gay by about 33%. Blanchard hypothesizes that the older brother effect is caused by interactions between a male fetus and the immune system of the mother: because certain proteins are produced by male and not by female fetuses, the mother's immune system reacts only to male fetuses and is more to produce a reaction with each successive exposure to a male fetus.
Blanchard coined the term "autogynephilia" to describe trans women with an erotic desire "to be women," and hypothesized that all gender dysphoria experienced by this group is of two types: "homosexual" gender dysphoria and "non-homosexual" gender dysphoria. Blanchard defined the former as being present in transsexuals attracted to men, while he defined the latter as being present in transsexuals attracted to the idea of themselves as women. Within the transgender community the idea has been criticized. Blanchard's findings and research have been rejected by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health, the largest association of medical professionals who provides care for transsexual people, as lacking empirical evidence. Blanchard supports public funding of sex reassignment surgery as an appropriate treatment for transsexual people, as he believes the available evidence supports that the surgery helps them live more comfortably and with high satisfaction rates. Blanchard defined autogynephilic as "a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman".
He researched this theory by conducting a test on a sample of 119 MtF transsexuals who submitted an anonymous questionnaire to test if they were autogynephilic or homosexual. Blanchard believed that not all transsexuals fit in the category of "homosexual" and that some were instead autogynephilic transsexuals. Survey participants felt that they were neither homosexual nor autogynephilic transsexuals and should not be classified in either group. A majority felt that the sexual attraction to become a women weakened with age, but others reported that they had noticed a change after physical transition. Blanchard concluded that transsexuals were either sexually aroused by men, androphilic, or aroused by the thought of being a women, nonandrophilic; the number of transgender women has increased over the past several decades. More and more individuals have undergone operations and hormone therapy, they believe that their gender identity, defined as "one's inner sense of being male or female, masculine or feminine", did not match the body they were in.
According to Blanchard, "Autogynephilic transsexuals were men who were sexually attracted to women, but whose paraphilic sexual interest made them want to go farther and permanently change their bodies to become the objects of their attraction". Blanchard coined the term teleiophilia to refer to a sexual preference for adults. Unlike the terms referring to sexual interest in other age groups, such as pedophilia, teleiophilia is not considered a paraphilia; the term was formalized in order to forestall neologisms, such as "adultophilia" or "normophilia," that were used, but had no precise definition. The term is used by professional sexologists in the scientific literature. Blanchard served on the gender dysphoria sub-working group for the DSM-IV and served as Chair of the paraphilia sub-working group for the DSM-5. Activists protested the latter appointment; the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force issued a statement questioning the APA's decision to appoint Blanchard. In 2008, Blanchard was the lead author of an influential paper proposing the introduction of hebephilia in the DSM-5.
The paper, coauthored
Kurt Freund was a Czech-Canadian physician and sexologist best known for developing phallometry, research studies in pedophilia, for the "courtship disorder" hypothesis as a taxonomy of certain paraphilias. Freund was born into a German-speaking Jewish family in Chrudim part of Austrian Bohemia Czechoslovakia, now in the Czech Republic, he married Anna Hlounová, a non-Jewish Czech pianist and music teacher, on 13 January 1942. In 1943, they divorced in order to protect Anna and their newborn daughter Helen from anti-Jewish and anti-miscegenation legislation implemented by the German Nazi Occupators, they remarried after the war in 1945, Anna gave birth to a son, Peter, in 1948. Many of Freund's relatives died during the Holocaust, including his parents Heinrich and Hella, his brother Hans. Freund is best known for being the first to apply plethysmography to the penis, thus permitting the first objective measurement of sexual arousal in males. Over his career, he refined the penile plethysmograph as part of a broad program of research on male sexual interest.
The device remains controversial, indeed Freund published articles acknowledging its limitations. Among other concerns, sexual offenders could sometimes suppress arousal through concentration or surreptitiously causing themselves pain, similar to methods for producing false results on a polygraph. However, Freund still felt that the plethysmograph remained the best measure of arousal Other researchers and activists dispute PPG as the best measure of orientation, pointing out that neither identity nor behavior are correlated with measured or self-reported arousal. Freund acknowledged this, in fact demonstrated it in his studies, but maintained that orientation per se was best defined as the object of arousal. Freund was commissioned to use penile plethysmography to detect recruits attempting to evade military service by falsely claiming to be homosexual, his larger research program, focused on detection and diagnosis of sex offenders preference pedophiles, with a view to more appropriate treatment guidelines.
Freund was involved in administering conversion therapy: "Freund made a large-scale attempt in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s to change the sexual orientation of homosexuals to a heterosexual orientation through the use of behavioral aversive therapy." His empirical data showed some of the first evidence that sexual orientation conversion therapy was futile. He demonstrated that homosexually oriented men who appeared to have given up sexual relations with other men and established heterosexual marriages were still aroused by images of men rather than women. Freund challenged contemporary psychoanalytic theories of male homosexuality that suggested it was due to a fear or aversion to women. Freund concluded that homosexual men lacked erotic interest in females. Based on these studies, he advocated the decriminalization of homosexuality in Czechoslovakia and the end of conversion therapy; these opinions put him out of favor with the psychoanalytically dominated psychiatric establishment in Toronto, as he continued to argue that homosexuals needed understanding and acceptance rather than treatment.
His efforts, along with those of German sexologist Rudolf Klimmer, helped decriminalize homosexuality in East Germany in 1968. Freund contributed to the idea of a genetic origin of homosexuality by including in his book a study of identical twins who have always the same sexual orientation; this part of his contribution is not known in the West. Freund received his M. D. at Charles University of Prague, a D. Sc. degree there in 1962. He carried out post-doctoral research and both research and clinical work at Charles University's Sexological Institute. Freund fled to Canada in the wake of the Prague Spring. Freund began plethysmography studies of male sexual orientation at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, where much of the research and published data using PPG originated; the Kurt Freund Laboratory at that centre is named after him. There was controversy regarding potential abuses of devices to measure sexual interests, following fears that it might lead to discrimination against gay men.
Phallometric testing has been shown, however, to be one of the most accurate, if not the single most accurate, methods of identifying the sexual offenders that are most to commit new sexual offenses against children. On the other hand, another study concluded that "although the validity of the technique for research and clinical assessment is now established, justification for the routine use of the technique must await a proper standardization of the technique and the publication of reliable norms." Freund was a member of Dying with Dignity. When his health deteriorated in 1996, he committed suicide by taking a lethal cocktail of muscle relaxants, sleeping pills and wine. Freund was cremated, his ashes were scattered on the lawn across from his office at the Clarke Institute in Toronto and on the grounds of Psychiatric Hospital Bohnice in Prague, where he had worked for many years in Czechoslovakia. Freund, K. J. Diamant, V. Pinkava. 1958. "On the validity and reliability of the p
Stony Brook University
The State University of New York at Stony Brook known as Stony Brook University and SUNY Stony Brook, is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of New York system; the institution was founded 62 years ago in 1957 in Oyster Bay as State University College on Long Island, moved to Stony Brook in 1962. The university has expanded to include 220 major buildings with a combined area of more than 12.2 million gross square feet across 1,454 acres of land. In 2001, Stony Brook was elected to the Association of American Universities, it is a member of the larger Universities Research Association. The university's health science and medical component, collectively referred to as Stony Brook Medicine, includes the Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Health Technology and Management and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Social Welfare, as well as the Hospital, major centers and institutes, programs and community-based healthcare settings, the Long Island State Veterans Home.
Stony Brook University, part of the management team of Brookhaven National Laboratory – a national laboratory of the United States Department of Energy – acquired land for a Research & Development Park adjacent to its main campus in 2004, has four business incubators across the region. The university's impact on the Long Island economy amounts to $7.38 billion in increased output, research expenditures have surpassed the $230 million mark annually. Stony Brook is the largest single-site employer on Long Island. Stony Brook's intercollegiate athletic teams are the Seawolves. Since 1994, they have competed in Division I of the NCAA, are members of the America East Conference and the Colonial Athletic Association; the State University of New York at Stony Brook was established in Oyster Bay in 1957 as the State University College on Long Island, by the governor and state of New York. Established a decade after the creation of New York's public higher education system, the institution was envisioned as a college for the preparation of secondary school teachers.
Leonard K. Olson was appointed as the first dean of the institution and was instrumental in the recruitment of faculty staff and planning of the Stony Brook campus. SUCOLI opened with an inaugural class of 148 students, on the grounds of the William Robertson Coe Planting Fields estate; these first students were admitted on a tuition-free basis. 1961 was a year of firsts as thirty students were conferred degrees in the first commencement and the University was appointed its first president, John Francis Lee. Lee left that year due to political and bureaucratic matters regarding the future of the University and the central administration at Albany. Lee fulfilled his primary task of reshaping the university from a technical science and engineering college of limited degree options to a full-scale university featuring liberal arts programs. In 1960 the Heald Report, commissioned by Governor Nelson Rockefeller, recommended a major new public university be built on Long Island to "stand with the finest in the country", a report that would shape most of the University's growth for years to come.
Ward Melville, a philanthropist and businessman from the Three Village area in western Suffolk County donated over 400 acres of land to the state for the development of a state university and in 1962 the institution relocated to Stony Brook and renamed as the State University of New York at Stony Brook. However, the name has fallen out of favor, since 2005, has been replaced with Stony Brook University; the campus had 782 students enrolled in 1962, but enrollment had increased more than tenfold by 1969, surpassing the 8,000 mark, fueled by the large funding of public higher education in the Sputnik era. In 1963, only three years after the release of the Heald Report, the Governor commissioned the "Education of Health Professions" report; the report outlined the need for expansion of the university system to prepare medical professionals for the future needs of the state. The report was important for Stony Brook as it recommended creation of a Health Science Center and academic hospital at the campus to serve the need of the fastest-growing counties in New York at the time.
In 1965, the State University appointed John S. Toll, a renowned physicist from the University of Maryland as the second president of Stony Brook. In 1966, the University set forth initial timetables for the development of the Health Science Center, which would house the University's health programs and hospital. Despite the budgetary concerns and challenges from Albany, the University released a formalized plan early in 1968 and funding for recruitment of faculty was provided. At the same time, residential housing was expanded to 3,000, the Stony Brook Union opened in 1970, in 1971, the massive expansion project for the campus library was completed. Despite the fast-paced growth, campus infrastructure struggled to keep pace: overcrowding, landscaping and safety were persistent problems at the University, which led to multiple protests and growing tension between the student body and the administration. In January 1968, the infamous “Operation Stony Brook” drug raid resulted in the arrest of twenty nine students and in the fall of 1968, tension climaxed as the administration and students decided on a three-day moratorium to bring together the entire university with the goal of improving communicati