Century 21 Exposition
The Century 21 Exposition was a world's fair held April 21, 1962, to October 21, 1962, in Seattle, Washington. Nearly 10 million people attended the fair. Unlike some other world's fairs of its era, Century 21 made a profit; as planned, the exposition left behind numerous public buildings and public works. The fair saw the construction of the Space Needle and Alweg monorail, as well as several sports venues and performing arts buildings, most of which have since been replaced or remodeled; the site expanded since the fair, is now called Seattle Center. Another notable Seattle Center building, the Museum of Pop Culture, was built nearly 40 years and designed to fit in with the fairground atmosphere. Seattle mayor Allan Pomeroy is credited with bringing the World's Fair to the city, he recruited community and business leaders, as well as running a petition campaign, in the early 1950s to convince the city council to approve an $8.5 million bond issue to build the opera house and sports center needed to attract the fair.
The council approved a $7.5 million bond issue with the state of Washington matching that amount. The fair was conceived in 1955 to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1909 Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition, but it soon became clear that that date was too ambitious. With the Space Race underway and Boeing having "put Seattle on the map" as "an aerospace city", a major theme of the fair was to show that "the United States was not really'behind' the Soviet Union in the realms of science and space"; as a result, the themes of space and the future trumped the earlier conception of a "Festival of the West". In June 1960, the Bureau International des Expositions certified Century 21 as a world's fair. Project manager Ewen Dingwall was turned down. Neither the People's Republic of China, Vietnam nor North Korea were invited; as it happened, the Cold War had an additional effect on the fair. President John F. Kennedy was supposed to attend the closing ceremony of the fair on October 21, 1962, he bowed out, pleading a "heavy cold".
The fair's vision of the future displayed a technologically based optimism that did not anticipate any dramatic social change, one rooted in the 1950s rather than in the cultural tides that would emerge in the 1960s. Affluence, automation and American power would grow. In contrast, 12 years later—even in far more conservative Spokane, Washington—Expo'74 took environmentalism as its central theme; the theme of Spokane's Expo'74 was "Celebrating Tomorrow's Fresh New Environment.". Once the fair idea was conceived, several sites were considered. Among the sites considered within Seattle were Duwamish Head in West Seattle. Two sites south of the city proper were considered—Midway, near Des Moines, the Army Depot in Auburn—as was a site east of the city on the south shore of Lake Sammamish; the site selected for the Century 21 Exposition had been contemplated for a civic center. The idea of using it for the world's fair came and brought in federal money for the United States Science Pavilion and state money for the Washington State Coliseum.
Some of the land had been donated to the city by James Osborne in 1881 and by David and Louisa Denny in 1889. Two lots at Third Avenue N. and John Street were purchased from St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church, planning to build a new church building there; the Warren Avenue School, a public elementary school with several programs for physically handicapped students, was torn down, its programs dispersed, provided most of the site of the Coliseum. Near the school, some of the city's oldest houses and commercial buildings were torn down; the old Fire Station No. 4 was sacrificed. As early as the 1909 Bogue plan, this part of Lower Queen Anne had been considered for a civic center; the Civic Auditorium, the ice arena, the Civic Field, all built in 1927 had been placed there based on that plan, as was an armory. The fair planners sought two other properties near the southwest corner of the grounds, they failed to make any inroads with the Seattle Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, who had built Sacred Heart Church there.
It served as the site of the Century 21 Club. This membership organization, formed for the fair, charged $250 for membership and offered lounge, dining room, other club facilities, as well as a gate pass for the duration of the fair
Bureau International des Expositions
The Bureau International des Expositions is an intergovernmental organization created to supervise international exhibitions falling under the jurisdiction of the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions. The BIE was established by the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions, signed in Paris on 22 November 1928, with the following goals: to oversee the calendar, the bidding, the selection and the organization of World Expositions. Today, 170 member countries have adhered to the BIE Convention; the BIE regulates two types of expositions: Recognized Exhibitions. Horticultural Exhibitions with an A1 grade, regulated by the International Association of Horticultural Producers, are recognized since 1960; the Bureau International des Expositions recognises the Milan Triennial Exhibition of Decorative Arts and Modern Architecture, on grounds of historical precedence, provided that it retains its original features. Since the creation of the BIE in 1928, different protocols have governed Expo categories, which are split between World Expos and Specialised Expos.
The rules for each category define the duration, the frequency, the size, the construction attributes of each Expo. Under the original protocol of the 1928 Paris Convention, the BIE recognised two types of Expos: The Protocol of 30 November 1972 revised the original Convention, entering into force in 1980. Under these new rules, two types of Expos were recognised: A new amendment was adopted in 1988 and ratified in 1996, further distinguishing the two types of Expos: Expo 2008 Zaragoza was the first Specialised Expo to be organised under these new rules, which continue to be in force to this day; the BIE may grant recognition to A1 Horticultural Exhibitions approved by the International Association of Horticultural Producers since 1960, to the Triennale di Milano since 1933. According to the 1988 Amendment of the Convention on International Exhibitions, World Expos may occur every five years, may last up to six months. Countries, international organizations, civil societies, corporations are allowed to participate in World Expos.
The themes of World Expos address a universal challenge facing humanity, international participants may design and build their own pavilions. Participants may opt to customise a pavilion provided by the Organiser or to participate within a joint pavilion, which has lower participation costs. Examples of themes of recent World Expos include "Man and His World" for Expo'67 in Montreal, "Discovery" for Seville Expo'92, examples of joint pavilion buildings for a Registered Exposition is the Plaza of America at Seville's Expo'92, constructed by the Seville Expo Authority to maximize participation at the fair by South American nations; the Plaza of Africa at Seville was constructed for the same purpose. World Expos are massive in scale, sometimes 300 or 400 hectares in size. Pavilions participating at a World Expo can be large, sometimes 5,000 to 10,000 square metres in size, mini city blocks in themselves and sometimes more than several stories in height. World Expos have been known to average 200,000 persons per day of visitors - or more - and some 50 to 70 million visitors during their six-month duration.
Montreal's Expo 67 attracted 54 million visitors, Osaka's Expo'70, 64 million visitors, the Seville Expo'92, 41 million visitors and Shanghai's Expo 2010 attracted 70 million visitors. As a result and other infrastructure at a Registered Exposition is an important concern and the overall cost for hosting and being represented at a World Expos is quite high, compared to the smaller-scale Specialised Expos. Specialised Expos may occur between World Expos and may have a duration of between three weeks and three months. Countries, international organizations, civil societies, corporations are allowed to participate but the theme of the Expo must address a precise challenge, e.g. Future Energy, or Living Oceans and the Coast; the pavilions are made available to participants who may customise them. The largest pavilion may be no larger than 1,000 square meters, the Expo site must not exceed an area of twenty-five hectares. For this reason Specialised Expos are cheaper to run than World Expos. 170 countries are member states of the BIE: Australia was a signatory to the treaty and won the right to hold the 1988 World Exposition.
In 2015 the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry requested that the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade reconsider membership, as the cost was too high and "difficult to demonstrate an appropriate return on investment", that membership be withdrawn temporarily in 2015. Australia is no longer listed as a member of BIE. On October 16, 2012, the Conservative government ended Canada's membership of the BIE when the federal government cancelled its $25,000 per year membership fee as part of “reviewing all spending across government with the aim of reducing the defic
Liège is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands and with Germany. At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe; the city is part of the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal cultural centre of the region; the Liège municipality includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants; the metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, the fourth municipality after Antwerp and Charleroi; the name is Germanic in origin and is reconstructible as *liudik-, from the Germanic word *liudiz "people", found in for example Dutch lui, German Leute, Old English lēod and Icelandic lýður.
It is found in Lithuanian as liaudis, in Russian as liudi, in Latin as Leodicum or Leodium, in Middle Dutch as ludic or ludeke. Until 17 September 1946, the city's name was written Liége, with the acute accent instead of a grave accent. In French, Liège is associated with the epithet la cité ardente; this term, which emerged around 1905 referred to the city's history of rebellions against Burgundian rule, but was appropriated to refer to its economic dynamism during the Industrial Revolution. Although settlements existed in Roman times, the first references to Liège are from 558, when it was known as Vicus Leudicus. Around 705, Saint Lambert of Maastricht is credited with completing the Christianization of the region, indicating that up to the early 8th century the religious practices of antiquity had survived in some form. Christian conversion may still not have been quite universal, since Lambert was murdered in Liège and thereafter regarded as a martyr for his faith. To enshrine St. Lambert's relics, his successor, built a basilica near the bishop's residence which became the true nucleus of the city.
A few centuries the city became the capital of a prince-bishopric, which lasted from 985 till 1794. The first prince-bishop, transformed the city into a major intellectual and ecclesiastical centre, which maintained its cultural importance during the Middle Ages. Pope Clement VI recruited several musicians from Liège to perform in the Papal court at Avignon, thereby sanctioning the practice of polyphony in the religious realm; the city was renowned for its many churches, the oldest of which, St Martin's, dates from 682. Although nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, in practice it possessed a large degree of independence; the strategic position of Liège has made it a frequent target of armies and insurgencies over the centuries. It was fortified early on with a castle on the steep hill. During this medieval period, three women from the Liège region made significant contributions to Christian spirituality: Elizabeth Spaakbeek, Christina the Astonishing, Marie of Oignies. In 1345, the citizens of Liège rebelled against Prince-Bishop Engelbert III de la Marck, their ruler at the time, defeated him in battle near the city.
Shortly after, a unique political system formed in Liège, whereby the city's 32 guilds shared sole political control of the municipal government. Each person on the register of each guild was eligible to participate, each guild's voice was equal, making it the most democratic system that the Low Countries had known; the system spread to Utrecht, left a democratic spirit in Liège that survived the Middle Ages. At the end of the Liège Wars, a rebellion against rule from Burgundy that figured prominently in the plot of Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Quentin Durward, Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, witnessed by King Louis XI of France and destroyed the city in 1468, after a bitter siege, ended with a successful surprise attack; the Prince-Bishopric of Liège was technically part of the Holy Roman Empire which, after 1477, came under the rule of the Habsburgs. The reign of prince-bishop Erard de la Marck coincides with the dawn of the Renaissance. During the Counter-Reformation, the diocese of Liège was split and progressively lost its role as a regional power.
In the 17th century, many prince-bishops came from the royal house of Wittelsbach. They ruled over other bishoprics in the northwest of the Holy Roman Empire as well. In 1636, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was besieged by Imperial forces under Johann von Werth from April to July; the army consisting of mercenaries and viciously plundered the surrounding bishopric during the siege. The Duke of Marlborough captured the city from the Bavarian prince-bishop and his French allies in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In the middle of the eighteenth century the ideas of the French Encyclopédistes began to gain popularity in the region. Bishop de Velbruck, encouraged their propagation, thus prepared the way for the Liège Revolution which started in the episcopal city on 18 August 1789 and led to the creation of the Republic of Liège before it was invaded by counter-revolutionary forces of the Habsbu
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Exposition internationale de l'eau
The Exposition internationale de la technique de l'eau de 1939 was the third specialized exposition recognized by the Bureau International des Expositions. In 1936 Georges Truffaut proposed an exposition to celebrate the completion of the Albert Canal; the exposition's theme was water management and opened on 20 May 1939 by King Leopold III of Belgium. The canal itself was opened on 30 July 1939; the exposition was situated on 70 hectares land and 30 hectares water on both riverbanks between the Albert Canal and the Atlas Bridge. On the site were exhibition halls, attractions and a Meuse village with replicas of building from the Meuse valley. A part of the site was on land reclaimed from an inavigatable part of the Meuse. An aerial cableway provided a panoramic view over the site; the exposition was scheduled to November 1939, but on 31 August explosives under the Val Benoit Bridge and the Ougrée Bridge detonated by lightning, resulting in 20 fatalities and 24 injured. The explosives were placed by the Belgian Army wanting the bridges destroyed in case of war.
When the real war started the day after it was decided to close the exposition immediately. The German pavilion was similar to the one in Paris two years before; the pavilion, on the left riverbank was designed by architect Emil Fahrenkamp. Nazi Germany didn't want to spend money outside Germany; the building materials and equipment were imported from Germany and had to be transported from the Belgian-German border 35 km east of Liège. Every morning the contractors and engineers were transported from Germany by bus or lorry to the site in Liège; the whole column returned to Germany in the evening. The French contribution consisted of three exhibition halls on the right riverbank; the buildings designed by Allix had a surface of 8000 m2. Official website of the BIE
Expo'70 was a world's fair held in Suita, Japan, between March 15 and September 13, 1970. The theme of the Expo was "Progress and Harmony for Mankind." In Japanese, Expo'70 is referred to as Osaka Banpaku. This was the first world's fair held in Japan; the master plan for the Expo was designed by the Japanese architect Kenzo Tange helped by 12 other Japanese architects who designed elements within it. Bridging the site along a north/south axis was the Symbol Zone. Planned on three levels it was a social space which had a unifying space frame roof. Osaka was chosen as the site for the 1970 World Exposition by the Bureau International des Expositions in 1965. 330 hectares in the Senri Hills outside Osaka had been earmarked for the site and a Theme Committee under the chairmanship of Seiji Kaya was formed. Kenzo Tange and Uzo Nishiyama were appointed to produce the master plan for the Expo; the main theme would be Harmony for Mankind. Tange invited 12 other architects to elucidate designs for elements within the master plan.
These architects included: Arata Isozaki for the Festival Plaza mechanical and electronic installations. Two main principles informed the master plan; the first was the idea that the wisdom of all the peoples of the world would come together in this place and stimulate ideas. The designers thought that unlike previous expositions they wished to produce a central, Festival Plaza where people could meet and socialise, they called this the Symbol Zone and covered it and the themed pavilions with a giant space frame roof. The designers liked the idea that like the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, the roof of the Symbol Zone could be a unifying entity for the expo, they did not want the constraint imposed by the London Exhibition of having everything contained under one roof, so the space frame contained only the Festival Plaza and themed pavilions. Tange compared the concept to a tree; the idea was that although the national pavilions were like individual flowers they needed to be connected to the whole via branches and a trunk.
Thus the Symbol Zone became the trunk and the moving pedestrian walkways and sub-plazas became the branches. These elements were reinforced with colour, with the trunk and branches in plain white and the pavilions in their own colours that were determined by the national architects; the Symbol Zone ran north/south across the site. The Festival Plaza had the main gate on its southern end. To the north of the main gate and central to the Festival Plaza was the Tower of the Sun from which visitors could join pedestrian walkways that travelled out towards the north, south and west gates; the Theme Space under the space frame was divided into three levels, each designed by the artist Tarō Okamoto, The underground level represented the past and was a symbol of the source of humanity. The surface level represented the present; the space frame represented a world where humanity and technology would be joined. Tange envisioned that the exhibition for the future would be like an aerial city and he asked Fumihiko Maki, Noboru Kawazoe, Koji Kamiya and Noriaki Kurokawa to design it.
The Theme Space was punctuated by three towers: the Tower of the Sun, the Tower of Maternity and the Tower of Youth. To the north of the Theme Space was the Festival Plaza; this was a flexible space that stepped terrace. The plaza could be rearranged to provide for different requirements for seating capacity, from 1500 to 10000; the flexibility extended to the lighting and audio visual equipment allowing for a range of musical performances and electronic presentations. Festival Plaza was covered by the world's first transparent membrane roof, it was designed by Tange and structural engineer Yoshikatsu Tsuboi + Kawaguchi & Engineers. Measuring 75.6 m in width and 108 m in length, it was 30 m high and supported by only six lattice columns. Seventy-seven countries participated in the event, within six months the number of visitors reached 64,218,770, making Expo'70 one of the largest and best attended expositions in history, it held the record for most visitors at an Expo until it was surpassed by the Shanghai World Expo in 2010.
The Canadian Pavilion, designed by architect Arthur Erickson, featured two National Film Board of Canada productions: The Land, a look at Canada from coast to coast, filmed for the most part from a low-flying aircraft, as well as the animated short The City, directed by Kaj Pindal. Montreal artist and architect Melvin Charney had submitted a radically different design for the Canadian pavilion, fashioned from construction cranes and scaffolding, rejected; the West German pavilion, designed by Fritz Bornemann, featured the world's first spherical concert hall, based on artistic concepts by Karlheinz Stockhausen. The pavilion theme was "gardens of music", in keeping with which Bornemann "planted" the exhibition halls beneath a broad lawn, with the connected auditorium "sprouting" above ground. Inside, the audience was surrounded by 50 loudspeaker groups in seven rings at different "latitudes" around the interior walls of the sphere. Sound was sent around the space in three dimensions using either a spherical controller designed by Fritz Winckel of the Electronic Music Studio at the Technical University of Berlin, or a ten-channel "rotation mill" constructed to Stockhausen's design.
Works by Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Bernd Alois Zimmermann, Boris Blacher were played from multi-track tape. As the main fea