William T. Stearn
William Thomas Stearn was a British botanist. Born in Cambridge in 1911, he was self-educated, developed an early interest in books and natural history, his initial work experience was at a Cambridge bookshop, but he had a position as an assistant in the university botany department. At the age of 29 he married Eldwyth Ruth Alford, who became his collaborator, he died in London in 2001, survived by three children. While at the bookshop, he was offered a position as a librarian at the Royal Horticultural Society in London. From there he moved to the Natural History Museum as a scientific officer in the botany department. After his retirement, he continued working there and serving on a number of professional bodies related to his work, including the Linnean Society, of which he became president, he taught botany at Cambridge University as a visiting professor. Stearn is known for his work in botanical taxonomy and botanical history classical botanical literature, botanical illustration and for his studies of the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus.
His best known books are his Dictionary of Plant Names for Gardeners, a popular guide to the scientific names of plants, his Botanical Latin for scientists. Stearn received many honours for his work, at home and abroad, was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1997. Considered one of the most eminent British botanists of his time, he is remembered by an essay prize in his name from the Society for the History of Natural History, a named cultivar of Epimedium, one of many genera he produced monographs on, he is the botanical authority for over 400 plants that he described. William Thomas Stearn was born at 37 Springfield Road, Cambridge, England, on 16 April 1911, the eldest of four sons, to Thomas Stearn and Ellen Kiddy of West Suffolk, his father worked as a coachman to a Cambridge doctor. Chesterton was a village on the north bank of the River Cam, about two miles north of Cambridge's city centre, where Springfield Road ran parallel to Milton Road to the west. William Stearn's early education was at the nearby Milton Road Junior Council School.
Despite not having any family background in science he developed a keen interest in natural history and books at an early age. He spent his school holidays on his uncle's Suffolk farm, tending cows grazing by the roadside where he would observe the wild flowers of the hedgerows and fields. Stearn's father died in 1922 when Stearn was only eleven, leaving his working-class family in financial difficulties as his widow had no pension; that year, William Stearn succeeded in obtaining a scholarship to the local Cambridge High School for Boys on Hills Road, close to the Cambridge Botanic Garden, which he attended for eight years till he was 18. The school had an excellent reputation for biology education, while he was there, he was encouraged by Mr Eastwood, a biology teacher who recognised his talents; the school provided him with a thorough education in both Latin and Greek. He became secretary of the school's Natural History Society, won an essay prize from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and spent much of his time at the Botanic Garden.
Stearn gained horticultural experience by working as a gardener's boy during his school holidays, to supplement the family income. Stearn attended evening lectures on paleobotany given by Albert Seward, Harry Godwin. Seward was impressed by the young Stearn, giving him access to the herbarium of the Botany School and allowing him to work there as a part-time research assistant. Seward gave Stearn access to the Cambridge University Library to pursue his research. Stearn was self-educated and his widowed mother worked hard to support him while at school but could not afford a university education for him, there being no grants available then; when not at the Botany School, he attended evening classes to develop linguistic and bibliographic skills. His classes there included the classics, he obtained his first employment at the age of 18 in 1929, a time of high unemployment, to support himself and his family. He worked as an apprentice antiquarian bookseller and cataloguer in the second-hand section at Bowes & Bowes bookshop, 1 Trinity Street, between 1929 and 1933 where he was able to pursue his passion for bibliography.
During his employment there, he spent much of his lunchtimes and weekends, at the Botany School and Botanic Garden. This was at a time when botany was thriving at Cambridge under the leadership of Seward and Humphrey Gilbert-Carter. On 3 August 1940, he married Eldwyth Ruth Alford, by whom he had a son and two daughters, who collaborated with him in much of his work. Ruth Alford was a secondary school teacher from Tavistock, the daughter of Roger Rice Alford a Methodist preacher and mayor of Tavistock; when their engagement was announced in The Times, Stearn was vastly amused to see that he was described as a "Fellow of the Linen Society", a typographical error for Linnean Society. Stearn was brought up an Anglican, but was a conscientious objector and after the Second World War he became a Quaker. In his years, following official retirement in 1976 he continued to live in Kew, Richmond, his entry in Who's Who lists his interests as "gardening and talking". He died on 9 May 2001 of pneumonia at Kingston Hospital, Kingston upon Thames, at the age of 90.
His funeral took place on 18
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
The term cultivar most refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.
In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with
W. Kordes' Söhne
W. Kordes' Söhne is a German rose breeding company in Klein Offenseth-Sparrieshoop in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; the company is one of the world's leading rose breeders and producers for cut roses and garden roses, annually selling worldwide more than two million rose plants at retail and wholesale. Each year, more than 50,000 new crosses of garden roses and cut roses are tested, leading to four to six marketable varieties after a trial period of eight to ten years. Wilhelm Kordes I was a German horticulturist. In 1887 he created a rose garden in Elmshorn. In 1918 he moved the firm to Klein Offenseth-Sparrieshoop in Schleswig-Holstein, his sons, the breeder Wilhelm Kordes II and Hermann Kordes changed the name of the expanding company to "Wilhelm Kordes' Söhne". Wilhelm Kordes II's varieties made them, his general aim was to breed healthy varieties for the German climate. After 1920 he concentrated on rose-growing, leaving management to his brother Hermann. By the mid-1930s, the company had grown to considerable size.
Experiments focused at first upon the native European species, including Rosa canina, R. rubiginosa, R. spinosissima: the results include such important shrub roses as'Harry Maasz','Louis Rödiger','Raubritter','Karl Föster', the early-flowering "Frühling" series. He experimented with the Hybrid Musks such as'Elmshorn','Erfurt', and'Eva'. Hybrid Teas were not neglected:'Crimson Glory' had an unusually long reign as the world's favourite crimson rose. During the Second World War Wilhelm Kordes II crossed the East Asian Rosa wichurana with the Japanese Rosa rugosa to obtain a new species, Rosa kordesii, able to withstand the harsh winters of north Germany. From it he bred such famous post-war varieties as'Parkdirektor Riggers,"Leverkusen,' Hamburger Phönix' and'Heidelberg.' "The dark, glossy foliage of many modern roses can be traced back to'Kordesii'."Wilhelm Kordes II was very involved in implementing ADR testing in 1950, established by the rose breeders in the Federation of German Nurseries.
Above all, it is. He and his son Reimer bred some of the world's best-known roses, including'Crimson Glory' and'Schneewittchen'. Kordes knew that it was through introducing new genes that all the great advances in plant breeding had been achieved, his experiments focused at first upon Rosa rugosa. From 1955, his son Reimer Kordes ran the company until Reimer's son Wilhelm Kordes III took over in 1977. Reimer moved on from shrub roses to concentrate on brilliantly coloured Hybrid Teas and Floribundas for private and public gardens, he introduced roses of every type: large-flowered climbers such as'Alchymist' and'Antike 89'. One of the world's best known rose cultivars,'Iceberg' was introduced by Reimer Kordes in 1958; the variety was selected as the "World Favourite Rose" of 1983. Other famous cultivars include'Sunsprite', and'Aprikola'. W. Kordes Söhne The Kordes firm's website in English
Karl Koch (botanist)
Karl Heinrich Emil Koch was a German botanist. He is best known for his botanical explorations including northeast Turkey. Most of his collections have today been lost, he is known as the first professional horticultural officer in Germany. He was born in Ettersburg near Germany, he studied at the universities of Jena and Würzburg and taught, as privatdocent, at the University of Jena beginning 1834. He became an associate professor in 1836, he undertook a journey of research into southern Russia in 1836-38, a second in 1843-44. The fruit of this second trip, in which he visited Asia Minor, the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, was his "Wanderungen im Oriente, während der Jahre 1843 und 1844". After his second journey, he settled at the University of Berlin in 1847, where he was appointed assistant professor, he was at the Berlin botanical gardens beginning in 1849. He became general secretary of the Berlin Horticultural Society, in which capacity he published "Wochenschrift für Gartnerei und Pflanzenkunde".
In 1859, he was appointed professor of the Agricultural High School in Berlin. He died in Berlin. Besides the travel book mentioned, Koch wrote "Reise durch Russland nach dem kaukasischen Isthmus", "Fährtenabdrücke im bunten Sandstein", "Hortus dendrologicus", "Dendrologie", other works. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Koch, Karl". Encyclopedia Americana; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Koch, Karl". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society, founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity. The RHS promotes horticulture through flower shows including the Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, Tatton Park Flower Show and Cardiff Flower Show, it supports training for professional and amateur gardeners. The current president is Sir Nicholas Bacon, 14th Baronet and the current director general is Sue Biggs CBE; the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. His aims were modest: he wanted to hold regular meetings, allowing the society's members the opportunity to present papers on their horticultural activities and discoveries, to encourage discussion of them, to publish the results; the society would award prizes for gardening achievements. Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Wedgwood was chairman. Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership; the proposal was accepted, despite Knight's ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was president of the society from 1811–1838, developed the society's aims and objectives to include a programme of practical research into fruit-breeding. In 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were decided by election, but are now by financial contribution. Fellowship may be secured through a "suggested" £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively; the Royal Horticultural Society's four major gardens in England are: Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey. The society's first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1820 the society leased some of Hugh Ronalds' nursery ground at Little Ealing to set up an experimental garden, but the next year part of the Duke of Devonshire's estate at Chiswick was obtained.
In 1823 it employed Joseph Paxton there. From 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables. In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, but it was closed in 1882; the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the society's oldest garden. Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Helen Robinson. Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection, based at Hyde Hall; the most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001. It had been the Northern Horticultural Society's trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens.
In 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its annual flower shows which take place across the UK; the most famous of these shows is the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, visited by people from across world. This is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire; the most recent addition to the RHS shows line-up is the RHS Show Cardiff, held at Cardiff Castle since 2005. The society is closely involved with the spring and autumn shows at Malvern and with BBC Gardeners' World Live held annually at the Birmingham National Exhibition Centre; the RHS is custodian of the Lindley Library, housed within its headquarters at 80 Vincent Square, in branches at each of its four gardens. The library is based upon the book collection of John Lindley; the RHS Herbarium has its own image library consisting of more than 3,300 original watercolours 30,000 colour slides and a increasing number of digital images.
Although most of the images have been supplied by photographers commissioned by the RHS, the archive includes a substantial number of slides from the Harry Smith Collection and Plant Heritage National Plant Collection holders. The reference library at Wisley Garden is open to visitors to the Garden. In 2002, the RHS took over the administration of the Britain in Bloom competition from the Tidy Britain Group. In 2010, The society launched'It's your neighbourhood', a campaign to encourage people to get involved in horticulture for the benefit of their community. In 2014, the'Britain in Bloom' celebrates its 50th anniversary; the RHS runs formal courses for professional and amateur gardeners and horticulturalists and validates qualifications gained elsewhere. The RHS Level 1 Award in
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well