The International Commission on Illumination is the international authority on light, illumination and colour spaces. It was established in 1913 as a successor to the Commission Internationale de Photométrie, founded in 1900, is today based in Vienna, Austria; the President from 2019 is Dr Peter Blattner from Switzerland. The CIE has six divisions, each of which establishes technical committees to carry out its program under the supervision of the division's director: Division 1: Vision and Colour Division 2: Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation Division 3: Interior Environment and Lighting Design Division 4: Transportation and Exterior Applications Division 6: Photobiology and Photochemistry Division 8: Image TechnologyDivision 5 and Division 7 are inactive today. In 1924 it established the standard photopic observer defined by the spectral luminous efficiency function V, followed in 1951 by the standard scotopic observer defined by the function V’. Building on the Optical Society of America's report on colorimetry in 1922, the CIE convened its eighth session in 1931, with the intention of establishing an international agreement on colorimetric specifications and updating the OSA's 1922 recommendations based on the developments during the past decade.
The meeting, held in Cambridge, United Kingdom, concluded with the formalization of the CIE 1931 XYZ colour space and definitions of the 1931 CIE 2° standard observer with the corresponding colour matching functions, standard illuminants A, B, C. In 1964 the 10° CIE standard observer and its corresponding colour matching functions as well as the new standard daylight illuminant D6500 were added, as well as a method for calculating daylight illuminants at correlated colour temperatures other than 6500 kelvins. In 1976, the commission developed the CIELAB and CIELUV colour spaces, which are used today. Based on CIELAB, colour difference formulas CIEDE94 and CIEDE2000 were recommended in the corresponding years. International Color Consortium International Colour Association International Electrotechnical Commission International Organization for Standardization CIE Web site List of CIE publications and standards Inter-Society Color Council
The Feminist Press is an independent nonprofit literary publisher that promotes freedom of expression and social justice. It publishes writing by people who share a belief in choice and equality. Founded in 1970, the Press began by rescuing “lost” works by writers such as Zora Neale Hurston and Charlotte Perkins Gilman, established its publishing program with books by American writers of diverse racial and class backgrounds. Since it has been bringing works from around the world to North American readers; the Feminist Press is the longest surviving women’s publishing house in the world. The Press operates out of the City University of New York. By the end of the 1960s, both Florence Howe and her husband Paul Lauter had taught in the Freedom Schools in Mississippi, Howe was attempting to compile a mini-women’s studies curriculum for her writing students at Goucher College in Baltimore; as the 1970s approached, Howe was convinced that, just as she needed texts for teaching about women, so would other educators.
Her initial appeal to a number of university and trade publishers to issue a series of critical feminist biographies proved of no avail. The Baltimore Women’s Liberation, an active local group and publishers of a successful new journal, helped to raise money for the Press’s first publications. On November 17, 1970, the first meeting of the newly formed Press was held in Florence Howe's living room; the first book to be published was Barbara Danish’s children's book The Dragon and the Doctor in 1971. Howe saw her dreams of producing feminist biographies come true with the publication of Elizabeth Barrett Browning at the end of 1971. In the Press’s founding years, Tillie Olsen changed its course by giving Howe a photocopy of the 1861 pages of The Atlantic Monthly containing Rebecca Harding Davis's anonymously published novella Life in the Iron Mills. In 1972, the Press issued this work by Rebecca Harding Davis as the first of its series of rediscovered feminist literary classics. Olsen’s second suggestion, Daughter of Earth by Agnes Smedley, Elaine Hedges’s suggestion, The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, were published in 1973.
Both have become staples of American literature and women’s studies curriculums since, with the 1990 Norton Anthology of American Literature including both Life in the Iron Mills and The Yellow Wallpaper. In the spring of 1971, Howe and her husband moved to New York, where she brought the burgeoning Press to her newly accepted professorship at Old Westbury; the president of the school allowed her to operate out of the corridor of a building intended as a garage for campus vehicles. The Press was met with excitement and support from students who worked in the small office in exchange for college work-study. Two New York City publishing professionals, Verne Moberg and Susan Lowes, contributed to the publication of three volumes of reprinted fiction released in 1972 and 1973, both of which Howe believes to exemplify the Press's enduring commitment to producing course-adoptable books to supplement curriculums dominated by male writers; the Press continues its commitment to recovering and compiling the important work of otherwise overlooked and unpublished female artists in collections such as In Her Own Image and the Women Writing Africa series.
In 1972, the Feminist Press became a 5013 organization with tax-exempt status. In the summer of 1985, the Feminist Press moved to the CUNY campus on East Ninety-Fourth Street following an invitation from the school. Allowed to maintain an independent staff and board of directors, the Press gratefully welcomed the resources and visibility made available by this partnership. In 2001 Jean Casella became the Executive Director of the Press, she was followed by Gloria Jacobs, former Ms. Magazine editor, Jennifer Baumgardner, cofounder of Soapbox Inc. Jamia Wilson is the current Executive Director of the Feminist Press, appointed in 2017. Wilson is both the youngest director in the Press's forty-nine-year history and the first woman of color to head the organization. Under her leadership, the Press continues its commitment to publishing a broad range of voices; the Press has recently endeavored to extend its reaches beyond publishing. In doing so, the Press has hosted a variety of events and panels centering on key conversations in feminism.
“I grew up reading Feminist Press books from my mother’s shelf, they were instrumental in developing my voice as an activist and writer. It’s an honor to join this intergenerational team to enliven the Press’s intersectional vision of publishing unapologetic, accessible texts that inspire action, teach empathy, build community,” Wilson explained upon her appointment as ED; the Feminist Press remains rooted in the symbiotic relationship between a publication and its readership. In this exchange, a book not only promotes ideas to its reader, but it inspires new formulations that could shape future publications; the Feminist Press has remained current and relevant within the fast-changing world of modern politics and the rapid evolution of feminism. Recent bestsellers include debut short story collections Training School for Negro Girls by Camille Acker and Love War Stories by Ivelisse Rodriguez, both tracing the experiences of women and girls of color. Love War Stories was nominated for a PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 2019.
In 2016, the Press started Amethyst Editions, a queer imprint curated by Michelle Tea that champions emerging queer writers who employ genre-bending narratives and experimental writing styles, complicates the conversation around American LGBTQ+ experiences beyond a coming out narrative. Tea's collection Against Memoir won the PEN/Diamonstein-Spielvogel Award for the Art
The Victoria Arches are a series of bricked-up arches built in an embankment of the River Irwell in Manchester. They served as business premises, landing stages for steam packet riverboats and as Second World War air-raid shelters, they were accessed from wooden staircases. Regular flooding resulted in the closure of the steam-packet services in the early 20th century, the arches were used for general storage. Following the outbreak of the Second World War they were converted into air raid shelters, they are now bricked up and inaccessible, the staircases having been removed in the latter part of the 20th century. The arches were built to create new industrial space, during construction of a new embankment along the River Irwell, built to support a new road; the embankment was completed in 1838. In 1852 the life-boat Challenger was launched from the Arches. Victorian-era passenger trips along the Irwell were popular, despite increasing levels of river pollution; the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act 1876 was designed to solve such problems, although it was ineffective.
However, it laid the groundwork for the more draconian legislation. The Manchester Ship Canal was opened in 1894, by 1895 the Ship Canal Company, who encouraged passenger traffic, had opened at least one landing stage. Two of its steamers and Eagle, are known to have used the landing stages; these boats could carry 1,100 passengers respectively. During the first half of 1897 more than 200,000 passengers were carried on trips around Manchester Docks, with holiday seasons the most popular periods. Competition for passengers was fierce, with at least two landing stages being operated by different companies; the ferries would carry musicians, for passenger entertainment. The landing stages suffered problems with flooding of the Irwell and do not appear to have remained in business for long, being closed in 1906. In Underground Manchester. Two approaches thereto were provided, one by a flight of steps near the Cateaton Street side of the old churchyard, the other at the corner of Victoria Street and Fennel Street.
The arches were lofty and spacious, had been used as a copper and iron works, in connection with, a tall chimney by the cathedral steps. Part of the chimney was damaged by lightning and the upper part was taken down in 1872. I believe the lower part remained until the old buildings at that point were demolished, not many years ago, he continues. There was the first testing station for the department where the prototypes of all apparatus used by electricity users in the city were tested; the tunnel was bricked up, about level with the end of Fennel Street. From its gradient it would reach water level at the Irk at the bottom of Hunt's Bank, the other end would reach street level at St Mary's Gate; the roadway was one cart track wide. The entrance was in Victoria Street alongside the door to a tobacconist's shop near Cathedral Yard. During the Second World War the arches and tunnels surrounding them were converted into air-raid shelters; the conversion took three months and with additional brick blast walls added, cost £10,150, providing shelter for 1,619 people.
The cobbled surfaces shown in some of the pictures on the Manchester City Council website show the same network of tunnels before their conversion to air raid shelters. The land covered by the arches included a street, which led at the west end to a wooden bridge over the River Irk; the old road was covered over in an improvement scheme that began in 1833. The steps and landing stages have been closed to the public for many years. In 1935 less elaborate steps were in place, some of which remained until 1971. Photographs taken in 1972 show the arches to be barred, some are covered with metal grilles; as of 2009 none of the steps remain, the original Victorian railings along the embankment have been replaced with a stone wall and new railings. The stages connected with public toilets that used to be in front of the cathedral. While now disused and closed to the public in 1967, Manchester Central Library maps demonstrate their proximity to the landing stages on the river, both stage and toilets are accessible from one another.
Explorers have accessed the landing stages and documented their current condition, including taking photographs. There was an underground entrance to the stages from the premises of Thomas Cook & Son, which stood on the corner of Victoria Bridge. Evidence of the building was found inside one of the stages in the form of fire-damaged timber purlins, albeit in poor condition, it has been suggested that the landing stages might be reopened to the public as a tourist attraction. The arches are visible from the three surrounding bridges, from the northwest shore of the river, they are all bricked up, some with small ventilation apertures left in place. Notes Bibliography Manchester Council Image Database - search for River Irwell or Victoria Arches Passenger Steamers on the River Irwe
Georges-Albini Lacombe was a Canadian physician and politician. Born in Lavaltrie, Canada East, Lacombe was educated at the School of Medicine and Surgery of Montreal and the University of Winnipeg where he became a physician in 1886. From 1886 to 1891, he practised medicine in an Indian reserve for the Government of Manitoba and for the Canadian Pacific Railway, he practised in Faribault, Minnesota. In 1891, he was appointed a professor of anatomy in Bishop's College. Moving to Montreal, he was called to the Bar of Quebec in 1901 and practised law in Montreal until 1908, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec for Montréal division no. 1 in 1897. A Liberal, he was re-elected in 1900, 1904, 1908. In 1908, he was appointed Registrar of the division of Jacques Cartier, he would hold this position until 1922. He died in Cartierville, Quebec in 1941
The Public Affairs Council is a professional association for people working in public administration and policy. Its mission is to advance the field of public affairs and provide resources to public affairs executives and managers to help them achieve their business and professional goals. Based in Washington, D. C. PAC counts over 600 corporations and consulting firms as members; the Public Affairs Council was launched in 1954 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, when he convened a meeting of business executives to suggest the creation of a national organization to make business people from both parties active participants in the political process. First incorporated as the Effective Citizens Organization, the ECO relocated to Washington, DC from New York City in 1962 and changed its name to the Public Affairs Council in 1965. In the 1950s, the concept of corporate public affairs was only beginning to come into vogue, at the time meant legislature watching and corporate community involvement. Today, the definition of "public affairs" is much broader, encompassing political involvement, political action committees, corporate community involvement, issues management, grassroots advocacy, public relations.
This broadening of the field of public affairs and an increased understanding of the importance of political involvement has been demonstrated in the growth of formal corporate and association public affairs programs. In the 1950s, only a handful of companies had formal programs, thousands of companies and associations have them. Since its founding, the expansion of the Public Affairs Council and its operations has mirrored the growth of the public affairs profession. In the beginning, the Council offered only a few limited services and a monthly newsletter, but today, the Public Affairs Council offers a comprehensive program of public affairs and government relations services, several monthly and annual publications, dozens of annual conferences. Through the Consulting Services division, the Council advances the field of Public Affairs by collecting and analyzing data, assessing best practices, providing professional assistance to member organizations in areas of strategic planning and management, organizational structure, performance measurement and evaluation.
The Consulting Services division carries out its mission through a mix of products and services available only to members of the Public Affairs Council, including individual consultation and technical assistance, applied research and consulting and publications, conferences and seminars. Beginning in 1958, the ECO launched Echo. In 1974, the Public Affairs Council renamed the newsletter Impact, the name that it retains to this day. In addition to this monthly newsletter, the Council, in conjunction with the Foundation for Public Affairs, produces numerous publications annually, including handbooks for public affairs professionals, benchmarking studies, the Public Affairs Management Report series. In 1964 the ECO offered its first series of conferences and roundtables, including the first Public Affairs Training Seminar; as the interrelationship between business and government became more complex, these conferences provided public affairs professionals with their first opportunities for learning about groundbreaking approaches to public affairs that were being developed.
The Public Affairs Council now holds more than 100 conferences and workshops annually, including the largest national conferences on corporate and association grassroots, political action committees and corporate philanthropy. The Public Affairs Council is governed by a volunteer board of directors composed of industry leaders; the Council's Executive Committee, which provides the day-to-day governance of programs and activities, is made up of 15 executives who have demonstrated support for the Council as Members of the Board or Directors. Professional association Public administration Public policy Official website
Alexander Viktorovich Kutikov is a Soviet/Russian rock musician, composer and businessman. Kutikov was born in a Russian-Jewish family in Moscow, he was an avid fan of groups such as The Beatles during his secondary school years. He became the bass-guitarist and one of the singers of the Soviet rock band Mashina Vremeni, from 1971 to 1976. and returned in 1979. They became famous in the USSR and in Eastern Europe for composing the soundtrack of Dusha, released in 1981, he is the founding president of the sound recording company Sintez Records. Kutikov performed the vocals for the famous song "Povorot" by Mashina Vremeni. Order of Honour Merited Artist of the Russian Federation Honorary Prize of RAO and WIPO Official site Kutikov at Mashina's site Bio and discography