An out-of-body experience is an experience in which a person seems to perceive the world from a location outside their physical body. An OBE is a form of autoscopy, although the term autoscopy more refers to the pathological condition of seeing a second self, or doppelgänger; the term out-of-body experience was introduced in 1943 by G. N. M. Tyrrell in his book Apparitions, was adopted by researchers such as Celia Green and Robert Monroe as an alternative to belief-centric labels such as "astral projection", "soul travel", or "spirit walking". OBEs can be induced by brain traumas, sensory deprivation, near-death experiences and psychedelic drugs, dehydration and electrical stimulation of the brain, among others, it can be deliberately induced by some. One in ten people have an OBE once, or more several times in their life. Neuroscientists and psychologists regard OBEs as dissociative experiences arising from different psychological and neurological factors; those experiencing OBEs sometimes report a preceding and initiating lucid-dream state.
In many cases, people who claim to have had an OBE report being on the verge of sleep, or being asleep shortly before the experience. A large percentage of these cases refer to situations where the sleep was not deep. In most of these cases subjects perceive themselves as being awake. Another form of spontaneous OBE is the near-death experience; some subjects report having had an OBE at times of severe physical trauma such as near-drownings or major surgery. Near-death experiences may include subjective impressions of being outside the physical body, sometimes visions of deceased relatives and religious figures, transcendence of ego and spatiotemporal boundaries; the experience includes such factors as: a sense of being dead. Along the same lines as an NDE, extreme physical effort during activities such as high-altitude climbing and marathon running can induce OBEs. A sense of bilocation may be experienced, with both ground and air-based perspectives being experienced simultaneously. OBEs can be induced by hallucinogens such as psilocybin, ketamine, DMT, MDA, LSD.
Falling asleep physically without losing awareness. The "Mind Awake, Body Asleep" state is suggested as a cause of OBEs, voluntary and otherwise. Thomas Edison used this state to tackle problems while working on his inventions, he would rest a silver dollar on his head while sitting with a metal bucket in a chair. As he drifted off, the coin would noisily fall into the bucket. OBE pioneer Sylvan Muldoon more used a forearm held perpendicular in bed as the falling object. Salvador Dalí was said to use a similar "paranoiac-critical" method to gain odd visions which inspired his paintings. Deliberately teetering between awake and asleep states is known to cause spontaneous trance episodes at the onset of sleep which are helpful when attempting to induce an OBE. By moving deeper and deeper into relaxation, one encounters a "slipping" feeling if the mind is still alert; this slipping is reported to feel like leaving the physical body. Some consider progressive relaxation a passive form of sensory deprivation.
Deep trance and visualization. The types of visualizations vary; this technique is considered hard to use for people. One example of such a technique is the popular Golden Dawn "Body of Light" Technique. Brainwave synchronization via audio/visual stimulation. Binaural beats can be used to induce specific brainwave frequencies, notably those predominant in various mind awake/body asleep states. Binaural induction of a "body asleep" 4 Hertz brainwave frequency was observed as effective by the Monroe Institute, some authors consider binaural beats to be supportive of OBE initiation when used in conjunction with other techniques. Simultaneous introduction of "mind awake" beta frequencies was observed as constructive. Another popular technology uses sinusoidal wave pulses to achieve similar results, the drumming accompanying Native American religious ceremonies is believed to have heightened receptivity to "other worlds" through brainwave entrainment mechanisms. Magnetic stimulation of the brain, as with the God helmet developed by Michael Persinger.
Direct stimulation of the vestibular cortex. Electrical stimulation of the brain the temporoparietal junction. Sensory deprivation; this approach aims to induce intense disorientation by removal of time references. Flotation tanks or pink noise played through headphones are employed for this purpose. Sensory overload, the opposite of sensory deprivation; the subject can for instance be rocked for a long time in a specially designed cradle, or submitted to light forms of torture, to cause the brain to shut itself off from all sensory input. Both conditions tend to cause confusion and this disorientation permits the sub
American Society for Psychical Research
The American Society for Psychical Research is an organisation dedicated to parapsychology based in New York City, where it maintains offices and a library. It is open to interested members of the public to join, has a website, it publishes the quarterly Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. It was William Fletcher Barrett's visit to America that led to the formation of the American Society for Psychical Research in December, 1884. Barrett was invited by several members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he persuaded intellectuals such as Edward Charles Pickering, Simon Newcomb, Alexander Graham Bell, Henry Pickering Bowditch and William James that the claims of psychical phenomena should be investigated scientifically. The first meetings of the society were held in the rooms of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the founding members who were the first Vice-Presidents were G. Stanley Hall, George Stuart Fullerton, Edward Charles Pickering, Henry Pickering Bowditch and Charles Sedgwick Minot.
Other founding members were Alpheus Hyatt, N. D. C. Hodges, William James and Samuel Hubbard Scudder; the mathematician Simon Newcomb was the first President. Other early members included the psychologists James Mark Baldwin, Joseph Jastrow, Christine Ladd-Franklin. Initial research findings were discouraging. By 1890, members such as Baldwin, Hall and Ladd-Franklin had resigned from the society. Hall and Jastrow became outspoken critics of parapsychology. Morton Prince and James Jackson Putnam left the ASPR in 1892 to form the American Psychological Association. Richard Hodgson joined the ASPR in 1887 to serve as its secretary. In 1889, Fullerton and Josiah Royce were Vice-Presidents and Samuel Pierpont Langley served as President. In 1889, a financial crisis forced the ASPR to become a branch of the Society for Psychical Research, Simon Newcomb and others left. Following the death of Hodgson in 1905 it achieved independence once more. In 1906, James H. Hyslop took up the position as secretary of the recreated organization, with the work being done at his residence in New York City.
He once wrote his son, "My work is missionary, not mercenary." The intended name for the new organization was, "The American Institute for Scientific Research" which Hyslop had organized into two sections for the investigation of two separate fields: "A" was to deal with psychopathology or abnormal psychology. Its Section "B" was to be concerned with what Hyslop called "supernormal psychology" or parapsychology. Section "A" never got off the ground, but Section "B" became the new and reorganized ASPR. One of the Institute's aims was to organize and endow investigations into telepathy, clairvoyance and kinetic phenomena; this work was to be carried out by "B." The society remained in New York, where it remains as of 2015. During this period the ASPR was involved in the investigation of medium Leonora Piper about whom William James would famously declare in 1890: "To upset the conclusion that all crows are black, there is no need to seek demonstration that no crow is black. Since his proclamation of Piper as his "one White Crow", the concept of the single "White Crow" has become a cliché in psychical re-search.
After evaluating sixty-nine reports of Piper's mediumship William James considered the hypothesis of telepathy as well as Piper obtaining information about her sitters by natural means such as her memory recalling information. According to James the "spirit-control" hypothesis of her mediumship was "somewhat incoherent, irrelevant, and, in some cases, demonstrably false—at best only circumstantial." However, G. Stanley Hall believed Piper's mediumship had an naturalistic explanation and no telepathy was involved. Hall and Amy Tanner, who observed some of the trances, explained the phenomena in terms of the subconscious mind harboring various personalities that pretended to be spirits or controls. In their view, Piper had subconsciously absorbed information that she regurgitated as messages from "spirits" in her trances. On June 20, 1906, the ASPR had 170 members and by the end of November 1907, it had 677. Hereward Carrington became a member of the ASPR in 1907 and an assistant to James Hyslop until 1908, during which time he established his reputation as an ASPR investigator.
However his connection with the ASPR ceased due to lack of funds. Carrington was the author the book The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism which exposed the tricks of fraudulent mediums. According to Arthur Conan Doyle, Carrington was not popular with spiritualists. James Hyslop died in 1920, strife broke out between the membership as the Society divided into two factions, one broadly pro-Spiritualism, indeed Spiritualists, the other'conservative' faction favoring telepathy and skeptical of'discarnate spirits' as an explanation for the phenomena studied, or skeptical of the phenomena's existence. In 1923 a prominent Spiritualist, Frederick Edwards, was appointed President, the conservative faction led by Gardner Murphy and Walter Franklin Prince declared that the Society was becoming less academic. In the same year the ASPR lost 108 members. New members joined the society and William McDougall a past President and Prince both became alarmed at the number of "credulous spiritualists" that joined the ASPR.
In 1925 Edwards was reappointed President, his support of the mediumistic claims of'Margery' led to the'conservative' faction leaving and forming the rival Boston Society for Psychical Research in May, 1925. From this point on the ASPR remained sympathetic to Spiritualism until 1941, when the Boston Society for Psychical Research was reintegrated into the AS
A ganzfeld experiment is a technique used in parapsychology, used to test individuals for extrasensory perception. The ganzfeld experiments are among the most recent in parapsychology for testing telepathy. Consistent, independent replication of ganzfeld experiments has not been achieved; the ganzfeld was introduced into experimental psychology due to the experiments of the German psychologist Wolfgang Metzger on the perception of a homogenous visual field. In the early 1970s, Charles Honorton had been investigating ESP and dreams at the Maimonides Medical Center and began using the ganzfeld technique to achieve a state of sensory deprivation in which he hypothesised that psi could work. Honorton believed that by reducing the ordinary sensory input, psi conductive states may be enhanced and psi-mediated information could be transmitted. Since the first full experiment was published by Honorton and Sharon Harper in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research in 1974, the Ganzfeld has remained a mainstay of parapsychological research.
In a typical ganzfeld experiment, a "receiver" is placed in a room relaxing in a comfortable chair with halved ping-pong balls over the eyes, having a red light shone on them. The receiver wears a set of headphones through which white or pink noise is played; the receiver is in this state of mild sensory deprivation for half an hour. During this time, a "sender" observes a randomly chosen target and tries to mentally send this information to the receiver; the receiver speaks out loud during the thirty minutes, describing what he or she can "see". This is recorded by the experimenter either by recording onto tape or by taking notes, is used to help the receiver during the judging procedure. In the judging procedure, the receiver is taken out of the Ganzfeld state and given a set of possible targets, from which they select one which most resembled the images they witnessed. Most there are three decoys along with the target, giving an expected rate of 25%, by chance, over several dozens of trials.
Between 1974 and 1982, 42 ganzfeld experiments were performed. In 1982, Charles Honorton presented a paper at the annual convention of the Parapsychological Association that summarized the results of the ganzfeld experiments up to that date, concluded that they represented sufficient evidence to demonstrate the existence of psi. Ray Hyman, a psychologist, disagreed; the two men independently analyzed the same studies, both presented meta-analyses of them in 1985. Hyman criticized the ganzfeld papers for not describing optimal protocols, nor including the appropriate statistical analysis, he presented a factor analysis that he said demonstrated a link between success and three flaws, namely: flaws in randomization for choice of target. Honorton asked a statistician, David Saunders, to look at Hyman's factor analysis and he concluded that the number of experiments was too small to complete a factor analysis; the ganzfeld studies examined by Hyman and Honorton had methodological problems that were well documented.
Honorton reported only 36% of the studies used duplicate target sets of pictures to avoid handling cues. Hyman discovered flaws in all of the 42 ganzfeld experiments and to assess each experiment, he devised a set of 12 categories of flaws. Six of these concerned statistical defects, the other six covered procedural flaws such as inadequate documentation and security as well as possibilities of sensory leakage.." Over half of the studies failed to safeguard against sensory leakage and all of the studies contained at least one of the 12 flaws. Because of the flaws, Honorton agreed with Hyman the 42 ganzfeld studies could not support the claim for the existence of psi. In 1986, Hyman and Honorton published A Joint Communiqué which agreed on the methodological problems and on ways to fix them, they suggested a computer-automated control, where randomization and the other methodological problems identified were eliminated. Hyman and Honorton agreed that replication of the studies was necessary before final conclusions could be drawn.
They agreed that more stringent standards were necessary for ganzfeld experiments, they jointly specified what those standards should be. In 1982 Honorton had started a series of autoganzfeld experiments at his Psychophysical Research Laboratories; these studies were designed to avoid the same potential problems as those identified in the 1986 joint communiqué issued by Hyman and Honorton. The PRL trials continued until September 1989. In 1990 Honorton et al. published the results of 11 autoganzfeld experiments they claimed met the standards specified by Hyman and Honorton. In these experiments, 240 participants contributed 329 sessions. Hyman analyzed these experiments and wrote they met most, but not all of the "stringent standards" of the joint communiqué, he expressed concerns with the randomization procedure, the reliability of which he was not able to confirm based on the data provided by Bem. Hyman further noted that although the overall hit rate of 32% was significant, the hit rate for static targets was in fact insignificant.
The overall significance of the experiments was due to dynamic targets. In the hit rates regarding these dynamic targets, some interesting patterns were found that implied visual cues may have been leaked: The most suspicious pattern was the fact that the hit rate for a given target increased with the frequency of occurrence of that target in the experiment; the hit rate for the targets that occurred only once was right at the chance expectatio
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death. It is called rebirth or transmigration, is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence, it is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife. A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras and Plato, it is a common belief of various ancient and modern religions such as Spiritism and Eckankar, as an esoteric belief in many streams of Orthodox Judaism. It is found as well in some tribal societies around the world, in places such as Australia and South America. Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; the historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism and Gnosticism of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research.
Unity Church and its founder Charles Fillmore teaches reincarnation. In recent decades, many Europeans and North Americans have developed an interest in reincarnation, many contemporary works mention it; the word "reincarnation" derives from Latin meaning, "entering the flesh again". The Greek equivalent metempsychosis derives from meta and empsykhoun, a term attributed to Pythagoras. An alternate term is transmigration implying migration from one life to another. Reincarnation refers to the belief that an aspect of every human being continues to exist after death, this aspect may be the soul or mind or consciousness or something transcendent, reborn in an interconnected cycle of existence; the term has been used by modern philosophers such as Kurt Gödel and has entered the English language. Another Greek term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis, "being born again". Rebirth is a key concept found in major Indian religions, discussed with various terms. Punarjanman means "rebirth, transmigration".
Reincarnation is discussed in the ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism and Jainism, with many alternate terms such as punarāvṛtti, punarājāti, punarjīvātu, punarbhava, āgati-gati, nibbattin and uppajjana. These religions believe that this reincarnation is cyclic and an endless Saṃsāra, unless one gains spiritual insights that ends this cycle leading to liberation; the reincarnation concept is considered in Indian religions as a step that starts each "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence", but one, an opportunity to seek spiritual liberation through ethical living and a variety of meditative, yogic, or other spiritual practices. They consider the release from the cycle of reincarnations as the ultimate spiritual goal, call the liberation by terms such as moksha, nirvana and kaivalya. However, the Buddhist and Jain traditions have differed, since ancient times, in their assumptions and in their details on what reincarnates, how reincarnation occurs and what leads to liberation.
Gilgul, Gilgul neshamot or Gilgulei Ha Neshamot is the concept of reincarnation in Kabbalistic Judaism, found in much Yiddish literature among Ashkenazi Jews. Gilgul means "cycle" and neshamot is "souls". Kabbalistic reincarnation says that humans reincarnate only to humans and to the same sex only: men to men, women to women; the origins of the notion of reincarnation are obscure. Discussion of the subject appears in the philosophical traditions of India; the Greek Pre-Socratics discussed reincarnation, the Celtic Druids are reported to have taught a doctrine of reincarnation. The idea of reincarnation did not exist in early Indian religions; the concepts of the cycle of birth and death and liberation derive from ascetic traditions that arose in India around the second half of the first millennium BCE. Though no direct evidence of this has been found, the tribes of the Ganges valley or the Dravidian traditions of South India have been proposed as another early source of reincarnation beliefs.
But the religions of southern India, like the ancient historical Vedic religion in the North, the Dravidian folk religions do not have the concept of reincarnation. The Vedas, does not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife, it is in the early Upanishads, which are pre-Buddha and pre-Mahavira, where these ideas are beginning to develope. Detailed descriptions first appear around the mid 1st millennium BCE in diverse traditions, including Buddhism and various schools of Hindu philosophy, each of which gave unique expression to the general principle; the texts of ancient Jainism that have survived into the modern era are post-Mahavira from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE, extensively mention rebirth and karma doctrines. The Jaina philosophy assumes that the soul exists and is eternal, passing through cycle
The Epoch Times
The Epoch Times is a multi-language newspaper headquartered in New York City. The company was founded in 2000 by John Tang and a group of Chinese Americans associated with the Falun Gong spiritual movement; the newspaper covers general interest topics with a focus on news about China and human rights issues there. It draws from a network of sources inside China, as well as Chinese expatriates living in the West; the Epoch Times is distributed in overseas Chinese communities, has been publishing in Chinese since May 2000. It is either sold or distributed free-of-charge in 35 countries, including various intranational regional editions, it has editions in English and nine other languages in print, as well as 21 different languages on the internet. Weekly print editions are available. A typical issue includes sections for world and national news, op-eds, entertainment, business and culture, travel and automobiles; the Epoch Times websites are blocked in mainland China, but people can access the newspaper using VPNs that function in mainland China.
The Epoch Times was started in 2000 by a group of Falun Gong practitioners. In May 2000, the paper was first published in the Chinese language in New York, with the web launch in August 2000. By 2003, The Epoch Times website and group of newspapers had grown into one of the largest Chinese-language news websites and newspaper groups outside China in the past two years, with local editions in the U. S. Canada, New Zealand, Indonesia, Hong Kong, major Western European countries; the first English edition launched online in 2003, followed by the New York print edition in 2004. In 2000, 10 The Epoch Times correspondents were imprisoned in China, but current staff of the Chinese-language edition work in Hong Kong; as of February 2012, 67 The Epoch Times newspaper editions are published in print on 5 continents. They have a distribution of 1,315,000 copies in 35 countries. Distribution varies from daily to monthly; the Epoch Times is available in 21 languages on the internet. In Chinese there are websites for Hong Kong and Australia as well as the main Chinese website.
The Epoch Times receives 105 million page views per month from 20 million visitors. Reporters cover stories that pertain to their own areas, contributing to a pool of articles for the different editions to share. Other languages The Epoch Times' flagship New York edition is around 50 pages, divided into four sections. Section "A" is devoted to current events, with several pages devoted to China issues and politics. Section A includes opinion pages, science & technology and real estate. Section "B" is Arts & Culture—covering classical art forms and events. Section B includes Style and an "Essence of China" page devoted to traditional Chinese culture and art forms. Section "C" focuses on health and fitness featuring mainstream medical science and Chinese medical treatments. Section "D" is Food which focuses on local restaurants. Outside of New York, other English editions take the form of a 16–24-page broadsheet; the content is a shorter version of the New York edition, with a focus on each edition's local region.
Print editions range from 30 to 80 pages. A typical print edition includes sections on local and national news, world, science, real estate, arts & culture, home, food and special sections covering traditional Chinese culture & values. According to the Canadian Circulations Audit Board, The Epoch Times is the first and the only Chinese-language daily newspaper in Canada to complete a circulation audit. English The Epoch Times chair Stephen Gregory said in 2007: "It's not a Falun Gong newspaper. Falun Gong is a question of an individual's belief; the paper's not owned by Falun Gong, it doesn't speak for Falun Gong, it doesn't represent Falun Gong. It does cover the persecution of Falun Gong in China." Associated Press reporter Nahal Toosi wrote that it is "technically inaccurate" to say that the Falun Gong organization owns the The Epoch Times. However, many of the newspaper's staffers are Falun Gong practitioners. Toosi noted that "many observers" have said that Falun Gong uses the newspaper as part of a public relations campaign.
Canadian scholar Clement Tong wrote that the The Epoch Times "operates as a mouthpiece for" Falun Gong, despite the absence of an official statement of affiliation with the movement. In 2008, David Ownby, director of the Center for East Asian Studies at the Université de Montréal and the author of Falun Gong and the Future of China, said the newspaper is set up by Falun Gong practitioners with their own money, he describes The Epoch Times as wishing to be taken as a global newspaper rather than being judged on the basis of its strong association with Falun Gong. He wrote: "Epoch Times is a newspaper with a mission, that of reporting on issues bearing on human rights throughout the world, which allows for considerable focus on China and Falun Gong."While many individuals involved in the production of the newspaper practice Falun Gong, according to sociologist Zhao Yuezhi, it seeks to present itself as "public interest-oriented" and "independent of any political and business groups... objectively and reporting facts and truth."
Its reporting on Chinese affairs highlights negative news about the Chinese government and coverage of Falun Gong in a sympathetic light. In this view, the paper articulates Falun Gong's views on a range of issues, may be part of a de facto media alliance with democracy activists in exile; the newspaper has
Seattle Pacific University
Seattle Pacific University is a private liberal arts university in Seattle, founded in 1891 in conjunction with the Oregon and Washington Conference of the Free Methodist Church as the Seattle Seminary. It became the Seattle Seminary and College in 1913, adopting the name Seattle Pacific College in 1915, took its present moniker in 1977. Seattle Pacific University is a member of the Christian College Consortium. Seattle Pacific University was founded in 1891 by Free Methodist pioneers to train missionaries for overseas service. On June 5, 2014, a shooting occurred in Otto Miller Hall in which one student was killed and two other students were injured; the suspect had no connection to the university. The gunman was stopped by student Jon Meis. Meis received a Citizen Honors award from the Congressional Medal of Honor Society in 2015 for his work in stopping the shooting. On November 16, 2016, the gunman was sentenced to 112 years in prison; as the school developed from a seminary of the Free Methodist Church to its current status as a doctoral degree granting institution, its name has changed over time to befit its changes in status: 1891 – Seattle Seminary 1913 – Seattle Seminary and College 1915 – Seattle Pacific College/Seattle Pacific Christian College 1977 – Seattle Pacific University The university's academic programs are divided into one college and five schools: College of Arts and Sciences School of Business and Economics School of Education School of Health Sciences School of Psychology and Community School of TheologySeattle Pacific is tied for 151st in the 2018 U.
S. News and World Report's Best National Universities rankings. SPU joins the University of Washington and Washington State University as the only three institutions from Washington state named to the magazine’s list. SPU offers a four-year alternate series of general education classes for honors students called University Scholars that revolves around a Great Books reading list and the writing of a lengthy senior dissertation. Along with literature classes, the curriculum includes two Faith & Science classes and a Christianity & Scholarship class; the work load is very rigorous. A student in the program will take his or her sequence of University Scholars courses with the same cohort of 40 students for the entire four years. A student may be admitted to the program regardless of major. Students apply in the spring of their senior year of college. There are no University Scholars classes scheduled for the fall of their junior year, in order to give students the opportunity to study abroad Total enrollment: 4,175 Undergraduate students: 3,202 Post-baccalaureate students: 26 Graduate Students: 947 Continuing Education: 5,126 77 percent of autumn quarter 2011 undergraduate classes had enrollments of 30 or fewer.
Student-Faculty Ratio 13:1 The university sits on a 43-acre campus at the northern end of Queen Anne Hill, near the Fremont neighborhood and four miles north of downtown Seattle. Many of the trees on the campus' central Tiffany Loop are among the oldest in the city. SPU owns and operates two satellite campuses: a wilderness field station specializing in biology on Blakely Island in the San Juan Islands and Camp Casey, a former US military fort re-purposed as a conference and retreat facility on Whidbey Island. Notable buildings on the Seattle campus include: Named for the first president of Seattle Pacific University, Alexander Beers, this four-story brick building is home to the School of Theology; the founder's first name, was used, as the board did not want a building on campus called "Beers Hall." The building houses the Sociology and History departments within the College of Arts and Sciences. Alexander Hall is the oldest building on campus, at the time of the University's founding was the only building on campus.
A $6.2-million seismic retrofitting and renovation of the interior office space and chapel was completed in 2014. Next door to Alexander is the main performing arts space on the McKinley Theater. Demaray Hall is the central academic building at Seattle Pacific University, housing numerous classrooms as well as the Office of Undergraduate Admissions, Student Academic Services and Student Financial Services. Administrative offices, including the offices of the president and provost, are located in Demaray; the building is named for Calvin Dorr Demaray, president of SPU from 1959-1968 and pastor of First Free Methodist Church, from 1948 to 1959. The clocktower in front of Demaray Hall was given to Seattle Pacific University by the class of 1966, it displays a bas-relief sculpture designed by former Professor of Art Ernst Schwidder, titled "Science and Humanities,", brought to fruition by former Professor of Art Larry Metcalf and three of his students. The cast-stone relief panels depict various areas of study: the physical sciences, social sciences and humanities.
Its symbols are drawn from American Pima, Aztec, Babylonian and Greek cultures. Gwinn Commons is home to three different points of interest; the Crossroads at Gwinn Commons is the main dining hall on campus. Upstairs is the university's multi-use location. A pair of large rooms, the Queen Anne Room and the Cascade Room can
A psychic is a person who claims to use extrasensory perception to identify information hidden from the normal senses involving telepathy or clairvoyance, or who performs acts that are inexplicable by natural laws. Although many people believe in psychic abilities, the scientific consensus is that there is no proof of the existence of such powers, describe the practice as pseudoscience; the word "psychic" is used as an adjective to describe such abilities. In this meaning, this word has two synonyms, which are metapsychic. Psychics encompass people in a variety of roles; some are theatrical performers, such as stage magicians, who use various techniques, e.g. prestidigitation, cold reading, hot reading, to produce the appearance of such abilities for entertainment purposes. A large industry and network exists whereby people advertised as psychics provide advice and counsel to clients; some famous psychics include Edgar Cayce, Ingo Swann, Peter Hurkos, Janet Lee, Jose Ortiz El Samaritano, Miss Cleo, John Edward, Sylvia Browne, Tyler Henry.
Psychic powers are asserted by psychic detectives and in practices such as psychic archaeology and psychic surgery. Critics attribute psychic powers to self-delusion. In 1988 the U. S. National Academy of Sciences gave a report on the subject and concluded there is "no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years for the existence of parapsychological phenomena". A study attempted to repeat reported parapsychological experiments that appeared to support the existence of precognition. Attempts to repeat the results, which involved performance on a memory test to ascertain if post-test information would affect it, "failed to produce significant effects", thus "do not support the existence of psychic ability", is thus categorized as a pseudoscience. Psychics are featured in science fiction; the Star Wars franchise, for example, features "Force-sensitive" beings that can see into the future and move objects telepathically. People with psychic powers appear in fantasy fiction, such as in some of the works of Stephen King or Dungeons & Dragons, amongst many others.
The word "psychic" is derived from the Greek word psychikos, refers in part to the human mind or psyche. The Greek word means "soul". In Greek mythology, the maiden Psyche was the deification of the human soul; the word derivation of the Latin psȳchē is from the Greek psȳchḗ "breath", derivative of psȳ́chein, to breathe or to blow. French astronomer and spiritualist Camille Flammarion is credited as having first used the word psychic, while it was introduced to the English language by Edward William Cox in the 1870s. Elaborate systems of divination and fortune-telling date back to ancient times; the most known system of early civilization fortune-telling was astrology, where practitioners believed the relative positions of celestial bodies could lend insight into people's lives and predict their future circumstances. Some fortune-tellers were said to be able to make predictions without the use of these elaborate systems, through some sort of direct apprehension or vision of the future; these people were known as seers or prophets, in times as clairvoyants and psychics.
Seers formed a functionary role in early civilization serving as advisors and judges. A number of examples are included in biblical accounts; the book of 1 Samuel illustrates one such functionary task when Samuel is asked to find the donkeys of the future king Saul. The role of prophet appeared perennially in ancient cultures. In Egypt, the priests of the sun deity Ra at Memphis acted as seers. In ancient Assyria seers were referred to as nabu, meaning "to call" or "announce"; the Delphic Oracle is one of the earliest stories in classical antiquity of prophetic abilities. The Pythia, the priestess presiding over the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, was believed to be able to deliver prophecies inspired by Apollo during rituals beginning in the 8th century BC, it is said that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from the ground, that she spoke gibberish, believed to be the voice of Apollo, which priests reshaped into the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature.
Other scholars believe records from the time indicate that the Pythia spoke intelligibly, gave prophecies in her own voice. The Pythia was a position served by a succession of women selected from amongst a guild of priestesses of the temple; the last recorded response was given in 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I ordered pagan temples to cease operation. Recent geological investigations raise the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia's state of inspiration. One of the most enduring historical references to what some consider to be psychic ability is the prophecies of Michel de Nostredame Latinized to Nostradamus, published during the French Renaissance period. Nostradamus was a French apothecary and seer who wrote collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide and have been out of print since his death, he is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Taken together, his written works are known to have contained at least 6,338 quatrains or prophecies, as well as at least eleven annual calendars.
Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, wars, invasions, murders and battles – all undated. Nostradamus is a controversial figure, his many enthusiasts, as well as the popul