American Numismatic Society
The American Numismatic Society is a New York City-based organization dedicated to the study of coins and medals. The American Numismatic Society is an organization dedicated to the study of coins, medals and related objects from all cultures and present; the Society's headquarters in New York City houses the foremost research collection and library specialized in numismatics in the United States. These resources are used to support research and education in numismatics, for the benefit of academic specialists, serious collectors, professional numismatists, the interested public, it is one of a number of numismatic associations. The ANS is a constituent member of the American Council of Learned Societies. ANS should not be confused with the Colorado Springs-based American Numismatic Association; the ANS was located at Audubon Terrace on West 155th and Broadway in New York before relocating to Fulton Street. In 2008, the ANS moved to its current location is at 75 Varick Street by Canal Street in downtown Manhattan.
The collection of coins and paper currency consists of over 800,000 objects drawn from all periods and cultures. In many fields the ANS' collections are the most comprehensive anywhere in the world; the collection includes early numismatic items from Ancient Greece and the Roman Republic, has a strong representation of coins of American, Far Eastern, Islamic origin. These coinages range from 700 BC to the present. In addition, the collection contains paper and primitive money, as well as medals and decorations dating back to as early as 4000 BC; the curatorial department of the ANS preserves and documents the extensive collection. This work includes keeping the collection's database MANTIS up-to-date, which involves adding images; this online database is a major asset to the study of numismatics, because it is one of the largest of its kind and accessible to everyone. The ANS collaborates with other institutions to make numismatics accessible online. In collaboration with the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, the ANS is creating OCRE, an abbreviation for "Online Coins of the Roman Empire."
This project aspires to record every published type of Roman Imperial Coinage and link them with examples in major collections published online. The ANS participates in Nomisma.org, which "is a collaborative project to provide stable digital representations of numismatic concepts according to the principles of Linked Open Data." Further the ANS maintains the website of “The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace.” At its headquarters in Manhattan, the ANS has a small exhibition, open to the public. The ANS loans objects from its collections to other institutions and exhibitions. While the largest number of objects from the ANS can be found at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, there are exhibitions with ANS objects all over the world; the library of the ANS houses over 100,000 items and is one of the most comprehensive collections of numismatic literature including books, auction catalogs, manuscripts and pamphlets. A special part of the library is the Rare Books Room with its unique collection of antique numismatic literature.
The ANS is an active disseminator of research. As the largest non-profit numismatic publishing house in the world, ANS issues books, monographs, conference papers, conference proceedings in a variety of series and special issues; the ANS publishes three periodicals: the annual American Journal of Numismatics, the triannual Colonial Newsletter, the quarterly ANS Magazine. Electronic publications are the "Pocket Change" blog; the ANS publishes books on coins and medals. Past publications have included the Numismatic Literature journal; the ANS gives multiple awards to people contributing to the Society. The Huntington Medal Award is conferred annually in honor of Archer M. Huntington, an important contributor to the ANS at the beginning of the 20th century; this award recognizes outstanding career contributions to numismatic scholarship. The first such award was conferred to Edward T. Newell in 1918; the Saltus Medal Award is named after J. Sanford Saltus, who initiated this award in 1913; this award is given to sculptors “for distinguished achievement in the field of the art of the medal”.
While this medal was at first only given to Americans, since 1983 foreign artists are eligible to receive this award. The 2011 award recipient was Portuguese artist João Duarte and previous winners are on the List of Saltus Award winners. In 1952, the American Numismatic Society established the Eric P. Newman Graduate Seminar in Numismatics; this training program in numismatics takes places each summer and many of its alumni are now in academic positions. The ANS was formed by a group of collectors in New York City in 1858, at a time when many learned societies were created. Although the initial meeting of the collectors occurred in March 1858, the Society looks back to April 6, 1858 as its date of creation; that same month, the Society accessioned its first coin. In 1865, it was incorporated as the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society or ANAS. In 1907, the name was changed back to the original one.“The founders were Edward Groh, James Oliver, Dr. Isaac H. Gibbs, Henry Whitmore, James D. Foskett, Alfred Boughton, Ezra Hill, Augustus B.
Sage, Asher D. Atkinson, M. D. John Cooper Vail, W. H. Morgan, Thomas Dunn English, M. D. LL. D. and Theophilus W. Lawrence; the corporators were Frank H. Norton, Isaac J. Greenwood, John Ha
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc of metal, carrying a design on both sides. They have a commemorative purpose of some kind, many are given as awards, they may be suspended from clothing or jewellery in some way. They are traditionally struck like a coin by dies. A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, scientific, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations are more precise terms for certain types of state decoration. Medals may be created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, or as works of artistic expression in their own right. In the past, medals commissioned for an individual with their portrait, were used as a form of diplomatic or personal gift, with no sense of being an award for the conduct of the recipient. An artist who creates medals or medallions is called a "medalist". Medals have long been popular collectible items, in numismatics form a class called either exonumia or militaria.
In the proper use of the term, medallions are larger, starting at four inches across, are, as such too large to be worn comfortably, though in colloquial use, "medallion" is used to refer to a medal used as the pendant of a necklace, or for other types of medals. Medallions may be called "table medals" because they are too large to be worn and can only be displayed on a wall, table top, desk, or cabinet. Numismatists divide medals into at least seven classes: Awards: awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, scientific, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations are more precise terms for certain types of state decoration. Military decorations are in shapes such as crosses or stars, but are still loosely called "medals", as in the star-shaped American Medal of Honor. Commemoratives: created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, or as works of medallic art in their own right. Souvenirs: similar to a commemorative, but more focused on a place or event like state fairs, museums, historic sites, etc. and found for sale within their respective souvenir shops.
Religious: devotional medals may be worn for religious reasons. Portraits: produced to immortalize a person with their portrait. Artistic: made purely as an art object. Plaquettes are of this type. Society Medals: made for societies used as a badge or token of membership. First attested in English in 1578, the word medal is derived from the Middle French médaille, itself from Italian medaglia, from the post-classical Latin medalia, meaning a coin worth half a denarius; the word medallion has the same ultimate derivation, but this time through the Italian medaglione, meaning "large medal". There are two theories as for the etymology of the word medalia: the first being that the Latin medalia itself is derived from the adjective medialis meaning "medial" or "middle". Traditionally medals are stamped with dies on a durable metal flan or planchet, or cast from a mould; the imagery, which includes lettering, is in low relief. Circular medals are most common; the "decoration" types use other shapes crosses and stars.
These in particular come with a suspension loop, a wide coloured ribbon with a clip at the top, for attaching to clothing worn on the chest. The main or front surface of a medal is termed the obverse, may contain a portrait, pictorial scene, or other image along with an inscription; the reverse, or back surface of the medal, is not always used and may be left blank or may contain a secondary design. It is not uncommon to find only an artistic rendering on the obverse, while all details and other information for the medal are inscribed on the reverse; the rim is found only employed to display an inscription such as a motto, privy mark, engraver symbol, assayer’s marking, or a series number. Medals that are intended to be hung from a ribbon include a small suspension piece at the crest with which to loop a suspension ring through, it is through the ring that a ribbon is folded so the medal may hang pendent. Medals pinned to the breast use only a small cut of ribbon, attached to a top bar where the brooch pin is affixed.
Top bars may be hidden under the ribbon so they are not visible, be a plain device from which the ribbon attaches, or may be decorative to complement the design on the medal. Some top bars are contain a whole design unto themselves. Bronze has been the most common material employed for medals, due to its fair price range, ease with which to work when casting, the ample availability However, a wide range of other media have been used. Rarer metals have been employed, such as silver and gold, when wishing to add value beyond the mere artistic depiction, as well as base metals and alloys such as copper, iron, lead, zinc and pewter. Medals that are made with inexpensive material might be gilded, silver-plated, chased, or finished in a variety of other ways to improve their appearance. Medals have been made of rock, ivory, porcelain, terra cotta
American Numismatic Association
The American Numismatic Association is a Colorado Springs, Colorado organization founded in 1891 by Dr. George F. Heath, it was formed to advance the knowledge of numismatics along educational and scientific lines, as well as to enhance interest in the hobby. The ANA has more than 25,000 members who receive many benefits, such as discounts, access to website features, the monthly journal The Numismatist; the ANA's Colorado Springs headquarters houses its administrative offices and money museum. The ANA received a Federal Charter from the United States Congress in 1912. A Board of Governors are in charge of the ANA. Numerous advisory committees help to operate it properly; the ANA has a Young Numismatists program intended to promote interest among youth. The ANA has held annual conventions throughout the nation in most years since 1891, with two per year since 1978; the Farran Zerbe Memorial Award is bestowed upon the most dedicated members. The ANA maintains a Numismatic Hall of Fame. Dr. George F. Heath of Monroe, gained knowledge of world history by studying his collection of coins.
The obscurity of his community was an obstacle towards obtaining certain specimens, made meeting fellow numismatists difficult. In 1888, he printed and distributed a four-page leaflet, NUMISMATIST, in which he listed his coin needs, advertised duplicates for sale, discussed numismatic topics; the nascent publication found many friends among other isolated collectors. As Heath's subscription list increased, a need for a national organization of numismatists was evident; the February 1891 edition of The Numismatist printed a question, "What is the matter with having an American Numismatic Association?" A follow-up statement was included: "There is nothing like the alliance of kindred pursuits to stimulate growth and interest."On October 7 and October 8, 1891, five men—Heath, William G. Jerrems, David Harlowe, J. A. Heckelman and John Brydon—holding 26 proxies, met in Chicago with 61 charter members; the result was the founding of the ANA, which has since become the largest non-profit numismatic organization in the world.
Heath introduced the idea of a numismatic convention, where members could make personal contact with other numismatists. The first convention was held in 1891 annually until 1895, in 1901 and 1904. After the 1907 convention in Columbus, Ohio, it was decided to hold annual conventions thereafter. On June 16, 1908, Dr. Heath died. Farran Zerbe president, assumed the task of editing and publishing THE NUMISMATIST, soon purchased the publication from Heath's heirs. In 1911, W. C. C. Wilson of Montreal, Canada, purchased THE NUMISMATIST from Zerbe and presented it to the ANA. Since the magazine has been owned and published monthly by the ANA. On May 9, 1912, the ANA attained national prominence as it was granted a Federal Charter signed by President William H. Taft. In 1962, an amendment to make the Charter permanent and allow for a larger Board was introduced and passed by Congress and signed into law by John F. Kennedy on April 10; the amendment was presented by Congressman Wilbur Mills and Senator John L. McClellan, both of Arkansas.
An ANA national headquarters building fund was established on April 29, 1961. A site in Colorado Springs, Colorado was selected as the headquarter's location and a ground breaking ceremony was held on September 6, 1966. On December 20, the $250,000 building fund goal was reached and the new headquarters was dedicated and opened on June 10, 1967; the ANA's administration operates from its Colorado Springs headquarters. The ANA's monthly journal, The Numismatist, is produced here. Many articles are contributed by ANA members; the facility houses the largest circulating numismatic library in the world. Books, educational slide programs and instructional videotapes are loaned to members without charge other than costs to cover postage and insurance; the ANA has many affiliate club members throughout the United States, such as the Beverly Hills Coin Club and the Chicago Coin Club. ANA headquarters contains the ANA Money Museum, which includes over 250,000 objects encompassing the history of numismatics from the earliest invention of money to modern day.
The Harry W. Bass Collection features American gold coins, experimental pattern coins and paper money; the museum offers changing exhibits about money in history, archeology and economics, coin collecting. Members may study the items on display and, by prearrangement, can use other museum materials for research purposes; the ANA has more than 25,000 members. Memberships last three years, five years, or a lifetime; the cost of the latter is $800 to $1,200, depending on a member's age and whether the ANA's magazine, "The Numismatist", is mailed or emailed. The ANA is run by a nine-member Board of Governors composed of the President, Vice-President, seven Governors, each elected by ANA members in odd-numbered years. Governor candidates must have been ANA members for at least three years. President and Vice President candidates must have served at least one term as a Governor. Total service on the Board is limited to 10 years; the current Board of Governors was elected in 2017. The President and Vice President positions were uncontested.
Candidates ran for seven Governor seats. The election results were as follows: The ANA is served by various advisory committees. There are temporary advisory committees for searches, one formed for forming a Strategic Vision for the board in 2012. There are several more permanent advisory committees: Bylaws & Ethics Community Education Community Relations Convention & Dealer Relations Exhibits & Awards, to set rules and work to oversee collector exhibiting
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil and wrong, virtue and vice and crime; as a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, value theory. Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, how their truth values can be determined Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action The English word "ethics" is derived from the Ancient Greek word ēthikós, meaning "relating to one's character", which itself comes from the root word êthos meaning "character, moral nature".
This was borrowed into Latin as ethica and into French as éthique, from which it was borrowed into English. Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have included such phrases as'the science of the ideal human character' or'the science of moral duty'". Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures"; the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with'morality'... and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group or individual." Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law and don't treat ethics as a stand-alone concept. The word ethics in English refers to several things, it can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason to answer various kinds of ethical questions.
As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: "What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive." Williams describes the content of this area of inquiry as addressing the broad question, "how one should live". Ethics can refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems, not particular to philosophy; as bioethicist Larry Churchill has written: "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity." Ethics can be used to describe a particular person's own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example: "Joe has strange ethics." Meta-ethics is the branch of philosophical ethics that asks how we understand, know about, what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question pertaining to a particular practical situation—such as, "Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake?"—cannot be a meta-ethical question.
A meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions. For example, "Is it possible to have secure knowledge of what is right and wrong?" is a meta-ethical question. Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics. For example, Aristotle implies that less precise knowledge is possible in ethics than in other spheres of inquiry, he regards ethical knowledge as depending upon habit and acculturation in a way that makes it distinctive from other kinds of knowledge. Meta-ethics is important in G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica from 1903. In it he first wrote about. Moore was seen to reject naturalism in his Open Question Argument; this made. Earlier, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values. Studies of how we know in ethics divide into non-cognitivism. Non-cognitivism is the view that when we judge something as morally right or wrong, this is neither true nor false. We may, for example, be only expressing our emotional feelings about these things.
Cognitivism can be seen as the claim that when we talk about right and wrong, we are talking about matters of fact. The ontology of ethics is about value-bearing things or properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuff referred to by ethical propositions. Non-descriptivists and non-cognitivists believe that ethics does not need a specific ontology since ethical propositions do not refer; this is known as an anti-realist position. Realists, on the other hand, must explain what kind of entities, properties or states are relevant for ethics, how they have value, why they guide and motivate our actions. Normative ethics is the study of ethical action, it is the branch of ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because normative ethics examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts.
Normative ethics is distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs. To put it another way, descriptive ethics would be concerned with determining what proportion of people believe th
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, paper money and related objects. While numismatists are characterised as students or collectors of coins, the discipline includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded where used as a circulating currency; the Kyrgyz people gave small change in lambskins. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones and gems. Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, standardized, or credit value. Numismatic value is the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law, known as the collector value. Economic and historical studies of money's use and development are an integral part of the numismatists' study of money's physical embodiment. First attested in English 1829, the word numismatics comes from the adjective numismatic, meaning "of coins".
It was borrowed in 1792 from French numismatiques, itself a derivation from Late Latin numismatis, genitive of numisma, a variant of nomisma meaning "coin". Nomisma is a latinisation of the Greek νόμισμα which means "current coin/custom", which derives from νομίζω, "to hold or own as a custom or usage, to use customarily", in turn from νόμος, "usage, custom" from νέμω, "I dispense, assign, hold". Throughout its history, money itself has been made to be a scarce good, although it does not have to be. Many materials have been used to form money, from scarce precious metals and cowry shells through cigarettes to artificial money, called fiat money, such as banknotes. Many complementary currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that keeps the balance of money intact. Modern money is a token – an abstraction. Paper currency is the most common type of physical money today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the essential properties of money, such as volatility and limited supply.
However, these goods are not controlled by one single authority. Coin collecting may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave "coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and foreign money" as Saturnalia gifts. Petrarch, who wrote in a letter that he was approached by vinediggers with old coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance collector. Petrarch presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355; the first book on coins was De Asse et Partibus by Guillaume Budé. During the early Renaissance ancient coins were collected by European nobility. Collectors of coins were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV of France, Ferdinand I, Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg who started the Berlin coin cabinet and Henry IV of France to name a few. Numismatics is called the "Hobby of Kings", due to its most esteemed founders. Professional societies organised in the 19th century; the Royal Numismatic Society was founded in 1836 and began publishing the journal that became the Numismatic Chronicle.
The American Numismatic Society was founded in 1858 and began publishing the American Journal of Numismatics in 1866. In 1931 the British Academy launched the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum publishing collections of Ancient Greek coinage; the first volume of Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles was published in 1958. In the 20th century coins gained recognition as archaeological objects, scholars such as Guido Bruck of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna realised their value in providing a temporal context and the difficulty that curators faced when identifying worn coins using classical literature. After World War II in Germany a project, Fundmünzen der Antike was launched, to register every coin found within Germany; this idea found successors in many countries. In the United States, the US mint established a coin Cabinet in 1838 when chief coiner Adam Eckfeldt donated his personal collection. William E. Du Bois’ Pledges of History... describes the cabinet. C. Wyllys Betts' American colonial history illustrated by contemporary medals set the groundwork for the study of American historical medals.
Helen Wang's "A short history of Chinese numismatics in European languages" gives an outline history of Western countries' understanding of Chinese numismatics. Lyce Jankowski's Les amis des monnaies is an in-depth study of Chinese numismatics in China in the 19th century. Modern numismatics is the study of the coins of the mid-17th century onward, the period of machine-struck coins, their study serves more the need of collectors than historians and it is more successfully pursued by amateur aficionados than by professional scholars. The focus of modern numismatics lies in the research of production and use of money in historical contexts using mint or other records in order to determine the relative rarity of the coins they study. Varieties, mint-made errors, the results of progressive die wear, mintage figures and the sociopolitical context of coin mintings are matters of interest. Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.
This includes elongated coins, encased coins, souvenir medallions, badges, counterstamped coins