International Chemical Identifier

The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary; the continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit InChI Trust, of which IUPAC is a member. The current software version is 1.05 and was released in January 2017. Prior to 1.04, the software was available under the open-source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC-InChI Trust License. The identifiers describe chemical substances in terms of layers of information — the atoms and their bond connectivity, tautomeric information, isotope information and electronic charge information. Not all layers have to be provided. InChIs differ from the used CAS registry numbers in three respects: 1) they are usable and non-proprietary.

InChIs can thus be seen as akin to a general and formalized version of IUPAC names. They can express more information than the simpler SMILES notation and differ in that every structure has a unique InChI string, important in database applications. Information about the 3-dimensional coordinates of atoms is not represented in InChI; the InChI algorithm converts input structural information into a unique InChI identifier in a three-step process: normalization and serialization. The InChIKey, sometimes referred to as a hashed InChI, is a fixed length condensed digital representation of the InChI, not human-understandable; the InChIKey specification was released in September 2007 in order to facilitate web searches for chemical compounds, since these were problematic with the full-length InChI. Unlike the InChI, the InChIKey is not unique: though collisions can be calculated to be rare, they happen. In January 2009 the final 1.02 version of the InChI software was released. This provided a means to generate so called standard InChI, which does not allow for user selectable options in dealing with the stereochemistry and tautomeric layers of the InChI string.

The standard InChIKey is the hashed version of the standard InChI string. The standard InChI will simplify comparison of InChI strings and keys generated by different groups, subsequently accessed via diverse sources such as databases and web resources; every InChI starts with the string "InChI=" followed by the version number 1. This is followed by the letter S for standard InChIs, a standardized InChI flavor maintaining the same level of attention to structure details and the same conventions for drawing perception; the remaining information is structured as a sequence of layers and sub-layers, with each layer providing one specific type of information. The layers and sub-layers are separated by the delimiter "/" and start with a characteristic prefix letter; the six layers with important sublayers are: Main layer Chemical formula. This is the only sublayer that must occur in every InChI. Atom connections; the atoms in the chemical formula are numbered in sequence. Hydrogen atoms. Describes how many hydrogen atoms are connected to each of the other atoms.

Charge layer proton sublayer charge sublayer Stereochemical layer double bonds and cumulenes tetrahedral stereochemistry of atoms and allenes type of stereochemistry information Isotopic layer Fixed-H layer. The condensed, 27 character InChIKey is a hashed version of the full InChI, designed to allow for easy web searches of chemical compounds; the standard InChIKey is the hashed counterpart of standard InChI. Most chemical structures on the Web up to 2007 have been represented as GIF files, which are not searchable for chemical content; the full InChI turned out to be too lengthy for easy searching, therefore the InChIKey was developed. There is a small, but nonzero chance of two different molecules having the same InChIKey, but the probability for duplication of only the first 14 characters has been estimated as only one duplication in 75 databases each containing one billion unique structures. With all databases having below 50 million structures, such duplication appears unlikely at present.

A recent study more extensively studies the collision rate finding that the experimental collision rate

The McGuire Sisters

The McGuire Sisters were a singing trio in American popular music. The group was composed of three sisters: Ruby Christine McGuire Dorothy "Dottie" McGuire Phyllis McGuire Among their most popular songs are "Sincerely" and "Sugartime", both number-one hits; the McGuire sisters were born in Middletown and grew up in Miamisburg near Dayton. Their mother, was a minister of the Miamisburg First Church of God, where as children they sang in church at weddings and revivals; when they started singing in 1935, the youngest sister, was four years old. They sang at occasions outside church, by 1949 were singing at military bases and veterans' hospitals, performing a more diverse repertoire than they had in church; the McGuire Sisters signed with Coral Records in 1952. In the same year, they appeared on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, Godfrey hired them for his other shows, where they remained for seven years; the November 1953 issue of Cosmopolitan called them "Godfrey's Merry McGuires". The sisters were compared to the Andrews Sisters.

Maxene Andrews said in an interview with Joe Franklin on WOR radio in 1979, "The McGuire Sisters were fine once they stopped imitating the Andrews Sisters." While working on the Godfrey show, the McGuires befriended the singer Lu Ann Simms and attended her wedding to the music publisher Loring Buzzell in July 1956. Buzzell's publishing firm, Hecht-Lancaster & Buzzell Music provided two songs for the McGuire Sisters, "May You Always" and "Theme from The Unforgiven"; the McGuire Sisters were the Mystery Guests on the May 1955 airing of What's My Line. Fred Allen guessed; the McGuire Sisters and the Andrews Sisters met several times during their careers. Phyllis credited Patty, LaVerne Andrews during a television interview with Maxene in the 1990s, hosted by Sally Jessy Raphael, saying that her sisters and she met the Andrews Sisters in New York in the early 1950s and received important advice; the McGuires moved when they sang executing dance routines in lavish production numbers on countless television specials.

The Andrews Sisters performed in films in the 1940s, were the first female vocal group to move when they sang, rather than just standing at a microphone. The sisters had mimicked that style, as well as those of the Mills Brothers and the Dinning Sisters since they were young, when they would perform short shows for family and friends in their parents' living room. Phyllis McGuire recounted that she and her sisters did not know any popular songs when they became famous, the trio imitated other singing groups long before their success, they performed for five Presidents of the United States, for Queen Elizabeth II. In 1958, their mother appeared; the sisters maintained a busy television schedule, making frequent appearances on popular variety programs hosted by Ed Sullivan, Dean Martin, Danny Kaye, Milton Berle, Andy Williams, Perry Como, Red Skelton. The trio was dressed and coiffed identically and performed synchronized body movements and hand gestures with military precision, their recordings of "Sincerely", "Picnic", "Sugartime" all sold more than one million copies.

They retired from public appearances in 1968, giving their last performance that year on The Ed Sullivan Show. Phyllis McGuire continued to perform solo for a time; the demise of the group is attributed to Phyllis' long-standing personal relationship with mobster Sam Giancana, which led to the group's blacklisting. During one of his 1960s court appearances for which Phyllis was subpoenaed, Giancana told reporters outside the courthouse, "Phyllis knows everything" about the rumored unethical behaviors of John F. Kennedy and his brother Robert. Phyllis has resided in a famously showcased mansion in Las Vegas for decades, boasting its own beauty parlor, a swan moat, a replica of the Eiffel Tower which rose through the home's roof; when asked by Barbara Walters during a 1980s ABC-TV 20/20 interview from within the mansion if any of the money to build the lavish home came from Giancana, Phyllis denied the innuendo, claiming that she invested in oil when the sisters were at the height of their popularity.

In the same interview, she acknowledged that her relationship with Giancana was in fact a love affair, saying, "When I met him, I did not know who he was, he was not married, I was an unmarried woman. And according to the way I was brought up, there was nothing wrong with that, and I didn't find out until sometime really who he was, I was in love."The sisters reunited in 1986, performing at Toronto's Royal York Hotel for the first time since their retirement. Numerous nightclub engagements followed in Las Vegas, Atlantic City, New York City's Rainbow & Stars, showcasing the group and Phyllis' impersonations of Peggy Lee, Judy Garland, Pearl Bailey, Ethel Merman, Louis Armstrong. Singing their greatest hits as part of their act, they were featured performing specialty numbers such as the frantic "I Love a Violin", the a cappella "Danny Boy", a segment during which Phyllis retired backstage as Christine and Dorothy shared the spotlight playing a concert arrangement of "The Way We Were" on twin pianos.

Other highlights in the act were a comical Trinidad-flavored tune, a soft rendering of "Memory" from Broadway's Cats, a "Money Medley", which they

Henry Fourdrinier

Henry Fourdrinier was a British paper-making entrepreneur. He was born in 1766, the son of a paper maker and stationer, grandson of the engraver Paul Fourdrinier, 1698-1758, sometimes mistakenly called Pierre Fourdrinier. With his brother, Sealy, he commissioned the development of the Fourdrinier machine, a papermaking machine that produced continuous rolls of paper; the machine is an industrialised version of the historical hand paper-making method, which could not satisfy the demands of developing modern society for large quantities of printing and writing materials. A patent was granted on 24 July 1806, for a machine; this had the dual advantage of higher productivity plus production in roll form, for applications such as wallpaper printing. The range of cut paper sizes was extended as it was not limited by the frame or deckle size of hand made paper; the invention cost £60000, caused the brothers to go bankrupt. Due to various laws, it was difficult to protect the patent on the machine, the new system was adopted but with no benefit to the inventors.

In 1814, two machines were made in Peterhof, Russia, by order of the Russian emperor on the condition £700 would be paid to Fourdrinier every year for ten years — but, despite petitioning Tsar Nicholas, no money was paid. In 1839, a petition was brought before parliament, in 1840, £7000 was paid to Fourdrinier and his family. Fourdrinier died in 1854, at the age of 88. - The Paper Machine