European Athletic Association
The European Athletic Association is the governing body for athletics in Europe. It is one of the six Area Associations of the world's athletics governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations. European Athletics is headquartered in Lausanne. Svein Arne Hansen is its current president. Created in 1932 as a European Committee, it was made into an independent body during the Bucharest conference of 1969; the first European Athletics congress took place in Paris on 6–8 October 1970, with Dutchman Adriaan Paulen elected as its first president. From a volunteer-led organization based in the acting Secretary's home country, European Athletics has developed into a professional organization with a permanent base in Switzerland. European Athletics runs and regulates several championships and meetings across Europe - both indoor and outdoor. After the foundation of the International Association of Athletic Federations in 1912, it was clear there needed to be a European committee as part of the governing board.
While the idea met with some resistance, it was the active promotion by the Hungarian representative Szilard Stankovits that bought the initiative to life following the Los Angeles congress of the IAAF in 1932. Following this meeting, the Council designated a European Commission with the task of reviewing the conditions for the organisation of the European Athletics Championships; the first official meeting of what was to be known as the European Commission was held in Budapest on 7 January 1934. The organization of the first European Athletics Championships was awarded to Turin; these first games were men-only and were notable by the absence of the British delegation, which opposed an event seen as competing with its own British Empire Games. The next championships took place in Paris in 1938, but after Stankovits' death the same year and the cancellation of all events during WWII, the Commission lay dormant until 1945. During the post-war period, with an increase in membership both at IAAF and European levels, the Commission changed to an independent association, including the related financial and political independence from its international parent.
Its budget, for example, increased from £100 in 1951 to US$40,000 per year in 1970. It was during that period that the Commission started experimenting and developing a greater range of events besides the European Championships: the European Junior Championships, the European Cup, the Indoor championships; the Commission became a Committee in July 1952 expanding its independence. The members of the Commission were elected at regular IAAF Congresses until 1966 when, for the first time, their selection became European-only; the shift reflects the increased income received from television rights, as earnings took off as a direct result of broadcasting arrangements. The 1969 European championships secured a record US$90,000 from Eurovision for the rights to broadcast the event, it was decided that the European Committee would directly receive these funds in order to benefit its members On 31 October 1969, the Association of the European Members of the IAAF was constituted at a formal meeting of the European Committee of the IAAF in Bucharest.
Its Constitutional Rules were ratified at the IAAF Congress in Stockholm, August 1970, came into force at the first European Athletics Congress in Paris on 7 November 1970. Ad Paulen, president of the European Committee of the IAAF, was elected as the first President and became European representative on the IAAF Council, he held this position until his election as President of the IAAF in 1976. The 1970s were the time for European Athletics to raise the issue of doping, they started establishing more systematic controls, pushing for tests to be extended to non-European athletes as well. The European Championships of 1974 included a wider range of banned products than with anabolic steroids being checked at all other subsequent events; as a continent, Europe was "the nucleus of the IAAF" and an example to be followed for other IAAF members. As such, the European Association became an experimental platform for international athletics, organising events before they were recognized by the International Olympic Committee.
For example, the women's marathon was included in the 1982 championships and became an Olympic distance for female athletes at the 1984 Summer Olympics. The late 1980s saw major new challenges for sports in general, European athletics in particular, with the increased professionalization of athletes and the breakdown of the Eastern Bloc. There was a huge increase in member federations and the growing complexity of financial and commercial negotiations as well as an ever-expanding calendar of events meant that the organisation had to adapt. Till Luft, from Germany, became the first full-time General Secretary in 1995 and worked at the first European Athletics office in Frankfurt and, after April 1996, Darmstadt. A second office was opened in London, next to the IAAF. A few years because of the somewhat unfavourable nature of the German tax system towards non-profit organizations, the proposal was made to merge both offices and move out of Germany; the move to Switzerland and necessary changes to Constitutional Rules were approved at the Athens Congress of 2003, the new location opened in Lausanne on 1 January 2004.
European Athletics' governance is split between five bodies: The Congress
Doha is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar. Doha has a population of 1,850,000 in the city proper with the population close to 2.4 million. The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country, it is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, it is the economic centre of the country. Doha was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda, it was declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate. As the commercial capital of Qatar and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha is considered a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha accommodates an area devoted to research and education; the city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup.
In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha. Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host a large number of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup; the city will host the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly in April 2019. In May 2015, Doha was recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, La Paz, Havana and Kuala Lumpur. According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic term dohat, meaning "roundness" — a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline; the city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to. Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as'Guttur'.
David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801. He describes the geography and defensive structures in the area, he stated that the town had been settled by the Sudan tribe, whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance. In 1820, British surveyor R. H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town, he wrote: Guttur – Or Ul Budee, once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries near the sea shore. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men; the same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements.
It sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was a party to it. Qatar, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag; as punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast. Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s. In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe. MacLeod noted. Following the founding of Doha, written records conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the close proximity of the two settlements; that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements.
Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description. In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy, he had murdered a native of Bahrain. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays; this incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town. With no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws. In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A. H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Sebastian Newbold Coe, Baron Coe referred to as Seb Coe or Lord Coe, is a British politician and former track and field athlete. As a middle-distance runner, Coe won four Olympic medals, including the 1500 metres gold medal at the Olympic Games in 1980 and 1984, he set eight outdoor and three indoor world records in middle-distance track events – including, in 1979, setting three world records in the space of 41 days – and the world record he set in the 800 metres in 1981 remained unbroken until 1997. Coe's rivalries with fellow Britons Steve Ovett and Steve Cram dominated middle-distance racing for much of the 1980s. Following Coe's retirement from athletics, he was a member of parliament for the Conservative Party from 1992 to 1997 for Falmouth in Cornwall, became a Life Peer on 16 May 2000, he headed the successful London bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics and became chairman of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. In 2007, he was elected a vice-president of the International Association of Athletics Federations, re-elected for another four-year term in 2011.
In August 2015, he was elected president of the IAAF. In 2012, Coe was appointed Pro-Chancellor at Loughborough University where he had been an undergraduate, is a member of the University's governing body, he was of one of 24 athletes inducted as inaugural members of the IAAF Hall of Fame. In November 2012, he was appointed chairman of the British Olympic Association. Coe was presented with the Lifetime Achievement award at the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in December 2012. Coe was born at Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, London, his mother, Tina Angela Lal, was of half Indian descent, born to a Punjabi father, Sardari Lal Malhotra, an English/Irish mother, Vera. Coe moved to Warwickshire when he was less than a year old where he attended Bridgetown Primary School and Hugh Clopton Secondary School in Stratford-upon-Avon; the family moved to Sheffield where he attended Tapton Secondary Modern School, Crosspool which became a Comprehensive School when he was there and Abbeydale Grange school.
He joined athletics team Hallamshire Harriers at the age of 12, soon became a middle-distance specialist, having been inspired by David Tomlinson, a geography teacher at Tapton School, a cross-country runner and its school captain when he was a pupil at King Edward VII School Sheffield. Coe was coached by his father and represented Loughborough University and Haringey when not competing for his country. Coe studied Economics and Social History at Loughborough University and won his first major race in 1977—an 800 metres event at the European indoor championships in San Sebastián, Spain, it was at Loughborough University that he met athletics coach George Gandy who had developed "revolutionary" conditioning exercises to improve Coe's running. His mother, Tina Angela Lal, died in London, in 2005, aged 75, his father, Peter Coe, died on 9 August 2008, aged 88. Coe first caught the public's attention on 14 March 1977 when he competed in the 800 metres at the European Indoor Championships in San Sebastián, front running the whole race and winning in 1:46.54, just missing the world indoor record.
He ran in the Emsley Carr mile on 29 August 1977, out-sprinting Filbert Bayi of Tanzania in the home straight and winning in 3:57.7. Eleven days on 9 September 1977, he ran the 800m at the Coca-Cola Games at Crystal Palace in a time of 1:44.95, beating Andy Carter's 1:45.12 time and claiming his first UK national record outdoors. Coe's 1978 season continued to show his progression in the middle distances, though he raced only sparingly as he had, in early June, suffered a serious ankle injury whilst out on a training run. On 18 August 1978, he ran at the Ivo Van Damme Memorial meeting in Brussels, in the 800m, where he far outclassed the field and stormed home in a time of 1:44.26, another UK national record. He first ran against his great rival Steve Ovett in a schools cross country race in 1972. Neither won, nor did either win in their first major encounter in the European Championships Prague on 31 August 1978 in the 800m where Ovett was second and Coe finished third behind the East German Olaf Beyer.
According to Pat Butcher, Coe's father and coach Peter Coe had encouraged him to run as fast as he could from the start. The early pace was indeed exceptionally fast: Coe ran 200 metres in 24.3 seconds, 400 metres in 49.32 seconds and 600 metres in 1:16.2: he slowed down and finished third in 1:44.76. A few weeks Coe was to reclaim the UK record, setting an all-comers' mark of 1:43.97 at Crystal Palace to rank him second in the world that year. On 1 October 1978, Coe displayed to the world for the first time his phenomenal natural endurance by winning the Loughrea 4 Mile road race in Ireland in 17:54, defeating the likes of Eamonn Coghlan and Mike McLeod, breaking Brendan Foster's course record of 18:05. All this off a season, focussed on 800m, with only one race over 1500m or a mile; this was a warning to the world's top milers of. The next year, 1979, Coe set three world records in 41 days, he set his first world records in Oslo, Norway in the 800-metre and the mile and broke the world 1500 metre record in Zurich, becoming the first person to hold all three records at the same time.
He won the 800m at the European Cup in Turin in August, covering the last 200m in 24.1 and anchored the British 4 × 400 m relay team with the fastest split of the quartet, 45.5. He remained undefeated at all distances that year, was voted "athlete o
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
2017 World Championships in Athletics
The 2017 IAAF World Championships was the 16th edition of the global athletics competition organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations and was held in London from 4 to 13 August 2017. London was awarded the championships on 11 November 2011; when the seeking deadline passed on 1 September 2011, two candidate cities had confirmed their candidatures. Barcelona, which investigated a bid, withdrew citing a lack of support from the local population and financial difficulties. On 5 September 2011, Doha launched its marketing bid for the 2017 World Championships; the slogan of the bid was "The RIGHT PARTNER for a stronger World Championships." The bid was led by Abdullah Al Aphrodite Moschoudi. Moschoudi led Qatar's bid for the 2015 Handball World Championships. Doha brought in Brian Roe, a member of the IAAF Technical Committee; the bid was for the championships to be held in the climate-controlled Khalifa Stadium. The Corniche promenade was to hold the road races, with the committee proposing to hold the marathon at night after the opening ceremony.
On 6 September 2011, London unveiled its bid for the 2017 championships with the slogan "Ready to break records." This was London's fourth bid in less than 15 years to host the event. The London bid team said that if their bid was successful they would introduce the "Women in World Athletics" programme; the IAAF Evaluation Commission visited London on 2–4 October and Doha on 4–6 October. On 11 November 2011, the winner was announced as London; the championships were held in the London Stadium in Stratford, which hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics, has a capacity of 60,000. Six days before the events were due to begin, it was reported that more than 660,000 tickets had been sold, a new record for the World Championships, surpassing the previous record of 417,156 tickets sold for Berlin 2009. Rights to televise the championships in the United Kingdom were held by the BBC. NBCUniversal was the rights holder in the United States. In Canada, rights to televise the championships belonged to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
The mascots for the IAAF Championships and World ParaAthletics Championships were unveiled in April 2017, chosen through a children's design contest organised by the BBC programme Blue Peter. The mascots represent "everyday" endangered species of the UK; the qualification period for the 10,000 metres, race walks and combined events runs from 1 January 2016 to 23 July 2017. For all other events, the qualification period runs from 1 October 2016 to 23 July 2017; the Women's 50 kilometres walk. All dates are BST * Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals. * Indicates the athlete only received medals. * Host nationNotes^ IAAF does not include the six medals won by athletes competing as Authorised Neutral Athletes in their official medal table. In the IAAF placing table the total score is obtained from assigning eight points to the first place and so on to one point for the eight placed finalists. Points are shared in situations. 65 IAAF members received points.
* Host nation Below is the list of countries and other neutral groupings who participated in the championships and the requested number of athlete places for each. Russia is indefinitely suspended from international competition due to a doping scandal, will therefore not be present at the Championships. 19 Russian athletes have been allowed to participate in international competition included as "authorised neutral athletes" at London 2017 following a long process to show that they were not directly implicated in Russia's state doping program. These athletes include Mariya Lasitskene, Sergey Shubenkov, Ilya Shkurenev, Aleksandr Menkov and Anzhelika Sidorova plus names from 2016 such as Darya Klishina For the first time, an Athlete Refugee Team delegation was present at the competition, mirroring the efforts to include refugee athletes that had occurred at the athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics. A total of five athletes – all of them Kenya-based refugees – were entered as part of the Athlete Refugee Team, including Somalian Ahmed Bashir Farah, Ethiopian Kadar Omar Abdullahi, South Sudanese middle-distance runners Dominic Lokinyomo Lobalu, Rose Lokonyen and Anjelina Lohalith, An outbreak of norovirus occurred at a local hotel affecting 30 athletes and officials.
An anti-doping programme was overseen at the championships for the first time by the Athletics Integrity Unit – an independent anti-doping board within the IAAF. A total of 1513 samples were collected at the competition and were sent to Ghent for analysis by a World Anti-Doping Agency-accredited laboratory; the samples comprised 917 blood samples. The blood samples were divided into two forms – 725 were taken to feed into the long-term athlete biological passport initiative and 192 were taken to identify use of human growth hormone and erythropoiesis stimulating agents; the in-competition anti-doping scheme was complemented by a more extensive out-of-competition testing programme, intelligence and performance-led and amounted to over 2000 blood tests and over 3000 urine samples. An anti-doping education initiative took place, led by the AIU and the IAAF Athletes' Commission, including an Athletes' Integrity Pledge, taken by around 2500 athletes. Two of Ukraine's fo