2015 World Championships in Athletics
The fifteenth edition of the IAAF World Championships was held 22–30 August 2015 in Beijing, China. 43 nations won medals,144 of which were awarded, kenya topped the medal table for the first time, with 7 gold,6 silver and 3 bronze medals. The United States won 18 medals, six gold, six silver and six bronze, Host nation China, finished 11th on the medals table, while Russia, the overall winner and host in 2013, finished ninth. 205 IAAF member countries and territories participated, two more than in 2013, with new IAAF member, making its debut, South Sudan was set to participate for the first time, but its sole athlete did not show up in Beijing. Eritrea won their first world title at these championships, with Ghirmay Ghebreslassie winning the mens marathon, the event was the largest sporting event to take place at the Beijing National Stadium since the 2008 Summer Olympics. When the seeking deadline passed on 15 March 2010, three cities had confirmed their candidatures. London stated that they would bid for 2017 and had the blessing of the IAAF to do so, the IAAF announced Beijing as the winning candidate at the IAAF Council Meeting in Monaco on 20 November 2010.
The Council of IAAF approved the dates of 22 August until 30 August 2015, the event was primarily held at the Beijing National Stadium, which served as the athletics venue during the 2008 Summer Olympics. Tickets for the championships were available in three categories, ranging from 50 RMB to 500 RMB. * Host nation 207 countries with a total of 1,933 athletes were entered, of those 1,771 athletes from 205 countries actually competed. The biggest delegation was the one from the USA with 130 athletes, two countries and South Sudan were set to participate, but none of their athletes showed up. The number of athletes per nation is shown in parentheses, as part of the event, the IAAF conducted a wide-reaching anti-doping programme. This included information-led targeted tests in the previous to the championships and testing of athletes in. In total, the IAAF undertook 1405 instances of doping controls in Beijing. The number of tests was a new high for the event, the testing was undertaken in partnership with the Chinese National Anti-Doping Agency.
An anti-doping education programme was conducted, which included presentations on the risks of doping. Initial analysis identified two failed tests, both Kenyan women, hurdler Koki Manunga and sprinter Joy Nakhumicha Sakari, both were disqualified immediately from the competition. 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships Official website
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Sebastian Newbold Coe, Baron Coe, CH, KBE, FRIBA, often referred to as Seb Coe or Lord Coe, is a British politician and former track and field athlete. As a middle-distance runner, Lord Coe won four Olympic medals, Coes rivalries with fellow Britons Steve Ovett and Steve Cram dominated middle-distance racing for much of the 1980s. Following Coes retirement from athletics, he was a member of parliament for the Conservative Party from 1992 to 1997 for Falmouth and Camborne in Cornwall and he headed the successful London bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics and became chairman of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. In 2007, he was elected a vice-president of the International Association of Athletics Federations, in August 2015 he was elected president of the IAAF. In 2012, Coe was appointed Pro-Chancellor at Loughborough University where he had been an undergraduate, in November 2012 he was appointed chair of the British Olympic Association. In 2012 he was one of 24 athletes inducted as members of the IAAF Hall of Fame.
Coe was presented with the Lifetime Achievement award at the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in December 2012, in March 2017, Coe was named Chancellor at Loughborough University, replacing Nigel Rudd and becoming the Universitys sixth Chancellor. Coe was born on 29 September 1956 at Queen Charlottes and Chelsea Hospital and his mother, Tina Angela Lal, died in London, in 2005, aged 75. She was of half Indian descent, born to a Punjabi father, Sardari Lal Malhotra, and his father, Peter Coe, died on 9 August 2008, aged 88, while Sebastian was visiting Beijing for the 2008 Summer Olympics. The family moved to Sheffield where he attended Tapton Secondary Modern School, Crosspool which became a Comprehensive School when he was there, Coe was coached by his father and represented Loughborough University and Haringey when not competing for his country. Coe studied Economics and Social History at Loughborough University and won his first major race in 1977—an 800 metres event at the European indoor championships in San Sebastián and it was at Loughborough University that he met athletics coach George Gandy who had developed revolutionary conditioning exercises to improve Coes running.
He ran in the Emsley Carr Mile on 29 August 1977, out-sprinting Filbert Bayi of Tanzania in the home straight and winning in 3,57.7. Coes 1978 season continued to show his progression in the distances, though he raced only sparingly as he had, in early June. On 18 August 1978, he ran at the Ivo Van Damme Memorial meeting in Brussels, in the 800m and he first ran against his great rival Steve Ovett in a schools cross country race in 1972. According to Pat Butcher, Coes father and coach Peter Coe had encouraged him to run as fast as he could from the start. The early pace was indeed exceptionally fast, Coe ran 200 metres in 24.3 seconds,400 metres in 49.32 seconds and 600 metres in 1,16.2, he slowed down and finished third in 1,44.76. A few weeks Coe was to reclaim the UK record, the next year,1979, Coe set three world records in 41 days. He easily won the 800m at the European Cup in Turin in August, covering the last 200m in 24.1, in the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow and Coe won each others speciality, Ovett the 800 metres, and Coe the 1500 metres
1912 Summer Olympics
The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, between 5 May and 22 July 1912. Twenty-eight nations and 2,408 competitors, including 48 women, with the exception of tennis and football and shooting, the games were held within a month with an official opening on 6 July. It was the last Olympics to issue solid gold medals and, with Japans debut, Stockholm was the only bid for the games, and was selected in 1909. The games were the first to have art competitions, womens diving, womens swimming, electric timing was introduced in athletics, while the host country disallowed boxing. Figure skating was rejected by the organizers because they wanted to promote the Nordic Games, United States won the most gold medals, while Sweden won the most medals overall. Following the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, the authorities in Sweden immediately sought to ensure that the games would be held there. There were two Swedish members of the International Olympic Committee at the time, Viktor Balck and Clarence von Rosen, the pair proposed to the Swedish governing bodies of athletics and gymnastics in order to ensure that they backed any potential bid.
Support was given by the associations on 18 April 1909 for a bid to host the Olympics in Stockholm on the basis that suitable financial arrangements could be made. King Gustaf V was petitioned on 6 May 1909 following the publication of plans for the Stockholm bid that the expected cost of hosting the Games would be 415,000 kronor. The Government accepted the petition on behalf of the King and supported the bid, on 28 May, at the meeting of the IOC in Berlin, the Swedish representatives declared that they had full financial support for hosting the next Games in Stockholm. A deal was made with the German IOC representative on the basis that Berlin would host the 1916 Summer Olympics. Pierre de Coubertin spoke at the meeting about his concerns that Sweden should ensure that the Games take place, the Games were duly awarded to Sweden to host in Stockholm as the only nominated host city for the 1912 Summer Olympics. The news that Stockholm was to host the 1912 Olympics was received with enthusiasm by the Swedish public, the organizing committee took de Coubertins words to heart, and aimed to achieve an Olympic Games which removed those elements which detracted from earlier Games.
The committee was elected in the autumn of 1909, with Balck voted as the President of the committee, the committees first meeting took place on 7 October, and on 11 October they delegated the arrangements for the individual branches of sports to the relevant governing bodies in Sweden. Altogether there were 187 members of these committees, the official invitation to compete in the Games was issued on 18 November 1910 to 27 countries, either directly or through their representative on the IOC. A further 15 countries were to have been invited, but as they had no IOC representatives, once the organizing committee for the Games received confirmation of the athletic associations in each of the 15 countries, they too were sent invitations. Some 61,800 entry forms were printed for the use of the various nations, free transport was arranged for the invited nations equipment, and a discount of 50 percent was arranged for competitors and delegates on the state run railway. A daily newspaper which covered the Olympics was arranged to be published during the Games
The i is a British newspaper owned and published by Johnston Press, which publishes the Yorkshire Post and The Scotsman. It is aimed at readers and lapsed readers of all ages and commuters with limited time, the i was named National Newspaper of the Year in 2015. In March 2014 it had a daily circulation of 292,801, significantly more than The Independent. The circulation has continued to drop, falling to 264,067 in December 2016, starting on 7 May 2011 a Saturday edition was published, with more pages and at the price of 30p. This increased to 40p in January 2014, with the weekday edition rising to 30p, in September 2016 the price was raised to 60p, with the weekday edition rising to 50p. On 11 February 2016 it was revealed that regional publisher Johnston Press, owners of the Yorkshire Post, a significant number of staff joined the team from The Independent. The new editorial team was announced in April 2016, the i is tabloid-size and stapled, and the first issue contained 56 pages. The newspaper contains matrices for news and sports—small paragraphs of information which are expanded upon in full articles further on in the paper, the title includes a features section titled iQ, and a television guide.
The managing director of The Independent stated several days before the newspaper went into print that the publication is designed for people who do not have time to read a newspaper. On 20 April 2011, editor Simon Kelner announced that a Saturday edition of the i would be published, starting from 7 May 2011, the paper is now running Monday to Saturday. The paper now runs a subscription, whereby customers can buy pre-paid vouchers to exchange for their copy of the paper, the subscription can be either six months or a year long and can be chosen Monday to Friday or including Saturday. There is a discounted student subscription that lasts for one academic year, a press statement released on the website of The Independent on 19 October 2010 announced the launch of the i. Also in October, Independent Print Limited launched a campaign to promote the new publication. The first issue of the i went on sale on 26 October 2010,2010, Simon Kelner 2011, Stefano Hatfield 2013, Oliver Duff Official website i on App Store
Senegal, officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal borders The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegals economic and political capital is Dakar and it is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, and owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. The name Senegal comes from the Wolof Sunuu Gaal, which means Our Boat, Senegal covers a land area of almost 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 million. The climate is Sahelian, but there is a rainy season, the territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the century, and parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire.
The present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, the establishment of coastal trading posts gradually led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, and has since been among the politically stable countries in Africa. Senegals economy is centered mostly on commodities and natural resources, major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, and ship construction and repair. As in most African nations, agriculture is a sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, melons. Owing to its stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. A multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi, French is the official language, although many native languages are spoken and recognized.
Since April 2012 Senegals president has been Macky Sall, Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Senegal is named after the Senegal River, the etymology of which is contested, one popular theory is that it stems from the Wolof phrase sunu gaal, which means our canoe, resulting from a miscommunication between 15th-century Portuguese sailors and Wolof fishermen. The our canoe theory has been embraced in modern Senegal for its charm. It is frequently used in appeals to national solidarity, frequently heard in the media, modern historians believe the name probably refers to the Sanhaja, Berbers who lived on the northern side of the river. A competing theory is that it derives from the town of Sanghana
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time