SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

International African Institute

The International African Institute was founded in 1926 in London for the study of African languages. Frederick Lugard was the first chairman. Since 1928, the IAI has published Africa. For some years during the 1950s and 1960s, the assistant editor was the novelist Barbara Pym; the IAI's mission is "to promote the education of the public in the study of Africa and its languages and cultures". Its operations includes seminars, monographs, edited volumes and stimulating scholarship within Africa; the IAI has been involved in scholarly publishing since 1927. Scholars whose work has been published by the institute include Emmanuel Akeampong, Samir Amin, Karin Barber, Alex de Waal, Patrick Chabal, Mary Douglas, E. E. Evans Pritchard, Jack Goody, Jane Guyer, Monica Hunter, Bronislaw Malinowski, Z. K. Matthews, D. A. Masolo, Achille Mbembe, Thomas Mofolo, John Middleton, Simon Ottenburg, JDY Peel, Mamphela Ramphele, Isaac Schapera, Monica Wilson and V. Y. Mudimbe. IAI publications fall into a number of series, notably International African Library and International African Seminars.

The International African Library is published from volume 41 by Cambridge University Press. As of November 2016 there are 49 volumes; the archives of the International African Institute are held at the Archives Division of the Library of the London School of Economics. An online catalogue of these papers is available. In 1928, the IAI published an "Africa Alphabet" to facilitate standardization of Latin-based writing systems for African languages. From April 1929 to 1950, the IAI offered prizes for works of literature in African languages. 1926–1945: Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard.

Flare (countermeasure)

A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile. Flares are composed of a pyrotechnic composition based on magnesium or another hot-burning metal, with burning temperature equal to or hotter than engine exhaust; the aim is to make the infrared-guided missile seek out the heat signature from the flare rather than the aircraft's engines. In contrast to radar-guided missiles, IR-guided missiles are difficult to find as they approach aircraft, they do not emit detectable radar, they are fired from behind, directly toward the engines. In most cases, pilots have to rely on their wingmen to spot the missile's smoke trail and alert them. Since IR-guided missiles have a shorter range than their radar-guided counterparts, good situational awareness of altitude and potential threats continues to be an effective defense. More advanced electro-optical systems can detect missile launches automatically from the distinct thermal emissions of a missile's rocket motor.

Once the presence of a "live" IR missile is indicated, flares are released by the aircraft in an attempt to decoy the missile. The aircraft would pull away at a sharp angle from the flare and reduce engine power in attempt to cool the thermal signature. Optimally, the missile's seeker head is confused by this change in temperature and flurry of new signatures, therefore follows the flare rather than the aircraft; the most modern IR-guided missiles have sophisticated on-board electronics that help discriminate between flares and targets, reducing the effectiveness of countermeasures. Since insurgents and terrorists are targeting helicopters with missiles, because helicopters are slower-moving, there is an increasing trend to equip military helicopters with flare countermeasures. Flare dispensers are now fitted to helicopters. Indeed all of the UK's helicopters, whether they are transport or attack models, are equipped with flare dispenser or missile approach warning systems; the US armed forces have adopted defensive technology on their helicopters.

Apart from military use, some civilian aircraft are equipped with countermeasure flares, against terrorism: the Israeli airline El Al, having been the target of the failed 2002 airliner attack, in which shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles were fired at an airliner while taking off, began equipping its fleet with radar-based, automated flare release countermeasures from June 2004. This caused concerns in some European countries, which proceeded to ban such aircraft from landing at their airports. A flare goes through three main stages: ignition and decoying. Most flares, like the MJU-27A/B flares, must be kept in an airtight storage compartment before deployment; these flares, known as pyrophoric flares, are made of special materials that ignite when they come in contact with the air. This is a safety and convenience factor, since attempting to ignite a flare inside the fuselage and deploying it is risky; however pyrotechnic flares exist, offer their own safety benefit. Flares are most gravity-fed from a dispenser inside the aircraft's fuselage.

These dispensers can be programmed by the pilot or ground crew to dispense flares in short intervals, one at a time, long intervals, or in clusters. Most used flares are of the pyrophoric variety, thus the dispensers do not have to ignite and deploy the flare at the same time. With pyrotechnic flares, a lanyard automatically pulls off a friction cap covering the exposed end of the flare as it falls from the dispenser. A friction ignites the flare. Flares burn at thousands of degrees Celsius, much hotter than the exhaust of a jet engine. IR missiles seek out the hotter flame, believing it to be an aircraft in afterburner or the beginning of the engine's exhaust source; as the more modern infrared seekers tend to have spectral sensitivity tailored to more match the emissions of airplanes and reject other sources, the modernized decoy flares have their emission spectrum optimized to match the radiation of the airplane. In addition to spectral discrimination, the CCMs can include trajectory discrimination and detection of size of the radiation source.

The newest generation of the FIM-92 Stinger uses a dual IR and UV seeker head, which allows for a redundant tracking solution negating the effectiveness of modern decoy flares. While research and development in flare technology has produced an IR signature on the same wavelength as hot engine exhaust, modern flares still produce a notably different UV signature than an aircraft engine burning kerosene jet-fuel. For the infrared generating charge, two approaches are possible: pyrotechnic and pyrophoric; as stored, chemical-energy-source IR-decoy flares contain pyrotechnic compositions, liquid or solid pyrophoric substances, or liquid or solid flammable substances. Upon ignition of the decoy flare, a exothermal reaction is started, releasing infrared energy and visible smoke and flame, emission being dependent on the chemical nature of the payload used. There is a w

Samuel Lucius-Thomas Howland House

Samuel Lucius-Thomas Howland House is a historic house at 36 North Street in Plymouth, Massachusetts located within the Plymouth Village Historic District, as a contributing property. The house is located adjacent to Cole's Hill; the earliest part of the house is estimated to be constructed cira 1637-1640. Which would make it one of the oldest houses in Massachusetts; this construction date has not yet been verified using dendrochronology. In 1697 Thomas Howland transferred the property to Samuel Lucas; the Jackson and Russell families occupied the property in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries until 1939. As of 2019, the house remains a private residence. List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts