International Skating Union
It was founded in Scheveningen, Netherlands, in 1892, making it one of the oldest international sport federations. The ISU was formed to establish standardized international rules and regulations for the disciplines it governs. It is now based in Lausanne, the International Skating Union was founded in 1892 to govern speed skating and figure skating. In 1895, the ISU streamlined its mission to deal only with amateur competitors, the organization hosted its first amateur skating championship in February 1896 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The United States and Canada formed an organization, the International Skating Union of America. Within the next two years, twelve European nations had joined the ISU, and the ISUA had only its original members and North American figure skaters rarely competed against each other due to differences in their styles of skating. The ISU had systematized and arranged the sport of figure skating, five minutes free skating to music. In 1911, Canada joined the ISU, leaving the United States as the major competitor to not be a member.
Short track speed skating gained its own world championship event, hosted by the ISU, at the time, the sport was known as indoor speed skating, but it was renamed short-track when indoor rinks for the longer speed skating events were introduced. By 1988,38 nations had joined the ISU, within the next few years, the ISU abandoned one of its long-held practices, eliminating the use of mandatory figures in the singles figure skating competitions and reducing their use in ice dancing. After the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, in one of the short track speed skating events, Apolo Anton Ohno was awarded the gold medal after the disqualification of Kim Dong-Sung. Although the South Korean delegation protested the disqualification, ISU rules did not allow for a review of the officials call, several months later, the ISU approved the use of video replay, when available, to review referee decisions. The rules for judging figure skating were changed as the result of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games figure skating scandal, according to Ottavio Cinquanta, president of the ISU, Something was wrong there.
Not just the individual but the system, now we are trying to replace one system with another. A new figure skating judging system took effect in 2004, eliminating the 6.0 system perfect scores, they do count towards Personal Best scores. According to news published at bandynet. ru 7/6 bandy might be on the Olympic programme at Sochi 2014 as a branch of skating because ISU in 2007 got the right to within 3 years add another discipline. As of the summer of 2008, the ISU consisted of 63 member nations, to add any proposal to the agenda of meetings, it must have support from four-fifths of the members. Proposals on the agenda are approved with a majority vote
FINA or Fédération internationale de natation is the international federation recognized by the International Olympic Committee for administering international competition in water sports. It is one of several international federations which administer a given sport/discipline for the IOC and/or international community and it is based in Lausanne, Switzerland. FINA currently oversees competition in five sports, diving, synchronized swimming, water polo. Beginning in 2013, high diving emerged as a discipline within FINA, FINA oversees Masters competition in its disciplines. On 24 July 2009, Julio Maglione of Uruguay was elected FINA President and it is not necessarily the number of members in the continental association. The FINA membership meets every four years, usually coinciding with the World Championships, there are two types of normal or ordinary congress and Technical. FINA’s highest authority is the General Congress, any technical issues concerning FINA’s five aquatic disciplines are decided by the Technical Congress.
Each Congress has two voting members from each Member federation, plus the following non-voting members, the 22 members of the Bureau, the Honorary Life President, the Technical Congress has the following additional non-voting members, all members from the respective Technical Committees. Extraordinary Congress are called time to time, to deal with a specific topic or area of concern. All Congress meetings are chaired by FINAs president and it is the Bureau that elects the FINA Executive Officers. Various committees and commission help with the oversight of individual disciplines, each presidential term is four years and concluding with the year following the Summer Olympics. FINA organizes one championship involving each of the five disciplines it oversees, as well championships, the biggest FINA event is the biennial World Aquatics Championships, currently held every odd year. It features competitions in all five aquatic disciplines, prior to 2000, the event was held every 4 years, in the even year between Olympic Games.
Bi-annual event, swum in 25-meter length pool, Water Polo, Water Polo World Leagues. Diving, Diving World Series Open Water, World Open Water Swimming Championships, High Diving, High Diving World Cup Masters, World Masters Championships. This championships features all 5 disciplines, grand Prix, Annual race/competition series of multiple events in open water. Junior Worlds, A world-level championships restricted to a younger age population, held in swimming, water polo and synchronized swimming
International Tennis Federation
The International Tennis Federation is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, the ITF partners with the Womens Tennis Association and the Association of Tennis Professionals to govern professional tennis. The ITF sanctions the Grand Slam tennis tournaments as well as circuits which span age ranges as well as disciplines, in addition to these circuits, the ITF maintains rankings for juniors, seniors and beach tennis. Duane Williams, an American who lived in Switzerland, is recognized as the initiator. Three other countries could not attend but had requested to become a member, voting rights were divided based on the perceived importance of the individual countries with Great Britains Lawn Tennis Association receiving the maximum six votes. France received permission to stage the World Hard Court Championships until 1916, the USLTA joined in 1923 on the basis of two compromises, the title World Championships would be abolished and wording would be for ever in the English language.
In 1924, the ILTF became the officially recognised organisation with authority to control lawn tennis throughout the world, in 1939 the ILTF had 59 member nations. Its funds were moved to London, England during World War II and it was based at Wimbledon until 1987, when it moved to Barons Court, next door to Queens Club. It moved again in 1998 to the Bank of England Sports Ground, Roehampton, in 1977 the word Lawn was dropped from the name of the organization, in recognition of the fact that most tennis events were no longer played on grass. Its official annual is The ITF Year, describing the activities of the ITF over last 12 months and this replaced World of Tennis, which was the ITF official annual from 1981 through 2001. In addition it publishes an official magazine ITFWorld three times a year, as of 2016, there are 211 national associations affiliated with the ITF, of which 148 are voting members and 63 are associate members. For example, France garners 12 votes, Canada has 9, Egypt has 5, Pakistan has 3, regional associations were created in July 1975 as six supra-national associations with the aim to decrease the gap between the ILTF and the national associations.
Candidates are nominated by the associations, and may serve up to twelve years. The ITF is the governing body for the sport of tennis. By its own constitution, the ITF guarantees that the official Rules of Tennis shall be for ever in the English language, a committee within the ITF periodically makes rule amendment recommendations to the Board of Directors. The Rules of Tennis encompass the manner of play and scoring, in-game coaching, the Rules cover tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis. Through the Tennis Anti-Doping Program, the ITF implements the World Anti-Doping Code for tennis, National associations must implement the code within its national jurisdiction, report violations up to the ITF and WADA, and report annually about all testing conducted. The Tennis Anti-Doping Program began in 1993, and applies to all players who play in ITF-sanctioned competitions, as well as tournaments on the ATP Tour and WTA Tour
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa
International Ice Hockey Federation
The International Ice Hockey Federation is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey. It is based in Zurich and has 74 members and it manages international ice hockey tournaments and maintains the IIHF World Ranking. The Hockey Canada and USA Hockey federations have their own rulebooks, decisions of the IIHF can be appealed through the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland. The IIHF museum was located within the International Hockey Hall of Fame Museum located in Kingston, after terminating the partnership with the International Hockey Hall of Fame, the IIHF signed an agreement with the NHL to house their museum within the Hockey Hall of Fame. In 1998, the IIHF museum relocated to Toronto, Ontario, as part of the centennial celebrations of the IIHFs founding, the 2008 IIHF World Championship was held in Canada. This was the first time the championships were hosted in Canada, Russia won the 2008 Championship, with Canada as the runner-up. The main functions of the IIHF are to govern, another duty is to promote friendly relations among the member national associations and to operate in an organized manner for the good order of the sport.
The IIHF is the body responsible with arranging the sponsorships, license rights, another purpose of the federation is to provide aid in the young players development and in the development of coaches and game officials. On the other hand, all the events of IIHF are organized by the federation along with establishing and maintaining contact with any sport federations or sport groups. The IIHF is responsible for processing the international players transfers and it is the body that presides over ice hockey in the Olympic Games as well as over all levels of the IIHF World Championships. The federation works in collaboration with local committees when organizing its 25 World Championships, even though the IIHF runs the world championships, it is responsible for the organization of several European club competitions such as the Champions Hockey League or the Continental Cup. The federation is governed by the body of the IIHF which is the General Congress along with the executive body. The Congress is entitled to make decisions with regard of the games rules and it is the body that elects the president and the council or otherwise known as board.
The president of the IIHF is basically the representative of the federation and he represents the federations interests in all external matters and he is responsible that the decisions are made according to the federations statutes and regulations. The president is assisted by the General Secretary who is the highest ranked employee of the IIHF, the International Ice Hockey Federation was founded on May 15,1908 at 34 Rue de Provence in Paris, France, as Ligue International de Hockey sur Glace. The founders of the federation were representatives from Belgium, Great Britain, Louis Magnus, the French representative, was the fifth member to sign the founding document and the first president of the LIHG. The second congress was held from January 22–25,1909 in Chamonix and competitions rules were established, and an agreement was reached for an annual European Championship to be contested, beginning in 1910. The 1909 Coupe de Chamonix was contested during the congress and it was won by Princes Ice Hockey Club, representing Great Britain
United World Wrestling
United World Wrestling is the international governing body for the sport of amateur wrestling, its duties include overseeing wrestling at the Olympics. It presides over international competitions for various forms of wrestling, including Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling for men and women, the flagship event of UWW is the Wrestling World Championships. It was formerly known as the FILA, having assumed its current name in September 2014, UWW is the body responsible for supervising Olympic wrestling, and so competitions for freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling take place every Summer Olympiad. Besides the Summer Olympics, there are various international competition such as the Commonwealth Games. Also, the Continental Championships and Continental Cups usually take place annual and are regulated by each Continental Committee and these tournaments encompass a wide variety of age categories and both genders, but can take place separately for each gender or for each age category. UWW sponsors training for athletes in the wrestling styles at training centers, currently located in Finland, Italy, Spain, Turkey.
The International Wrestling Hall of Fame, located in Stillwater, Oklahoma awards individuals with honors in Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling, womens wrestling, UWW is now based in Corsier-sur-Vevey, outside of Lausanne, Switzerland. The official languages are English and French, UWW is governed by a Congress made up of representatives from each of the 176 national wrestling federations. National federations that at least govern the two Olympic wrestling styles are admitted as affiliate members and those national federations that exclusively govern traditional wrestling and other styles can be admitted as associated members. Up to three representatives from each federation may attend the conference, and only one may vote, the Congress meets at least every two years, usually during the Olympic games or during the World Championships that meet between Olympic games. The UWW Congress in turn members of the UWW Bureau. The Bureau serves as the directing and administrating body of UWW, honorary members are in turn elected to the Bureau but do not vote.
The President, the Vice presidents, and the Secretary General make up the Executive Committee, each of the members represents himself or herself personally and has an individual vote in the Congress. No two members represent the same nationality, the UWW President manages the day-to-day affairs of the organization. The President represents UWW at international meetings, before the International Olympic Committee, the current interim President of UWW is Nenad Lalovic from Serbia who has served in that role since 2013. Bureau members and the President serve for terms and can be reelected. Usually one third of the Bureau members are up for every two years. The current Secretary General is Michel Dusson from France, there are auxiliary bodies of UWW
Ian McNaught-Davis was a British television presenter mainly known for presenting the BBC TV series The Computer Programme, Making the Most of the Micro and Micro Live in the 1980s. He was a mountaineer and alpinist. He was managing director of the British subsidiary of Comshare Inc and he achieved a first in Mathematics at the University of Manchester, where he became an active mountaineer. After university he had a variety of including, digging ice tunnels for glaciologists on Monte Rosa in Switzerland, fixing roofs. Eventually he settled as a geophysicist for British Petroleum, specialising in Africa, in the 1970s he switched careers to information technology, and joined Comshare Inc, where he remained until retirement in 1995. Comshare specialised in development and resale of redundant operational time on mainframe computer systems. He rose to chief executive of the European division and managing director of the British subsidiary. He presented the BBC TV series The Computer Programme, Making the Most of the Micro and Micro Live in the 1980s, in 2008 he was a speaker at an event entitled The BBC Micro and its legacy hosted by the Computer Conservation Society.
McNaught-Davis was a climber, hill walker and hiker. In 1956 he was one of the first to climb the unclimbable Muztagh Tower in the Karakoram range in Baltistan, in the 1960s he was a climbing partner of Joe Brown both in the UK and in the greater ranges. He took part with Brown in the climb of the Old Man of Hoy. He took part in a climb of the Eiffel Tower, McNaught-Davis was the first non-Swiss holder of the post president of the UIAA between the years of 1995 and 2004 He became honorary librarian of the Climbers Club in 1961. In 2012 he was a patron of the British Mountaineering Council and he married twice, having two sons and Simon, from his first marriage, and a daughter, Elvira Hurrell, from his second marriage to Loreto Herman. The Alpine Journal, Vol.66, No, pp. 250–260,1960 Greenland Expedition, John A Jackson, A. Blackshaw and I. Staunings Alps Expedition Guide, Gastons Alpine Books - West Col Productions,1972, ian McNaught-Davis at the Internet Movie Database 1980s BBC photo of McNaught-Davis presenting the BBC Micro
Union Cycliste Internationale
The Union Cycliste Internationale, commonly known by the acronym UCI, is the world governing body for sports cycling and oversees international competitive cycling events. The UCI is based in Aigle, the UCI issues racing licenses to riders and enforces disciplinary rules, such as in matters of doping. It oversees the World Championships, UCI was founded in 1900 in Paris by the national cycling sports organisations of Belgium, the United States, France and Switzerland. Britain found itself outflanked and it was not able to join the UCI – under the conditions the UCI had imposed – until 1903, there were originally 30 countries affiliated to the union. They did not have voting power and some had no vote at all. Votes were distributed by the number of tracks, or velodromes, France had 18 votes, the highest number, and Germany and Italy 14 each. Britain had eight, a number the writer Bill Mills said was acquired by including many rather doubtful grass tracks, in 1965, under the pressure of the IOC, the UCI created two subsidiary bodies, the International Amateur Cycling Federation and the International Professional Cycling Federation.
The UCI assumed a role coordinating both bodies, the FIAC was based in Rome, the FICP in Luxembourg, and the UCI in Geneva. The FIAC was the bigger of the two organisations, with 127 member federations across all five continents and it was dominated by the countries of the Eastern bloc which were amateur. The FIAC arranged representation of cycling at the Olympic Games, in 1992, the UCI reunified the FIAC and FICP, and merged them back into the UCI. The combined organisation relocated to Aigle, close to the IOC in Lausanne, in 2004, the UCI constructed a 200-metre velodrome at the new World Cycling Centre adjacent to its headquarters. In September 2007 the UCI announced that it had decided to award ProTour status for the first time ever to an event outside of Europe, the announcement followed negotiations between UCI President Pat McQuaid and South Australian Premier Mike Rann. In 2013 Tracey Gaudry became the first woman appointed as president of the UCI. The UCI organises cyclings world championships, administration of which it gives to member nations, the first championships were on the road and on the track.
They were allocated originally to member nations in turn, on condition the country was deemed competent, a nation given a championship or series of championships was required to pay the UCI30 per cent of ticket receipts from the track and 10 per cent from the road. Of this, the UCI kept 30 per cent and gave the rest to competing nations in proportion to the number of events in which it competed, the highest gate money in this pre-war era was 600000 francs in Paris in 1903. There were originally five championships and professional sprint and professional road race, continental European organisers generally preferred massed races on circuits, fenced throughout or along the finish to charge for entry. The original records were on the track, human-paced and they were promoted for three classes of bicycle, solos and unusual machines such as what are now known as recumbents, on which the rider lies horizontal
International Federation for Equestrian Sports
The International Federation for Equestrian Sports is the international governing body of equestrian sports. The FEI headquarters are in Lausanne, Switzerland, an FEI code of conduct protects the welfare of the horses from physical abuse or doping. Jumping and Eventing have been a part of the Olympics since 1912, para-Equestrian Dressage has been part of the Paralympic games since 1996. The FEI has organized the FEI World Equestrian Games every four years since 1990, the idea of the World Equestrian Games came into being in the mid-1980s and was strongly supported by HRH Prince Philip, who was FEI President. The WEG encompasses the World Championship titles in all the FEI global disciplines, the FEI World Cup is an indoor series and takes place throughout the world with qualifying leagues leading to a final in each of the disciplines. The FEI World Cup series began with Show jumping in 1978 and has since extended to the disciplines of Dressage. Today, there are 134 National Equestrian Federations affiliated with the FEI, there have been 13 different presidents of the organization.
Major Jhkr Karl F. Quarles van Ufford is the individual to have served twice. Nowadays, a President can serve for a maximum of two terms, since 2014, the President of the FEI is Ingmar De Vos from Belgium. Official website FEI TV, Official Video Website Official Facebook Page
International Biathlon Union
The International Biathlon Union is the international governing body of biathlon. Its headquarters are in Salzburg, the International Biathlon Union was founded in London on 2 July 1993. During the congress the new federation elected their executive committee and the 57 existing members of the UIPMB were automatically transferred to the IBU, however the International Olympic Committee did not recognise the IBU as an international Olympic winter sport federation until August 1998. In the same year the General Assembly International Sports Federations declared the IBU as a proper member, the IBU settled in Salzburg, Austria in June 1999. A congress is held two years, and is considered the most important organ of the IBU according to its constitution. The first extensive board meeting took place in August 1993 in Darmstadt, since over 50 board meetings have been held. Since the foundation of the IBU, seven World Championships for men and women have been held, there have been two youth World Championships held.
There have been 84 World Cups, and the European Championships have been conducted for senior and junior athletes since the 1994/95 season. The first summer biathlon World Championships took place in Hochfilzen, Austria in 1996, during the 1999/2000 season the IBU assumed the management of archery biathlon from FITA, and archery biathlon World Cups and World Championships have been held since 2002. In the first Winter Olympics in which biathlon was included there were three events and up until the 2006 games, from 2006 onward there have been five biathlon events. In August 1993 a Secretary-General was appointed, and a secretary for the staff added in 1995, a World Cup coordinator was put in place in the 1997/98 season, in order to keep standards high. This coordinator was promoted to sports director before the start of the 2002/03 season, in April 2001 a communication director position was created to handle the part of communication and media, and for the partner and supplier area. In March 2001 the chairman of the IBU legal committee is responsible for all legal interests, as the legal advisor for the IBU.
The IBU is an organization, in the sense that the IBUs income would be spread among the athletes. The IBU has contracts with the European Broadcasting Union and APF Marketing Services, there are sponsor advertisements along all the biathlon courses, the most notable ones being Viessmann, Krombacher, Adidas, and E. ON Ruhrgas/ Erdgas, who is the main sponsor. IFS acts as Official Data Partner and Polar as Timing Partner benefitting from visibility in all TV graphics relating to time measurement, most of the sponsors are German and Eastern European, where most of the interest in biathlon is. The men and women that finish in the top ten in the leader board have their travel. In the 1994/95 season prize money awarded in World Cup events was 1500DM for first place, 1000DM for second place and 500DM for third place