The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is an international financial institution, established in 1944 and headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, the lending arm of World Bank Group; the IBRD offers loans to middle-income developing countries. The IBRD is the first of five member institutions; the initial mission of the IBRD in 1944, was to finance the reconstruction of European nations devastated by World War II. The IBRD and its concessional lending arm, the International Development Association, are collectively known as the World Bank as they share the same leadership and staff. Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate expanded to advancing worldwide economic development and eradicating poverty; the IBRD provides commercial-grade or concessional financing to sovereign states to fund projects that seek to improve transportation and infrastructure, domestic policy, environmental consciousness, energy investments, access to food and potable water, access to improved sanitation.
The IBRD is owned and governed by its 189 member states, with each country represented on the Board of Governors. The IBRD has its own executive staff which conduct its normal business operations; the Bank's member governments are shareholders which contribute and have the right to vote on its matters. In addition to contributions from its member nations, the IBRD acquires most of its capital by borrowing on international capital markets through bond issues at a preferred rate because of its AAA credit rating. In 2011, it raised US$29 billion in capital from bond issues made in 26 different currencies; the Bank offers a number of financial services and products, including flexible loans, risk guarantees, financial derivatives, catastrophic risk financing. It reported lending commitments of $26.7 billion made to 132 projects in 2011. There are five "closely associated institutions" that each have a distinct role" and together form, the World Bank—the IBRD, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, that "invests in private firms and promotes entrepreneurship", the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, that guarantees loans, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes.
Their mission is to "fight poverty and improve living standards for people in the developing world." By 2018, the World Bank Group was "one of the world's largest sources of funding and knowledge for developing countries." Of the five institutions, the IBRD and the IDA are the World Bank's two largest units. When a country reaches a GDP per person over USD$1,145, they are no longer eligible for IDA financial support. For example, of the BRIC countries, China was no longer eligible in 1999 and by 2014, neither was India; the IBRD is governed by the World Bank's Board of Governors which meets annually and consists of one governor per member country. The Board of Governors delegates most of its authority over daily matters such as lending and operations to the Board of Directors; the Board of Directors consists of 25 executive directors and is chaired by the President of the World Bank Group. The executive directors collectively represent all 189 member states of the World Bank; the president oversees the IBRD's overall direction and daily operations.
The Bank and IDA operate with a staff of 10,000 employees. On 9 April 2019, United States President Donald Trump nominated David Malpass as the World Bank Group's President. Malpass had served as one of President Trump's economic advisers and as a senior official in the United States Treasury Department; the IBRD member nations did not sponsor a "rival candidate" and Malpass became President, in spite of the fact that he is critical of the role of the IBRD. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and International Monetary Fund were established by delegates at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 and became operational in 1946. According to a March 2012 Washington Post article, IBRD was the "original'world bank'. IBRD field offices were opened in Paris, Copenhagen and Prague in the former Czechoslovakia; the IBRD was established with the original mission of financing the reconstruction efforts of war-torn European nations following World War II, with goals shared by the Marshall Plan.
The Bank issued its inaugural loan of $250 million to France in 1947 to finance infrastructure projects. In 1946, a few months after in became operational, Chile sought financial help from the IBRD—the first of the developing countries to do so. Throughout the remainder of the 1940s and 1950s, the Bank financed projects seeking to dam rivers, generate electricity, improve access to water and sanitation, it invested in France and Luxembourg's steel industry. Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate has transitioned to eradicating poverty around the world. In 1960, the International Development Association was established to serve as the Bank's concessional lending arm and provide low and no-cost finance and grants to the poorest of the developing countries as measured by gross national income per capita. At the time of its creation, the IBRD was the only Multilateral Development Bank. During the period of decolonization—the mid‐1950s to the mid‐1970s—a number of MDB's were created—the International Finance Corporation, the International Development Association.
They were both WBG members. During this period other MDBs that were similar to the IBRD in their governance and operations, were established by countries that were not member nations of the WBG; this included the Inter‐Ame
Featherstone High School is a coeducational secondary school and sixth form with academy status, located in the Southall area of the London Borough of Ealing, England. The school converted to academy status in February 2012, was a community school under the direct control of Ealing London Borough Council; the school continues to coordinate with Ealing London Borough Council for admissions. Featherstone High School offers GCSEs and BTECs as programmes of study for pupils, while sixth form students can choose to study from range of A Levels and additional BTECs. Featherstone High School official website
Sherman E. Burroughs High School is a public high school located in Ridgecrest, California. Established in 1945, the school is located in the upper Mojave Desert and is adjacent to the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, it derives its name from U. S. Navy officer Admiral Sherman E. Burroughs, who served as the first commanding officer of the base at China Lake; the school's mascot, the Burro, is taken from the animal, imported to the area. Burroughs was housed at what is now called Murray Middle School aboard the base, but moved to its current site in 1960; the Secretary of the Navy created the Naval Ordnance Test Station at China Lake on Nov. 8, 1943, the need for an educational system for the families stationed at the base was included in the plans. Working with the California Department of Education and the legislature, the China Lake School District was established on May 22, 1944. After additional meetings and planning, construction began in May 1945 and was completed in November of that same year.
F. R. Wegner was the first principal and Earl Murray was Vice Principal; the buildings and Quonset huts that made up the original campus of Burroughs High School became Murray Middle School as Burroughs moved to where it is today. Recognition & AwardsBurroughs was honored as a California Distinguished School in 2005 & 2011. Principals1947–1960 – Earl Murray 1961–1969 – Kenneth Westcott 1970–1973 – John Cissne 1974–1979 – Hal Reid 1980–1990 – Michael McGrath 1991–1993 – Joseph C. Carlson 1994–1996 – Jim Roulsten 1997–1998 – Ken Bergevin 1999–2008 – Ernie Bell 2008–2014 – Dave Ostash 2014–2019 – Bryan Auld 2019–Present – Carrie Cope During its history, Burroughs High School has accumulated seven California Interscholastic Federation championships. Boys' Basketball Boys' Basketball Boys' Swimming Boys' Swimming Boys' Swimming Girls' Swimming Boys' Football Successful athletic teams at Burroughs have always had the ability to play well on the road, with its nearest competitor 2–3 hours away, it has joined the Mojave River League.
1958 Boys' Basketball ChampionshipIt marked the first major championship in any sport for the green and white and the boys varsity basketball team, known as the'A' squad, ran off a 21-3 record on their way to the section championship. In the 4-team Desert Inyo League, the Burros went a perfect 12-0 over Palmdale, Victor Valley and Barstow. Center Jay Carty led the team and was the first athlete from the Indian Wells Valley to play professional sports. After playing at Oregon State University, he was selected by the St. Louis Hawks in the 6th round of the 1962 NBA draft and played for the Los Angeles Lakers in the NBA for 28 games. Burroughs defeated San Luis Obispo in the opening round 51-35 before advancing to the semifinals where they beat St. Agnes 65-52. In the finals the Burros had to hold off a strong Bell Gardens team in a squeaker, 41-40. First-year head coach Jim Nau led the squad to the title, would be the only year he would coach the locals. Members of the team included: Gary Maxwell, Stuart Young, Larry Fletcher, Joel Adams, Jay Carty, Bill Wilde, Ron Thimsen, John Dragovich, Dennis Henden, Doug Brewer, Gary Koehler, Ray Wilson, Rad Bushnell and Phil Donnell.
1982 Boys' Basketball ChampionshipUnder head Coach Larry Bird, the Burros claimed their fourth consecutive Golden League Championship as they headed into the playoffs. The league streak would extend to 11, ranking third all-time in the CIF Southern Section. Burroughs entered the post season ranked a school best #4 in the polls and defeated Victor Valley, San Bernardino, Righetti to reach the semifinals at the Long Beach Sports Arena; the Burros matched up with # 1 advanced with a 66-55 victory. The Burros faced Capistrano Valley in the finals and won 66-55. An estimated 5,000 people made the more than 3-hour trek to witness the game. Burroughs advanced to the first-ever state championship tournament, earning a win over Washington Union before falling to Banning in the semifinals. Members of the team included: Dalton Heyward, Daniel Means, David Wooten, Scott Fulton, Dale Killilea, Paul Vander Werf, Bobby Bruce, John Fry, Greg Peake, Paul LaMarca, Jim Cleveland, Jim White and Tim Allen; the coaching staff consisted of Head Coach Larry Bird and Assistants Bill Campbell, Frank Mazer and Jack Clark.
1994 Boys' Swimming ChampionshipAfter years of dominating the waters of the Golden and Mojave River Leagues, Burroughs claimed its first CIF-SS Title in boys' Swimming. The Burros amassed 174 points in the meet; the team consisted of well-rounded cast of athletes, but was led by freshman phenomenon David Chan, named Swimmer of the Meet. As with its to subsequent titles, the team's dominance in the water was highlighted by its absence out of it; the competition had both swimming and diving components, the Burros had no one competing in the latter. Long-time head coach Charlie Lattig was at the helm for all three titles. Members of the team included David Chan, Andy Lopez, Dale Garland, Mark Garland, Ryan Lopez, Ryan Webb and Haydn Wilson. 1995 Boys' Swimming ChampionshipBurroughs continued its dominance of the CIF pool in 1995, claiming its second consecutive division title in Long Beach by edging Jurupa Valley 186-185. This time out the squad was smaller, but the result was the same as Burroughs did not field a diving squad