click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

International Atomic Time

International Atomic Time is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth's geoid. It is the principal realisation of Terrestrial Time, it is the basis for Coordinated Universal Time, used for civil timekeeping all over the Earth's surface. As of 31 December 2016, when another leap second was added, TAI is 37 seconds ahead of UTC; the 37 seconds results from the initial difference of 10 seconds at the start of 1972, plus 27 leap seconds in UTC since 1972. TAI may be reported using traditional means of specifying days, carried over from non-uniform time standards based on the rotation of the Earth. Both Julian Dates and the Gregorian calendar are used. TAI in this form was synchronised with Universal Time at the beginning of 1958, the two have drifted apart since, due to the changing motion of the Earth. TAI is a weighted average of the time kept by over 400 atomic clocks in over 50 national laboratories worldwide; the majority of the clocks involved are caesium clocks.

The clocks are compared using two-way satellite time and frequency transfer. Due to the signal averaging TAI is an order of magnitude more stable than its best constituent clock; the participating institutions each broadcast, in real time, a frequency signal with timecodes, their estimate of TAI. Time codes are published in the form of UTC, which differs from TAI by a well-known integer number of seconds; these time scales are denoted in the form UTC in the UTC form, where NPL in this case identifies the National Physical Laboratory, UK. The TAI form may be denoted TAI; the latter is not to be confused with TA, which denotes an independent atomic time scale, not synchronised to TAI or to anything else. The clocks at different institutions are compared against each other; the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, combines these measurements to retrospectively calculate the weighted average that forms the most stable time scale possible. This combined time scale is published monthly in "Circular T", is the canonical TAI.

This time scale is expressed in the form of tables of differences UTC − UTC for each participating institution k. The same circular gives tables of TAI − TA, for the various unsynchronised atomic time scales. Errors in publication may be corrected by issuing a revision of the faulty Circular T or by errata in a subsequent Circular T. Aside from this, once published in Circular T, the TAI scale is not revised. In hindsight it is possible to discover errors in TAI, to make better estimates of the true proper time scale. Since the published circulars are definitive, better estimates do not create another version of TAI. Early atomic time scales consisted of quartz clocks with frequencies calibrated by a single atomic clock. Atomic timekeeping services started experimentally in 1955, using the first caesium atomic clock at the National Physical Laboratory, UK, it was used as a basis for calibrating the quartz clocks at the Royal Greenwich Observatory and to establish a time scale, called Greenwich Atomic.

The United States Naval Observatory began the A.1 scale on 13 September 1956, using an Atomichron commercial atomic clock, followed by the NBS-A scale at the National Bureau of Standards, Colorado on 9 October 1957. The International Time Bureau began a time scale, Tm or AM, in July 1955, using both local caesium clocks and comparisons to distant clocks using the phase of VLF radio signals; the BIH scale, A.1, NBS-A were defined by an epoch at the beginning of 1958 The procedures used by the BIH evolved, the name for the time scale changed: "A3" in 1964 and "TA" in 1969. The SI second was defined in terms of the caesium atom in 1967. From 1971 to 1975 the General Conference on Weights and Measures and the International Committee for Weights and Measures made a series of decisions which designated the BIPM time scale International Atomic Time. In the 1970s, it became clear that the clocks participating in TAI were ticking at different rates due to gravitational time dilation, the combined TAI scale therefore corresponded to an average of the altitudes of the various clocks.

Starting from Julian Date 2443144.5, corrections were applied to the output of all participating clocks, so that TAI would correspond to proper time at mean sea level. Because the clocks were, on average, well above sea level, this meant that TAI slowed down, by about one part in a trillion; the former uncorrected time scale continues to be published, under the name EAL. The instant that the gravitational correction started to be applied serves as the epoch for Barycentric Coordinate Time, Geocentric Coordinate Time, Terrestrial Time, which represent three fundamental time scales in the solar system. All three of these time scales were defined to read JD 2443144.5003725 at that instant. TAI was henceforth a realisation of TT, with the equation TT = TAI + 32.184 s. The continued existence of TAI was questioned in a 2007 letter from the BIPM to the ITU-R which stated, "In the case of a redefinition of UTC without leap seconds, the CCTF would consider discussing the possibility of suppressing TAI, as it would remain parallel to the continuous UTC."

UTC is a discontinuous time scale. It is regularly

Zoltán Tóth (footballer, born 1955)

Zoltán Tóth is a Hungarian former footballer who played as a goalkeeper and works as a coach. He played for Újpest FC in Budapest from 1975 to 1979 and once played for the Hungary national team in 1979. Tóth was born in Hungary to György Tóth, who played fifteen times with the Hungary national football team between 1939 and 1948. Tóth's talent was apparent early and he also saw time with the Hungary himself. On a tour with the team in Cadiz, Spain in 1979, Tóth moved to the United States, he played on the Hungarian Olympic team. In addition to his national team time, Tóth spent four seasons with Hungarian First Division club Újpest FC; as one of the top Hungarian clubs, Újpest played in the UEFA Cup and European Cup. They twice won the Hungarian national championship during Tóth's time, 1977–78 and 1978–79. In 1979, Tóth signed with the New York Arrows of Major Indoor Soccer League for the 1980–81 season and got his start when Arrows' goalkeeper Shep Messing was injured, he was the 1982-1983 MISL Goalkeeper of the Year.

Won 14 lost 2 in 1980–81 and won 15 lost 2 in 1981–82 season. Best winning percentage of all time. In 1984, he transferred to the San Diego Sockers of the North American Soccer League, he kept 7 clean sheets out of 10 games. The Sockers moved to the MISL. Toth remained with the Sockers through the 1989–90 season, he was selected as the MISL Goalkeeper of the Decade for the 1980s. He holds the league record for goals against average, he played for the St. Louis Storm from 1990 to 1992. 1980–1982 – Geza Henni Goalkeeper School Rhode Island University Goalkeeper coach Professional goalkeeper instructions 1984–1990 – San Diego Sockers Youth Soccer Programs San Diego, CA. 1990–1992 – American All-Stars Co. San Diego, CA. Youth Sports Athletic Director Responsible for team clinics, goalkeeper training 1992–1993 – Full-time professional coach. San Diego, California San Dieguito Surf U-16 boys' and U-9 girls' head coach Coached teams with success, winning Presidio Cup and North Huntington Beach tournament.

1993–1996 – coach of the Encinitas Express U-11 boys' teams 1997–2000 – coach of the Fallbrook Fury Soccer Club U-14 boys. Advise for Fallbrook's AAA U-10 boys' team. 2000 – SWSC Bu/19 team 2002–2007 – Goalkeeper coach Vista Soccer Club 2002–2007 – Goalkeeper coach TVSA Temecula Murrieta Soccer Club 2005–2007 – Goalkeeper coach Fallbrook Fury In March 2013, Tóth was one of six men named to the 2013 class of the Indoor Soccer Hall of Fame. The other inductees are Gordon Jago, Kai Haaskivi, Brian Quinn, Mike Stankovic, his son Christopher is the current goalkeeper for the San Diego Sockers and played for the United States national beach soccer team at the 2013 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup in Tahiti. Toth home page

Tyron Henderson

Tyron Henderson is a former South African professional cricketer who played in one international match for the South African national team. He was born in Durban in Natal Province. An all-rounder, Henderson played both in South Africa and in England, he made his first-class and List A debuts in 1998/99 for Border. He moved to Highveld Lions for the 2006/07 season before playing for Cape Cobras and Boland in 2007/08, he was released by the Cobras at the end of the season and did not play professionally in South Africa afterwards. Henderson played for Heriots Cricket Club in Scotland in 2000 and first played county cricket in England in 2002 for Minor County Berkshire, he played for Kent in 2006 before joining Middlesex in June 2007 as a short-term replacement for Chaminda Vaas. For the 2008 season he was re-signed by the county under the Kolpak ruling which meant he was unable to play for South Africa. In the 2008 Twenty20 Cup he took 21 wickets. At the 2008 T20 Finals Henderson became the sixth player to have hit 50 sixes in Twenty20 cricket in a Man of the Match performance against the Durham Dynamos in the semi-final.

In the final against Kent he bowled the final over of the match and ran out Justin Kemp to clinch the title for Middlesex. He continued to play Twenty 20 cricket for Middlesex until the end of the 2010 English cricket season, he was awarded his county cap by Middlesex in 2008. He was purchased by Rajasthan Royals for $650,000 in the 2009 Indian Premier League auction, $550,000 more than his base price of $100,000, he had a "limited impact" in the competition. Tyron Henderson at ESPNcricinfo

Lucky Diamond Rich

Gregory Paul McLaren who goes by the name of Lucky Diamond Rich, is a New Zealand performance artist, street performer and international arts festival performer, whose act includes sword swallowing and juggling on a unicycle. He is best known, for holding the Guinness World Record as "the world's most tattooed person", a title held by Englishman Tom Leppard. Rich has tattoos covering his entire body, including the insides of his eyelids, mouth and foreskin, he has held the certified record since 2006. Rich was born on the second island of New Zealand; as a young boy, he became interested in the most tattooed men and women. It did not go much further than just a thought until he got his first tattoo, of a small juggling club on his hip, he went on to tattoo every part of his body including every intimate area. He added colour, his tattoos have taken over a thousand hours to ink, have been worked on by hundreds of tattoo artists. Body suit Tattoo art style Media related to Lucky Diamond Rich at Wikimedia Commons

Harriet Farley

Harriet Jane Farley was an American writer and abolitionist, editor of the Lowell Offering from 1842–1845, editor of the New England Offering from 1847–1850. Harriet Farley was the sixth of ten children born to Lucy Farley, she grew up in Atkinson, New Hampshire and attended Atkinson Academy, a school for both boys and girls, of which her father was the principal. The Farleys were poor, so at the age of fourteen, Harriet began doing piecework to earn money for her family, she was a schoolteacher for several years, although she found that teaching was not to her liking. In 1837, at the age of 25, Harriet left New Hampshire to work in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts. There were high literacy rates among the young female workers of the Lowell mills, many, like Harriet Farley, had been schoolteachers before entering factory work, it was common for these women to form writing groups, out of one of these grew a magazine called The Lowell Offering in 1840. Farley wrote articles and editorials for The Lowell Offering under a myriad of pseudonyms and became editor in 1842.

Since the magazine was written by and for the mill girls, it was received with both criticism and interest by the general public. Some, including labor organizer Orestes Brownson, felt that the publication did not place enough emphasis on labor reform and the deplorable working conditions of the mills. Farley defended herself in a letter of response to his condemnation, insisting that the Offering was a literary magazine and had never been intended to be a political commentary. Despite these criticisms, the material published in The Lowell Offering had widespread distribution. In 1844, an anthology of pieces from the magazine was published in Great Britain attracting the attention of Charles Dickens; as mill work was still a new practice at this time, the Offering found a large audience abroad in Europe, because it provided insight into the daily lives of mill workers. Though she was determined to keep reform out of her publication, Farley was involved in one of the most prominent political movements of the time.

In 1843, she joined the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and soon became an influential abolitionist leader in Lowell. As part of the society, Farley helped raise awareness for the cause of abolitionism; the Lowell Offering ceased publication in December, 1845 when protests about working conditions increased, the magazine began to seem too conservative for its audience. Harriet's own popularity had declined, as well due to her defenses of factory management and her repeated claims that factory life was not unjust. From 1847 to 1850, the magazine was revived, with Farley as editor and publisher, as the New England Offering; this short-lived publication focused more on labor reform. After moving to New York City, Farley went on to write for the women's magazine Godey's Lady's Book, edited by her friend Sarah J. Hale. Farley's journalistic work was collected in two volumes in the late 1840s, she published a children's novel called Happy Nights at Hazel Nook in 1852. Additionally, she published Shells from the Strand of the Sea of Genius, a book of homilies, edited her father's book on theology.

After working as a weaver in Lowell textile mills, Farley began contributing to the Lowell Offering. The Lowell Offering was a monthly magazine, thirty-two pages long, it ran to five volumes, published from 1840 to 1845 with over fifty women contributors. The Lowell Offering emerged from a working women's writing circle held at the Second Universalist Church. Through publishing poetry and personal essays, this magazine provided an opportunity to share the writing of working women in Lowell textile mills. Working together on contributing to the “Lowell Offering” was one of the ways that women could continue their education while working in the mills; the Lowell Offering wanted to show. This image went against; as the publication grew, it became something. The Offering was applauded by many famous authors such as, Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, George Sand; the Lowell Offering discontinued in 1845. In 1847, Farley reissued the Lowell Offering under the name New England Offering, reaching out to a wider range of female contributors.

In April 1848, she became its publisher and traveling agent. Farley hoped the “New England Offering” would have the same popularity as the “Lowell Offering”; the “New England Offering” did not repeat the success of its predecessor. The “New England Offering” lasted for two more issues; the New England Offering, like the Lowell Offering, was a venue where working women could share their writings. In both publication, Farley provided for the first time in history literary venues where working women could publish poetry and personal stories under a high standard of literary review. In 1854, Harriet married a New York engraver and inventor. During the next two decades she raised 5 sons and daughters. After Donlevy's death, she published a Christmas book, Fancy's Frolics, in 1880. Harriet Farley died in New York City in 1907, at the age of 95. Shells from the Strand of the Sea of Genius, 1847 Mind Among the Spindles, 1849 Happy Nights at Hazel Nook, 1852 Fancy's Frolics, 1880 Boyd, Anne E. Wielding the Pen: Writings on Authorship by American Women of the Nineteenth Century.

Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Universit

2008 UK Open

The 2008 Blue Square UK Open was the sixth year of the PDC's UK Open darts tournament where, following numerous regional qualifying heats throughout Britain, players competed in a single elimination tournament to be crowned champion. The tournament was held at Bolton Wanderers' Reebok Stadium, England, between 5–8 June 2008. James Wade won the tournament, he defeated American Gary Mawson in the final 11–7. As in previous years, eight regional UK Open events were staged across the UK where players winning were collated into the UK Order Of Merit; the top 128 players in the list, who played a minimum of three events won a place at the final stages. The final UK Open Order of Merit qualifiers were joined by 32 Holsten qualifiers from pub tournaments throughout the UK; the Holsten qualifiers and the players outside the top 32 of the UK Open Order of Merit began the tournament on the Thursday night. They played down to 32 players, they were joined by the top 32 of the UK Open Order of Merit the following night, to provide the competition's last 64.

A random draw was made after each subsequent round Preliminary & First Round: Holsten pub qualifiers and those lowest in the UK Open Order of Merit start the tournament here. Second Round: The players just outside the top 32 in UK Open Order of Merit join Preliminary and First Round winners. Third Round: Top 32 in UK Open Order of Merit join the 32 survivors from the first night's play. Fourth Round Fifth Round Quarter Finals Semi Finals Final There were eight regional final events staged between September 2007 and March 2008 to determine the UK Open Order of Merit Table; the tournament winners were: 23 September 2007: James Wade 8-7 Raymond van Barneveld 7 October: Raymond van Barneveld 8-2 Kevin McDine 21 October: James Wade 8-2 Ronnie Baxter 13 January 2008: Colin Osborne 8-6 Denis Ovens 10 February 10: Colin Lloyd 8-6 Andy Hamilton 2 March: Colin Lloyd 8-6 Phil Taylor 16 March: Phil Taylor 8-7 Adrian Lewis 30 March: Phil Taylor 8-0 Brendan Dolan The tournament has the nickname, the "FA Cup of darts" as a random draw is staged after each round.

This provides no protection for the top players, who are seeded to avoid each other in early rounds. Raymond van Barneveld and Phil Taylor, the top two in the PDC rankings met at the quarter-final stage for the third successive year, with the Dutchman coming out on top each occasion, this time 10-9. In addition, Adrian Lewis and Wayne Mardle - two players who played in the 2008 Premier League - played as early as the third Round, the last 64 stage. Van Barneveld, who had won the tournament for the previous two years went out in the semi-finals to Gary Mawson, the Dutchman's first loss at the Reebok Stadium in the event, it meant that Phil Taylor now overtook him to regain the top spot in the PDC Order of Merit/world rankings, as van Barneveld had failed to defend the £30,000 from the UK Open two years ago. Earlier in the tournament, Phil Taylor threw his fourth nine dart leg in six years in the UK Open, during a 9-1 victory over Jamie Harvey in the fourth Round. In his Fifth Round match against Wesley Newton, Taylor achieved the highest televised 3 dart average of 114.53 surpassing Darryl Fitton's record in the International Darts League 2004 against Davy Richardson.

The semi-final line-up contained only one player from the United Kingdom for the first time it the tournament's six-year history. That one player - James Wade, however went on to claim to the title. Gary Mawson was the first American player to reach the UK Open final, the first American since Larry Butler in 1994 to reach a major PDC final. Best of 11 legs Best of 11 legs Best of 11 legs Best of 17 legs Best of 17 legs, Random draws were made after each round up to the semi final stage. Draw bracket has been compiled retrospectively. UK Open netzone planetdarts.tv