Joseph Graham "Gray" Davis Jr. is a retired American politician and attorney who served as the 37th Governor of California from 1999 to 2003. A member of the Democratic Party, only a few months into his second term, in 2003 Davis was recalled and removed from office, the second state governor recalled in U. S. history. Prior to serving as governor, Davis was chief of staff to Governor Jerry Brown, a California State Assemblyman, California State Controller and the 44th Lieutenant Governor of California. Davis holds a B. A. in history from Stanford University and a J. D. from Columbia Law School. He was awarded a Bronze Star for his service as a Captain in the Vietnam War. During his time as governor, Davis made education his top priority and California spent eight billion dollars more than was required under Proposition 98 during his first term. Under Davis, California standardized test scores increased for five straight years. Davis signed the nation's first state law requiring automakers to limit auto emissions.
Davis supported laws to ban assault weapons and he is credited with improving relations between California and Mexico. Davis began his tenure as governor with strong approval ratings but they declined as voters blamed Davis for the California electricity crisis, the California budget crisis that followed the bursting of the dot-com bubble and the car tax. Voters were alienated by Davis's outrageous fundraising efforts and negative campaigning. On October 7, 2003, Davis was recalled in the second of three such elections in U. S. history, which include the removal of Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921 and the unsuccessful recall of Scott Walker of Wisconsin in 2012. He was succeeded in office on November 17, 2003 by actor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who won the recall replacement election. Davis signed 5,132 bills out of 6,244, vetoing 1,112 bills. Since being recalled, Davis has worked as a lecturer at the UCLA School of Public Affairs, as an attorney at Loeb & Loeb and sat on the Board of Directors of the animation company DiC Entertainment.
Davis was born in the son of Doris Morell and Joseph G. Davis. Davis moved to California with his family as a child in 1954, he was the first of the family's five children: two girls. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Davis and his family were one of the millions of Americans to migrate to the southwest and California as part of the post-World War II sun belt migration, his diverse educational experiences at public and Catholic schools allowed him an opportunity to compare all three systems as a lawmaker. Davis graduated from the Harvard School for Boys. Davis's family was led by his demanding mother. Davis was nicknamed Gray by his mother, his father, Joseph Graham Davis Sr. an advertising manager at Time Inc. and an alcoholic, was the son of businessman William Rhodes Davis. His strong academic accomplishments earned him acceptance to Stanford University, he played on the Stanford golf team with a two handicap. After Davis entered Stanford University, his father left the family, forcing Davis to join the ROTC to stay in school.
The deal included a promise to enter the regular Army after completing his education. He earned a Bachelor of Arts in history at Stanford, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, graduating in 1964 with distinction, he returned to New York City to attend Columbia Law School where he won the Moot Court award. During law school Davis had a romantic encounter with actress Cybill Shepherd, he received his J. D. degree from Columbia in 1967 and clerked at the law firm of Beekman & Bogue in New York City. After completing the program in 1967 he entered active duty in the United States Army, serving in the Vietnam War during its height until 1969. Davis saw time on the battlefield during his time in Vietnam. Davis returned home as a captain with a Bronze Star Medal for meritorious service. Friends who knew him at the time said Davis—like many war veterans—came back a changed man, interested in politics and more intense, according to the Sacramento Bee, he returned from Vietnam more "serious and directed."
Davis was surprised to discover that many of those serving in Vietnam were Latinos, African Americans and southern whites with few from schools like Stanford and Columbia. Davis is the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Davis volunteered for the campaign of John V. Tunney for the United States Senate in 1970, he started a statewide neighborhood crime watch program while serving as chairman of the California Council on Criminal Justice. His initial political experience included working to help Tom Bradley win election as Los Angeles's first black mayor in 1973; the historical significance of Bradley's victory further inspired Davis to pursue a career in politics. Davis ran for state treasurer in 1974 but lost when the more popular Jesse Unruh filed to run on the deadline. Davis returned to California and entered politics, serving as executive secretary and chief of staff to Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. from 1975 to 1981. Davis was not as liberal as Brown, some said he offset Brown's style by projecting a more intense, controlled personality.
While Brown was campaigning for president in 1980, Davis ran California in Brown's absence though Davis would claim that "we always did what he thought Brown would have done."He met his wife-to-be, Sharon Ryer, while on an airplane tending to official business in 1978. Ryer, a flight attendant for Pacific South
National Electrical Code
The National Electrical Code, or NFPA 70, is a regionally adoptable standard for the safe installation of electrical wiring and equipment in the United States. It is part of the National Fire Codes series published by the National Fire Protection Association, a private trade association. Despite the use of the term "national", it is not a federal law, it is adopted by states and municipalities in an effort to standardize their enforcement of safe electrical practices. In some cases, the NEC is amended and may be rejected in lieu of regional regulations as voted on by local governing bodies; the "authority having jurisdiction" inspects for compliance with these minimum standards. The NEC is developed by NFPA's Committee on the National Electrical Code, which consists of 19 code-making panels and a technical correlating committee. Work on the NEC is sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association; the NEC is approved as an American national standard by the American National Standards Institute.
It is formally identified as ANSI/NFPA 70. First published in 1897, the NEC is updated and published every three years, with the 2017 edition being the most current. Most states adopt the most recent edition within a few of years of its publication; as with any "uniform" code, jurisdictions may omit or modify some sections, or add their own requirements. However, no court has faulted anyone for using the latest version of the NEC when the local code was not updated. In the U. S. anyone, including the city issuing building permits, may face a civil liability lawsuit for negligently creating a situation that results in loss of life or property. Those who fail to adhere to well known best practices for safety have been held negligent; this liability and the desire to protect residents has motivated cities to adopt and enforce building codes that specify standards and practices for electrical systems. This creates a system whereby a city can best avoid lawsuits by adopting a single, standard set of building code laws.
This has led to the NEC becoming the de facto standard set of electrical requirements. A licensed electrician will have spent years of apprenticeship studying and practicing the NEC requirements prior to obtaining his or her license; the Deactivation and Decommissioning customized extension of the electrical code standard defined by National Electrical Code was developed since current engineering standards and code requirements do not adequately address the unique situations arising during D&D activities at U. S. Department of Energy facilities; the additional guidance is needed to clarify the current electrical code for these situations. The guidance document provides guidance on how to interpret selected articles of NFPA 70, “National Electrical Code”, in particular certain articles within Article 590, “Temporary Power,” for D&D electrical activities at DOE sites; the NEC contains information about the official definition of HAZLOC and the related standards given by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and dealing with hazardous locations such as explosive atmospheres.
The NEC is available as a bound book containing 1000 pages. It has been available in electronic form since the 1993 edition. Although the code is updated every three years, some jurisdictions do not adopt the new edition; the NEC is available as a restricted, digitized coding model that can be read online but not saved and pasted, or printed, free of charge on certain computing platforms that support the restricted viewer software. In the United States, statutory law cannot be copyrighted and is accessible and copyable by anyone; when a standards organization develops a new coding model and it is not yet accepted by any jurisdiction as law, it is still the private property of the standards organization and the reader may be restricted from downloading or printing the text for offline viewing. For that privilege, the coding model must still be purchased as either printed media or a CD-ROM. Once the coding model has been accepted as law, it loses copyright protection and may be obtained at no cost.
Archive.org and many state or local government sites allow download of the NEC without the registration that the NFPA requires. External links to both the restricted NEC online access and free public access sites are referenced at the end of this article; the NEC is composed of an introduction, nine chapters, annexes A through J, the index. The introduction sets forth the purpose, scope and rules or information that are general in nature; the first four chapters cover definitions and rules for installations and circuit protection and materials for wiring, general-purpose equipment. The next three chapters deal with special equipment and special conditions. Chapter 8 is specific to additional requirements for communications systems and chapter 9 is composed of tables regarding conductor and conduit properties, among other things. Annexes A-J relate to referenced standards, examples, additional tables for proper implementation of various code articles and a model adoption ordinance; the introduction and the first 8 chapters contain numbered articles, sections italicized exceptions, Informational notes – explanation
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities; the seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and displacing or disrupting the ground; when the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can trigger landslides, volcanic activity. In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether natural or caused by humans—that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused by rupture of geological faults, but by other events such as volcanic activity, mine blasts, nuclear tests.
An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter. Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane; the sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behavior. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface; this continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake.
This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior. There are three main types of fault, all of which may cause an interplate earthquake: normal and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reverse faults occur in areas.
Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip. Reverse faults those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, megathrust earthquakes, including all of those of magnitude 8 or more. Strike-slip faults continental transforms, can produce major earthquakes up to about magnitude 8. Earthquakes associated with normal faults are less than magnitude 7. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a thirtyfold increase in the energy released. For instance, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 releases 30 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude earthquake and a 7.0 magnitude earthquake releases 900 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude of earthquake. An 8.6 magnitude earthquake releases the same amount of energy as 10,000 atomic bombs like those used in World War II. This is so because the energy released in an earthquake, thus its magnitude, is proportional to the area of the fault that ruptures and the stress drop.
Therefore, the longer the length and the wider the width of the faulted area, the larger the resulting magnitude. The topmost, brittle part of the Earth's crust, the cool slabs of the tectonic plates that are descending down into the hot mantle, are the only parts of our planet which can store elastic energy and release it in fault ruptures. Rocks hotter than about 300 °C flow in response to stress; the maximum observed lengths of ruptures and mapped faults are 1,000 km. Examples are the earthquakes in Chile, 1960; the longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault, the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey and the Denali Fault in Alaska, are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, those along normal faults are shorter. The most important parameter controlling the maximum earthquake magnitude on a fault is however not the maximum available length, but the available width because the latter varies by a factor of 20. Along converging plate margins, the dip angle of the rupture plane is shallow about 10 de
American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States, its constitution was based on the older Boston Society of Civil Engineers from 1848. The American Society of Civil Engineers represents more than 150,000 members of the civil engineering profession in 177 countries. Through the expertise of its active membership, ASCE is a leading provider of technical and professional conferences and continuing education, the world’s largest publisher of civil engineering content, an authoritative source for codes and standards that protect the public. ASCE stands for the "American Society of Civil Engineers"; the society was chartered under this full legal name when it was incorporated on April 17, 1877 in New York state. ASCE's membership has long been composed of civil engineers and affiliate members who are not students or classically trained engineers or scientists.
ASCE is dedicated to the "...advancement of the science and profession of Civil engineering and the enhancement of human welfare through the activities of society members." It has about 152,000 members in about 177 countries. Its mission is to provide essential value to "...members, their careers, our partners, the public...... Facilitate the advancement of technology; the first serious and documented attempts to organize civil engineers as a professional society in the newly created United States were in the early 19th century. In 1828, John Kilbourn of Ohio, managed a short-lived "Civil Engineering Journal", editorializing about the recent incorporation of the Institution of Civil Engineers in Great Britain that same year, Kilbourn suggested that the American corps of engineers could constitute an American society of civil engineers. In 1834, an American trade periodical, the "American Railroad Journal" advocated for similar national organization of civil engineers. On December 17, 1838, a petition started circulating asking civil engineers to meet in 1839 in Baltimore, Maryland to organize a permanent society of civil engineers.
Prior to that, thirteen notable civil engineers identifiable as being from New York, Pennsylvania, or Maryland met in Philadelphia. This group presented the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia with a formal proposal that an Institution of American Civil Engineers be established as an adjunct of the Franklin..." Some of them were: Benjamin Wright. In 1969, the American Society of Civil Engineers declared Wright to be the'Father of American Civil Engineering'. William Strickland Pennsylvanians Solomon. W. Roberts, the latter being Chief Engineer for the Allegheny Portage railroad, the first crossing of the Allegheny mountains Forty engineers appeared at the February, 1839 meeting Baltimore including J. Edgar Thomson, Roberts, Edward Miller, the Maryland engineers Isaac Trimble and architect Benjamin H. Latrobe and attendees from as far as Massachusetts and Louisiana. Subsequently, a group met again in Philadelphia, led by its Secretary, Edward Miller to take steps to formalize the society, participants now included such other notable engineers as: John B.
Jervis Claudius Crozet William Gibbs McNeill George Washington Whistler Walter Gwynn J. Edgar Thompson Sylvester Welch, brother of future ASCE president Ashbel Welch Other members included Jonathan Knight and Moncure Robinson. Miller drafted up a proposed constitution which gave the society's purpose as "the collection and diffusion of professional knowledge, the advancement of mechanical philosophy, the elevation of the character and standing of the Civil Engineers of the United States." Membership in the new society restricted membership to engineers and "architects and eminent machinists were to be admitted only as Associates." The proposed constitution failed, no further attempts were made to form another society. Miller ascribed the failure due to the difficulties of assembling members due available means for traveling in the country at time. One of the other difficulties members would have to contend with was the requirement to produce each year, one unpublished paper or "...present a scientific book, plan or model, not in the possession of the Society, under the penalty of $10."
In that same period, the editor of the American Railroad Journal commented that effort had failed in part due to certain jealousies which arose due to the proposed affiliation with the Franklin Institute. That journal continued discussion on forming an engineers' organization from 1839 thru 1843 serving its own self interests in advocating its journal as a replacement for a professional society but to no avail. During the 1840s, professional organizations continued to organize in the United States; the organizers motives were to "... improve common standards, foster research, disseminate knowledge through meetings and publications." Unlike earlier associations such as the American Philosophical Society, these newer associations were not seeking to limit membership as much as pursue "... more specialized interests." Examples of this surge in new professional organizations in America were the American Statistical Association, American Ethnological Society, American Medical Association, American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Education Association.
During this same period of association incorporations on the 1840s, attempts were aga
California gubernatorial recall election
The 2003 California gubernatorial recall election was a special election permitted under California state law. It resulted in voters replacing incumbent Democratic Governor Gray Davis with Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. Davis was ineligible to run for a third term due to term limits after the recall election; the recall effort spanned the latter half of 2003. Seven of the nine previous governors, including Davis, had faced unsuccessful recall attempts. After several legal and procedural efforts failed to stop it, California's first-ever gubernatorial recall election was held on October 7, the results were certified on November 14, 2003, making Davis the first governor recalled in the history of California, just the second in U. S. history. California is one of 19 states; the California recall process became law in 1911 as the result of Progressive Era reforms that spread across the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The ability to recall elected officials came along with the referendum processes.
The movement in California was spearheaded by Republican then-Governor Hiram Johnson, a reformist, who called the recall process a "precautionary measure by which a recalcitrant official can be removed." No illegality has to be committed by politicians in order for them to be recalled. If an elected official commits a crime while in office, the state legislature can hold impeachment trials. For a recall, only the will of the people is necessary to remove an official. Before the successful recall of Gray Davis, no California statewide official had been recalled, though there had been 117 previous attempts. Only seven of those made it onto the ballot, all for state legislators; every governor since Ronald Reagan in 1968 has been subject to a recall effort, but Gray Davis was the first governor whose opponents gathered the necessary signatures to qualify for a special election. Davis faced a recall petition in 1999, but that effort failed to gain enough signatures to qualify for the ballot; the 1999 recall effort was prompted by several actions taken by Davis, including his preventing the enactment of Proposition 187 by keeping it from being appealed to the US Supreme Court and his signing of two new restrictive gun-control laws.
As Davis's recall transpired before he had served half of his term as governor, he remains eligible to serve another term, should he win a future election for the California governor post. Nineteen U. S. states, along with the District of Columbia, allow the recall of state officials, but Davis' recall at the time was only the second in U. S. history. The first governor recall occurred in 1921, when North Dakota's Lynn J. Frazier was recalled over a dispute about state-owned industries, was replaced by Ragnvald A. Nestos; the third recall occurred in Wisconsin in 2012. Under California law, any elected official may be the target of a recall campaign. To trigger a recall election, proponents of the recall must gather a certain number of signatures from registered voters within a certain time period; the number of signatures statewide must equal 12% of the number of votes cast in the previous election for that office. For the 2003 recall election, that meant a minimum of 897,156 signatures, based on the November 2002 statewide elections.
The effort to recall Gray Davis began with Republicans Ted Costa, Mark Abernathy, Howard Kaloogian, who filed their petition with the California Secretary of State and started gathering signatures. The effort was not taken until Rep. Darrell Issa, who hoped to run as a replacement candidate for governor, donated $2 million towards the effort; this infusion of money allowed Kaloogian to step up their efforts. Proponents gathered about 1.6 million signatures, of which 1,356,408 were certified as valid. Under most circumstances in which a recall campaign against a statewide elected official has gathered the required number of signatures, the governor is required to schedule a special election for the recall vote. If the recall campaign qualified less than 180 days prior to the next scheduled election the recall becomes part of that scheduled election. In the case of a recall against the governor, the responsibility for scheduling a special election falls on the lieutenant governor, who in 2003 was Cruz Bustamante.
The political climate was shaped by the California electricity crisis of the early 2000s, during which many people experienced a tripling in the cost of their energy consumption. The public held Davis responsible. Driving the outcome of the recall was the perception that Davis had mismanaged the events leading up to the energy crisis, it was claimed that he had not fought vigorously for Californians against the energy fraud, that he had not pushed for legislative or emergency executive action against the fraudulent companies soon enough. He was said to have signed deals agreeing to pay energy companies fixed yet inflated prices for years to come based on those paid during the crisis. Opponents felt that a corporate-friendly Republican governor could shield California politically from further corporate fraud. Others speculated that the corporations involved sought not only profit, but were acting in concert with Republican political allies to cause political damage to the nationally influential Democratic governor.
Still others, such as Arianna Huffington, argued that Davis' fundraising and campaign contributions from various companies, including energy companies, rendered him unable to confront his contributors. Davis had accepted $2,000,000 from the California Correctional Peace Officers Association, used his political connections to pass an estimated $5,000,000,000 raise for them over the coming years. That
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, philanthropist, activist and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter. He served as the 38th Governor of California, from 2003 to 2011. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all-time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science-fiction thriller film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, was wounded during the battle of Stalingrad, but was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria, he married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could train when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I did