United States Deputy Secretary of the Interior
The Deputy Secretary of the Interior, in the United States government and assists the Secretary of the Interior in the supervision and direction of the Department of the Interior and its activities, succeeds the Secretary in his or her absence, sickness, or unavailability. The Deputy Secretary of the Interior is confirmed by the Senate. In 1990, the title of the position was changed from Under Secretary of the Interior to Deputy Secretary of the Interior. With the resignation Secretary Gale Norton announced March 10, 2006, effective at the end of March, Lynn Scarlett became the Acting Secretary of the Interior until President George W. Bush's nomination for Secretary, Dirk Kempthorne, was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 26 of that year. Section 3346 of U. S. Code within Title 5, or 5 U. S. C. § 3346, details time limitations of acting officers. An acting officer may serve no longer than 210 days after the vacancy, from the date a first or second nomination is pending before the Senate, the date a first or second nomination is withdrawn, rejected, or returned, or the date the Senate reconvenes if the appointment has taken place while Congress has adjourned sine die.
Other former Deputy Secretaries include David J. Hayes who served during the second term of the Clinton administration from 1997 to 2001, J. Steven Griles who served during President George W. Bush's first term from 2001 to 2004
United States Secretary of State
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, as head of the United States Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U. S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Secretary of State is nominated by the President of the United States and, following a confirmation hearing before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, is confirmed by the United States Senate; the Secretary of State, along with the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, are regarded as the four most important Cabinet members because of the importance of their respective departments. Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Pompeo replaced Rex Tillerson whom President Trump dismissed on March 13, 2018.
Tillerson's last day at the State Department was March 31, 2018. Pompeo was confirmed by the Senate on April 26, 2018 and was sworn in that day; the stated duties of the Secretary of State are as follows: "Supervises the United States Foreign Service" and "administers the Department of State" Advises the President on matters relating to U. S. foreign policy including the appointment of diplomatic representatives to other nations and on the acceptance, recall, or dismissal of representatives from other nations "Negotiates, interprets, or terminates treaties and agreements" and "conducts negotiations relating to U. S. foreign affairs" "Personally participates in or directs U. S. representatives to international conferences and agencies" Provides information and services to U. S. citizens living or traveling abroad such as providing credentials in the form of passports Ensure the protection of the U. S. government to U. S. citizens and interests in foreign countries "Supervises the administration of the U.
S. immigration policy abroad" Communicates issues relating the U. S. foreign policy to Congress and to U. S. citizens "Promotes beneficial economic intercourse between the U. S. and other countries"The original duties of the Secretary of State include some domestic duties such as: Receipt, publication and preservation of the laws of the United States Preparation and recording of the commissions of Presidential appointees Preparation and authentication of copies of records and authentication of copies under the Department's seal Custody of the Great Seal of the United States Custody of the records of former Secretary of the Continental Congress except for those of the Treasury and War departmentsMost of the domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, the drafting of certain proclamations; the Secretary negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries.
Under Federal Law, the resignation of a president or of a vice president is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the secretary of state. Accordingly, the resignations in disgrace of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in instruments delivered to the Secretary of State; as the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the secretary of state is the third-highest official of the executive branch of the Federal Government of the United States, after the president and vice president, is fourth in line to succeed the presidency, coming after the vice president, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tempore of the Senate. Six secretaries of state have gone on to be elected president. Others, including Henry Clay, William Seward, James Blaine, William Jennings Bryan, John Kerry, Hillary Clinton have been unsuccessful presidential candidates, either before or after their term of office as Secretary of State.
The nature of the position means. The record for most countries visited in a secretary's tenure is 112 by Hillary Clinton. Second is Madeleine Albright with 96; the record for most air miles traveled in a secretary's tenure is 1,417,576 miles by John Kerry. Second is Condoleezza Rice's 1,059,247 miles, third is Clinton's 956,733 miles. Official website
Minister of Natural Resources (Canada)
The Minister of Natural Resources is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet, responsible for Natural Resources Canada. As of July 18, 2018, the Minister of Natural Resources is Amarjeet Sohi. Key: Prior to 1995, the responsibilities of the current Natural Resources portfolio were divided between the now-defunct posts of Minister of Energy and Resources and Minister of Forestry
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy; the Crown is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, unwritten conventions developed over centuries; the monarch is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Privy Council for Canada is the body that advises the sovereign or viceroy on the exercise of executive power. However, in practice, that task is performed only by the Cabinet, a committee within the Privy Council composed of ministers of the Crown, who are drawn from and responsible to the elected House of Commons in parliament.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons. In Canadian English, the word government is used to refer both to the whole set of institutions that govern the country, to the current political leadership. In federal department press releases, the government has sometimes been referred to by the phrase Government. In late 2010, an informal instruction from the Office of the Prime Minister urged government departments to use in all department communications the term in place of Government of Canada; the same cabinet earlier directed its press department to use the phrase Canada's New Government. As per the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canada is a constitutional monarchy, wherein the role of the reigning sovereign is both legal and practical, but not political; the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch, vested as she is with all powers of state, at the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority.
The executive is thus formally called the Queen-in-Council, the legislature the Queen-in-Parliament, the courts as the Queen on the Bench. Royal Assent is required to enact laws and, as part of the Royal Prerogative, the royal sign-manual gives authority to letters patent and orders in council, though the authority for these acts stems from the Canadian populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited; the Royal Prerogative includes summoning and dissolving parliament in order to call an election, extends to foreign affairs: the negotiation and ratification of treaties, international agreements, declarations of war. The person, monarch of Canada is the monarch of 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, though, he or she reigns separately as King or Queen of Canada, an office, "truly Canadian" and "totally independent from that of the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms".
On the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the sovereign appoints a federal viceregal representative—the Governor General of Canada —who, since 1947, is permitted to exercise all of the monarch's Royal Prerogative, though there are some duties which must be performed by, or bills that require assent by, the king or queen. The government is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her privy council. However, the Privy Council—consisting of former members of parliament, chief justices of the supreme court, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full; as the stipulations of responsible government require that those who directly advise the monarch and governor general on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative be accountable to the elected House of Commons, the day-to-day operation of government is guided only by a sub-group of the Privy Council made up of individuals who hold seats in parliament. This body of senior ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet. One of the main duties of the Crown is to ensure that a democratic government is always in place, which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet.
Thus, the governor general must appoint as prime minister the person who holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Should no party hold a majority in the commons, the leader of one party—either the one with the most seats or one supported by other parties—will be called by the governor general to form a minority government. Once sworn in by the viceroy, the prime minister holds office until he or she resigns or is removed by the governor general, after either a motion of no confidence or his or her party's defeat in a general election; the monarch and governor general follow the near-binding advice of
Border controls are measures taken by a country or a bloc of countries to monitor its borders in order to regulate the movement of people and goods. States and rulers have always regarded the ability to determine who enters or remains in their territories as a key test of their sovereignty, but prior to World War I, border controls were only sporadically implemented. In medieval Europe, for example, the boundaries between rival countries and centres of power were symbolic or consisted of amorphous borderlands, ‘marches’ and ‘debatable lands’ of indeterminate or contested status and the real ‘borders’ consisted of the fortified walls that surrounded towns and cities, where the authorities could exclude undesirable or incompatible people at the gates, from vagrants and the ‘wandering poor’, to ‘masterless women’, Gypsies or Jews; the concept of a travel document such as a passport needed to clear border controls in the modern sense has been traced back to the reign of Henry V of England, as a means of helping his subjects prove who they were in foreign lands.
The earliest reference to these documents is found in a 1414 Act of Parliament. In 1540, granting travel documents in England became a role of the Privy Council of England, it was around this time that the term "passport" was used. In 1794, issuing British passports became the job of the Office of the Secretary of State; the 1548 Imperial Diet of Augsburg required the public to hold imperial documents for travel, at the risk of permanent exile. During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons, to control the emigration of people with useful skills; these controls remained in place after the war, becoming a standard, though controversial, procedure. British tourists of the 1920s complained about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation". One of the earliest systematic attempts of a modern nation state to implement border controls to restrict entry of particular groups was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 in America.
This act aimed to implement discriminatory immigration controls on East Asians. The strict and racist border control policies had a negative impact not only on the Chinese alone but on whites and other races as well which lasted for about thirty years; the American economy suffered a great loss as a result of this Act. The Act was a sign of injustice and unfair treatment to the Chinese workers because the jobs they engaged in were menial jobs. A discriminatory approach to border control was taken in Canada through the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885, imposing what came to be called the Chinese head tax. Decolonisation during the twentieth century saw the emergence of mass emigration from nations in the Global South, thus leading former colonial occupiers to introduce stricter border controls. In the United Kingdom this process took place in stages, with British nationality law shifting from recognising all Commonwealth citizens as British subjects to today’s complex British nationality law which distinguishes between British citizens, modern British Subjects, British Overseas Citizens, overseas nationals, with each non-standard category created as a result of attempts to balance border control and the need to mitigate statelessness.
This aspect of the rise of border control in the 20th century has proven controversial. The British Nationality Law 1981 has been criticised by experts, as well as by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination of the United Nations, on the grounds that the different classes of British nationality it created are, in fact related to the ethnic origins of their holders; the creation of British Nationality status, for instance, was met with criticism from many Hong Kong residents who felt that British citizenship would have been more appropriate in light of the "moral debt" owed to them by the UK. Some British politicians and magazines criticised the creation of BN status. Ethnic tensions created during colonial occupation resulted in discriminatory policies being adopted in newly independent African nations, such as Uganda under Idi Amin which banned Asians from Uganda, thus creating a mass exodus of the Asian community of Uganda; such ethnically driven border control policies took forms ranging from anti-Asian sentiment in East Africa to Apartheid policies in South Africa and Namibia which creates bantustans and pass laws to segregate and impose border controls against non-whites, encouraged immigration of whites at the expense of Blacks as well as Indians and other Asians.
Whilst border control in Europe and east of the Pacific have tightened over time, they have been liberalised in Africa, from Yoweri Museveni’s reversal of Idi Amin’s anti-Asian border controls to the fall of Apartheid in South Africa. The development of border control policies over the course of the 20th century saw the standardisation of refugee travel documents under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951 and the 1954 Convention travel document for stateless people under the similar 1954 statelessness convention. There are multiple aspects of border control. Quarantine policies exist to control the spread of disease; when applied as a component of border control, such policies focus on mitigating the entry of infected individuals, plants, or animals into a country. Each country has its own laws and regulations for the import and export of goods into and out of a country, which its customs aut
Haskell Free Library and Opera House
The Haskell Free Library and Opera House is a neoclassical building that straddles the international border in Rock Island and Derby Line, Vermont. The Opera House opened on June 7, 1904, was deliberately built on the border between Canada and the United States, it was declared a heritage building by both countries in the 1970s. The library has two different addresses: 93 Caswell Avenue, Derby Line, 1 rue Church, Quebec; the library collection and the opera stage are located in Stanstead, but the main entrance and most opera seats are located in Derby Line. Because of this, the Haskell is sometimes called "the only library in the U. S. A. with no books" and "the only opera house in the U. S. A. with no stage". There is no entrance from Canada. All patrons and visitors must use the U. S. entrance to access the building. Patrons from Canada are permitted to enter the U. S. door without needing to report to customs, providing they return to Canada upon leaving the building. A thick black line runs beneath the seats of the opera house and diagonally across the center of the library's reading room to mark the Canada–United States border.
The stage and half of the seats are in Canada, the remainder of the opera hall is in the US. The building has different postal codes and different telephone area codes in its two respective countries; the library has a collection of more than 20,000 books in French and English, is open to the public 38 hours a week. The building is recognized as a historic site in both countries. In the United States, it has been registered in the National Register of Historic Places since 1976. In Canada, it was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1985 and has been a provincial heritage site since 1977; the Haskell Free Library and Opera House was a gift from Mrs. Martha Stewart Haskell and her son Col. Horace "Stewart" Haskell, it was built in memory of her parents Catherine and Horace Stewart and her husband Carlos Freeman Haskell. The Haskells wanted Canadians and Americans to have equal access to the Library and Opera House and so they chose to build on the border. Construction began in 1901 and the Opera House opened in 1904 and the Library in 1905.
The opera house on the second floor was rumored to be modeled after the old Boston Opera House in a somewhat scaled down fashion, but the Boston Opera house was built afterwards. A painted scene of Venice on the drop curtain and 4 other scenes by Erwin Lamoss and plaster scrollwork complete with plump cherubs built in Boston ornament the opera hall and balcony in this historic building, constructed with 2-foot-thick walls built of granite from Stanstead; the Haskell family donated the building to the towns of Derby Line and Rock Island in Mr. Haskell's memory. French and English books are co-filed; because of different language conventions in the direction of printing titles on spines—American English books have titles written top-to-bottom, French books bottom-to-top—the language of a book can be determined. La Cure, a village divided between Switzerland and France. Estcourt Station and Estcourt, Quebec Baarle-Nassau, a community with a complicated borderline between The Netherlands and Belgium.
Transnational marriage Line house – a building that straddles an international boundary. Collins–Valentine line – the boundary between Quebec and the states of Vermont and New York, surveyed in the early 1770s. Canada, U. S. to tighten security between'cross-border' library at Wikinews Official website History of the Library on its official web site