International Date Line

The International Date Line is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups; this description is based on the most common understanding of the de facto International Date Line. See § De facto and de jure date lines below, map above at right; the IDL is based on the meridian of 180° longitude down the middle of the Pacific Ocean, halfway around the world from the Greenwich meridian. In many places, the IDL follows the 180° meridian exactly. In other places, the IDL deviates east or west away from that meridian; these various deviations accommodate the political and/or economic affiliations of the affected areas. Proceeding from north to south, the first deviation of the IDL from 180° is to pass to the east of Wrangel Island and the Chukchi Peninsula, the easternmost part of Russian Siberia.

It passes through the Bering Strait between the Diomede Islands at a distance of 1.5 kilometres from each island at 168°58′37″ W. It bends west of 180°, passing west of St. Lawrence Island and St. Matthew Island; the IDL crosses between the U. S. Aleutian Islands and the Commander Islands, which belong to Russia, it bends southeast again to return to 180°. Thus, all of Russia is to the west of the IDL, all of the United States is to the east except for the insular areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island; the IDL remains on the 180° meridian until passing the equator. Two US-owned uninhabited atolls, Howland Island and Baker Island, just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean, have the latest time on Earth; the IDL circumscribes Kiribati by swinging far to the east reaching the 150°W meridian. Kiribati's easternmost islands, the southern Line Islands south of Hawaii, have the most advanced time on Earth, UTC+14:00 hours. South of Kiribati, the IDL returns westwards but remains east of 180°, passing between Samoa and American Samoa.

In much of this area, the IDL follows the 165°W meridian. Accordingly, Tokelau and Futuna, Tonga and New Zealand's Kermadec Islands and Chatham Islands are all west of the IDL and have the same date. American Samoa, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia are east of the IDL and one day behind; the IDL bends southwest to return to 180°. It follows that meridian until reaching Antarctica. Conventionally, the IDL is not drawn into Antarctica on most maps. People traveling around the world from east to west would gain or set their clocks back one hour for every 15° of longitude crossed, would gain 24 hours for one circuit of the globe from east to west if they did not compensate by setting their clocks forward one day when they crossed the IDL. Conversely, a west-to-east circumnavigation of the globe loses an hour for every 15° of longitude crossed but gains back a day when crossing the IDL; the IDL must therefore be observed in conjunction with the Earth's time zones: When crossing it in either direction, the calendar date is adjusted by one day.

For the two hours between 10:00 and 11:59 UTC each day, three different calendar dates are observed at the same time in different places on Earth. For example, at 10:15 UTC Thursday, it is 23:15 Wednesday in American Samoa, Thursday in most of the world, 00:15 Friday in Kiritimati. During the first hour, all three calendar dates include inhabited places. During the second hour one of the calendar dates is limited to an uninhabited maritime time zone twelve hours behind UTC. According to the clock, the first areas to experience a new day and a New Year are islands that use UTC+14:00; these include portions of the Republic of Kiribati, including Millennium Island in the Line Islands, as well as Samoa during the southern summer. The first major cities to experience a new day are New Zealand. A 1994 realignment of the IDL made Caroline Island one of the first points of land on Earth to reach January 1, 2000 on the calendar; as a result, this atoll was renamed Millennium Island. The areas that are the first to see the daylight of a new day vary by the season.

Around the June solstice, the first area would be any place within the Kamchatka Time Zone, far enough north to experience midnight sun on the given date. At the equinoxes, the first place to see daylight would be the uninhabited Millennium Island in Kiribati, the easternmost land located west of the IDL. Near the December solstice, the first places would be Antarctic research stations using New Zealand Time during summer that experience midnight sun; these include Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, McMurdo Station, Scott Base and Mario Zucchelli Station. There are two ways time zones and thereby the location of the International Date Line are determined, one on land and adjacent territorial waters, the other on open seas. All nations unilaterally determine their standard time zones, applicable only on land and adjacent territorial waters; this date line can be called de facto since it is not based on international law, but on national laws. These national zones do not extend into international waters.

The nautical date line

Jack Culpin

John Albert "Jack" Culpin was an Australian politician. Born in Collingwood to postal officer Albert Culpin and his wife Leura, he worked as an electrical fitter and was a shop steward with the Electrical Trades Union for twenty years. On 23 June 1951 he married June Marie Ballard, with whom he had four sons Gary, Rodney & Dale. In 1961 he was elected to Broadmeadows City Council, serving until 1978. In 1976 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as the Labor member for Glenroy, shifting to Broadmeadows in 1985, he was defeated as an independent candidate. Jack Culpin died in Melbourne on 2 September 2014. Https://

Manu Bhattathiri

Manu Bhattathiri is the author of Savithri’s Special Room and Other Stories and The Town That Laughed. He is the co-founder of Cheers! Communications, an advertising agency based out of Bengaluru, India; the Town That Laughed has been listed by The Hindu as one of the top 10 books of 2018. The fictional town of Karuthupuzha is the setting for both of Manu Bhattathiri's works, Savithri's Special Room and The Town That Laughed. According to Bhattathiri, "it has enough violently funny intense and beautifully imperfect people to write many stories about." The Hindu's review of The Town That Laughed has this to say: "Where the author excels, however, is in his characterisation." His style of writing the setting of his stories in a small town, has been compared to RK Narayan's Malgudi by The Hindu, the New Indian Express, the Hindustan Times. Savithri's Special Room and Other Stories has been published by HarperCollins while The Town That Laughed has been published by the Aleph Book Company. Savithri's Special Room and Other Stories was on the shortlist of the Crossword Book Jury Award.

The Town That Laughed has been listed by The Hindu as one of the top 10 books of 2018