The singing processions have their roots in an old medieval ecclesiastical play, centred on the Biblical Magi of the Christmas story in the Gospel of Matthew, appropriate to Epiphany. It is observed usually during the period between 27 December and 6 January, in Scandinavia and Central Europe a special set of songs, distinct from Christmas carols has developed in this context. Historically performed by boys and male only, it is nowadays performed by children. At a synod in Konstanz in Germany at Christmas in 1417 the British clergies performed the Star boy drama for the rest of the participants at the meeting and they wore expensive costumes and had a large shining star. The performance was a success at the church conference and could have been one of the main reasons for growing popularity of the drama in post-medieval Europe. After the Reformation in the 16th century, pupils of the schools in Protestant nations conducted these processions to raise funds to replace the church support that had disappeared.
The custom passed further on to the populace as a kind of narrative folk drama. Since the procession has become common in many parts of Europe. In most countries it is no longer restricted to boys, in Germany and Belgium organisations centrally organise the processions, collecting money for charity or international aid projects, leading to a widespread support of the custom. A tradition in most of Central Europe involves writing a blessing above the door of the home. For instance if the year is 2014, it would be 20 * C + M + B +14, the initials refer to the Latin phrase Christus mansionem benedicat, folkloristically the letters are often interpreted as the names of the Three Wise Men. In Catholic parts of Germany and in Austria, this is done by the Sternsinger, annually about 85,000 children and 30,000 adults take part in the Dreikönigsaktion. The biggest carol singing campaign in Slovakia is Dobrá Novina and it is one of the biggest charity campaigns by young people in the country. Dobrá Novina is organized by the youth organization eRko, in Kashubia the Star boys singing is a custom as well.
The other characters usually do not disguise themselves but dress in shirts, often in brown, green or grey colours. Joseph has got a paper hat and a wooden timber or broad axe. King Herod wears a crown and he and his soldiers carry wooden swords, in the crowd there may be shepherds with long shirts and sticks and some angels with white shirts and wings. The Star singers walk about from house to house singing at the doors, the dramatic part is introduced by one of the Wise Men knocking on someones door asking, May the star come in
Newman Centers, Newman Houses, or Newman Clubs are Catholic ministry centers at non-Catholic universities found throughout the world. The establishment of this movement was inspired by the writings of Cardinal John Henry Newman encouraging societies for Catholic students attending secular universities, the first Newman club was established in 1888 at Oxford, the original Catholic club was founded by Hartwell de la Garde Grissell. These centers/houses may include living space, or may be actual houses close to the campus with or without a chapel. Activities vary between Newman Centers/Houses/Clubs but usually include both spiritual worship, social get-togethers and group outings, J. Garvey, pastor of the local St. James Catholic Church. The centers provide pastoral services and ministries to their Catholic communities, since these centers are located on university campuses, Christians of other denominations often come and participate as well. The following are lists of Newman Centers/Catholic Student Associations.
In 1878 the Oxford University Catholic Club was founded by Hartwell de la Garde Grissell In 1888 it was renamed the Oxford University Newman Society and it encompasses three main entities, St. Johns Catholic Chapel, Newman Hall, and the Institute of Catholic Thought. St. Johns Catholic Newman Center finished an expansion/renovation in August 2008, St. Johns is in the Catholic Diocese of Peoria. The Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman Residence Halls at Troy University will open in fall 2013 for students, inside the halls, will be the Mother Teresa Catholic Newman Center. The Newman Center will contain a perpetual adoration chapel and office space for the Newman Ministry, a kitchen, Newman Halls will house 376 residents,6 resident assistants, and one live-in married couple who acts as the community directors. Residents must keep a 2.5 GPA or better, present a letter of recommendation in order to live in the residence, active since 1946, the St. Philip Neri Catholic Newman Center serves the students and neighboring community at the University of Tulsa.
Ministries include Sunday Mass, weekday Masses and womens groups, community service days. The Newman Catholic Center of Newark, New Jersey encompasses the three communities of Rutgers–Newark, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Essex County College, the Newman Catholic Center of Newark is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. EIU Newman Center at Eastern Illinois University- Services Catholic students at EIU, the current Newman Center, finished in 1999, houses meeting spaces, ministry offices and the St. Philip Neri Chapel. The EIU Newman Center is the home of Easterns Student Volunteer Center, Cornell had one of the first Newman Clubs, organized in 1888. The Newman Club eventually became a full-fledged campus parish, the Cornell Catholic Community, UIC has 25, 000+ students, of which over 15,000 are Catholic. The John Paul II Newman Center in 1999 established the Arthur J. Schmitt Chair in Catholic studies for students to study the Catholic faith, students may receive a minor in Catholic studies.
Of the other programs the John Paul II Newman Center offers, Vocation Discernment averages 10–15 students each year who study to become priests, the Integritas Institute for Ethics, a third program, teaches ethics and morality
Guild of St. Stephen
The Guild for Altar Servers or Archconfraternity Guild of St. Stephen was set up in 1904 by Father Hamilton MacDonald as an organisation for altar servers. Patrons Saints of the Guild, Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Stephen, St. Thomas More, the Bronze Medal, after 2 years of serving. The Certificate of Merit, can be awarded after 5 years of serving, the Silver Medal, after 10 years of serving. The Silver Medal of Merit, after 20 years of serving, the Gold Medal, after 50 years of serving. Others The Wooden Cross, Some Parishes have wooden Crosses for Altar Servers have started, the Centenary Medal, This medal was commissioned for the Centenary of the Guild in 2004. The Gold Medal of Merit, after 50 years of serving, the guild spread and, in 1934, Pope Pius XI enabled all guilds of altar servers throughout the British Commonwealth to be affiliated with the Archconfraternity at Westminster. A confraternity is a sort of club, or society, for people who are interested in the same things, the Catholic Church uses the word confraternity as the official name for societies set up in a parish.
Another, word instead of confraternity, guild, an Archconfraternity is a guild, which has been given special power by the Church authorities in Rome. It has special privileges and facilities, because it is an Archconfraternity it can allow other guilds to share in those privileges and facilities. That is what the Guild of Saint Stephen is, the main Archconfraternity is based on Westminster Cathedral, in London. It has many Guilds in parishes in Great Britain and elsewhere affiliated to it, strictly speaking, only the Guild at Westminster Cathedral should call itself Archconfraternity, but parish Guilds call themselves branches of the Archconfraternity. To unite servers of different parishes and dioceses for their mutual support, the Archbishop of Westminster is the Superior General of the Archconfraternity and he appoints a priest to be the National Director of the Guild. A lay Central Council consisting of a Lay President, Vice-President, the Central Council is responsible for running the business side of the Guild.
Many diocesan bishops appoint a Priest Director of the Guild for their own diocese and together form a National Council of Priest Directors. Some dioceses have organised their own local Lay Councils to assist the Diocesan Director in furthering the work of the Guild, the Guild may be erected in any parish with the permission of the bishop of the diocese and shall be affiliated to the Archconfraternity at Westminster Cathedral. Thus, in parish, while maintaining its objects and keeping the rules of the Archconfraternity. Membership of the Guild is open to any server, without limit of age, who can serve Mass, to serve at the altar with reverence and regularity and with due attention to personal cleanliness and tidiness. To say short prayers in preparation for and in thanksgiving after, to observe silence in the sacristy and great reverence in the sanctuary
ECyD is an international Catholic youth organization affiliated with the congregation of the Legionaries of Christ and their lay movement Regnum Christi. ECyD membership is open to youth ages 11 to 16, the meaning of the acronym ECyD was changed in 2011. Originally, the acronym was ECYD which stood for Educacion and this translates literally into English as Education Culture and Sports. “Sports” was changed to Youth Development in English speaking ECYD groups, from 2008 to today there have been a series of meetings of lay people and consecrated members of Regnum Christi met to update ECyD’s mission and identity. In 2011, this changed the acronym to ECyD, which now stands for Experiences, Convictions. The team believes that new name reflects what “happens in the heart of youth when they experience a life-changing moment of grace. ”ECyD was founded in Mexico by Marcial Maciel in 1971. One of the first members was Álvaro Corcuera who is the last general director of the Legionaries of Christ and Regnum Christi.
From 1972 to 1973, ECyD clubs were founded in Salamanca, Monterrey, Mexico City, Crystal Lake, Rome, the first international ECyD convention was held in Ontaneda, Santander. Currently, ECyD clubs exist in thirty countries, in 2008, Sonia González was asked to make a new international model based on the experiences of various ECyD groups over the past years. As of 2012, this is still a work in progress, eCyDs future is related to that of the Legionaries of Christ and Regnum Christi movement who are currently undergoing revision. ECyD has a Christ-centered spirituality, together with the spirituality of the Legionaries of Christ and Regnum Christi. The purpose of Regnum Christi, the Legionaries of Christ, and ECyD is to spread the kingdom of God on earth through personal love of Jesus Christ and the Catholic Church lived out through apostolate. ECyD members share in this spirituality by making commitments to guide them in their relationship with Christ, ECyD members strive to develop the virtues of charity, friendship, purity and joy.
Upon joining ECyD, a member commits to be a friend of Christ, say specific prayers such as the rosary and the ECyD morning and night prayers, practice virtue. ECyD explains such a dedication to apostolate as Service-Driven Apostolic Outreach, the formation and prayer in ECyD are all designed to be age-appropriate ways to bring teens to Christ. ECyD uses a methodology based on the 10 basic needs of adolescents. One essential part of the ECyD spirit is the 3 by 4 and it is formed by Experiences and your Decisions on one side and the 4 essential relationships of a teen on the other. From various experiences in ECyD, a teen should be led to convictions, ECyD seeks to do this in a teens relationship with himself, his relationship with each other person, his relationship to a group, and his relationship with God
Phi Kappa Theta
Phi Kappa Theta is a national social fraternity, with over 50 chapters and colonies at universities across the United States. Members are commonly referred to colloquially as Phi Kaps, the fraternity was formed in 1959 from the merger of two older Catholic Christian fraternities. Although Phi Kappa Theta membership is not currently exclusive to any one faith, Phi Kappa Theta was established by the merger of two fraternities on April 29,1959, Phi Kappa and Theta Kappa Phi. In 1889, Phi Kappa was founded by a group of Catholic students at Brown University who were refused entrance to other fraternities because of their faith. Later, on October 1,1919, Theta Kappa Phi was founded by a group of students at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. The merger of the two fraternities in 1959 was the first of its kind in the history of the American fraternal system. The merger between the two occurred at The Ohio State University with the first chartered chapter of Phi Kappa Theta located at Belmont Abbey College in North Carolina.
Although historically Catholic, Phi Kappa Theta is open for membership to men of any religion, Phi Kappa Theta is currently the only fraternity in the American Fraternal system that is considered a true merger of two separate Greek letter organizations. Phi Kappa Theta is a social fraternity founded on four ideals, Fraternal Engagement, Social Impact. As of 2014, Phi Kappa Theta lists 46 chapters and 6 colonies in the United States, ranking them in the middle, in terms of size, Business, Sports, Religion, List of social fraternities and sororities Official website
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the worlds largest non-governmental school system, in 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, and 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the mission of the Church, integrating religious education as the core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe, the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across Europe, United Kingdom and Australia. Historically, the establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63, anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions. The Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to openly practice Catholicism in England and this led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses.
Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools, Catholic schools were previously required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off sharply causing fees to rise and this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith, the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities, particularly those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness. ”The education involves, “the distinct but complementary aspect of the religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.
”In Catholic schools. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons, Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have many changes since independence in the late 50s. The education policy in Malaysia is very centralized, in 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other government funded programmes. With Islam being the religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith. The missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country
Catholic youth work
Activities in the field range from small scale youth groups attached to parishes or Catholic schools, to large international gatherings, such as World Youth Day. It is a field which has evolved much over recent decades, typical for the youth work of Catholic youth organizations is that their work is not determined by priests or other professionals but that they are self-organized and -determined by young volunteers. However, many Catholic youth organizations elect a theologically qualified person as preses, many Catholic youth organizations in Europe are rooted in the movement of the Catholic Action. As with youth work in many Christian communities, Catholic youth ministry is often conducted by a combination of local priest pastors, some parishes, particularly in more affluent parts of the world, may well employee lay professionals on a full-time basis as well. In some areas of the Church, such as North America, some of the time these will be lay professionals and some of the time they will be priests or members of religious congregations.
The advantages to employing priests in these roles include the reduced costs, their ability to minister the sacraments. This involves the work done normally for just a few days where a course or retreat is run for a group of young people in a residential retreat center. Normally this work is very transitory work and residential centers can expect to work, in some cases, young people are normally sent on retreat by a school or parish and thus the work is normally secondary rather than primary input. Movements such as Youth 2000 and various organizations connected to the Charismatic Renewal, will run either local groups not connected to parishes or schools. Normally these groups will aim to enforce a certain part of faith in people or a certain tradition or style. One of these new movements is LIFE TEEN, leading teens closer to Christ, another movement is ECYD which focuses on youth service projects and personal prayer through a network of gender-specific clubs. The largest Catholic youth organization in the world is CFC-Youth for Christ, jesus Youth is a 28-year-old catholic youth movement, which begin in India and now present many countries around the world.
Mission teams are groups of workers who spend a period of time in schools or parishes running a program, normally fairly kerygmatic in nature. The issue of training and qualifications for Catholic youth workers is normally a sticky question in many parts of the world, many systems to educate and train youth workers have appeared and youth workers are able to participate in schemes for catechists. Also many youth workers in the Church are increasingly opting for secular training, on the whole though, the Church still lacks a formal and widely recognized system of training and achievement for youth workers. Although a Foundation Degree in Youth Work/ Youth Ministry started in September 2007 at Newman University and this will be the first of many across the UK. There are a variety of different activities which are classed as Catholic youth work and they include the following, A great deal of parishes have groups which cater to young people in some way or other. These may be designated youth groups of clubs or may be groups for particular young people within the parish such as altar servers or those about to receive confirmation
The Squire Roses are a youth sorority run by individual State Councils within the Knights of Columbus, for Catholic ladies between the ages of 10 and 18. Squires and Squire Roses combine to make the Columbian Squires, the Squire Roses were established in 1996 under the leadership Mr. Russ DeRose for young women at St. Mary of Sorrows Church. The process for the birth of the Squire Roses took just over four years, in March 1993, Mr. De Rose held a recruitment drive because of requests from young women to join the Squires. Mr. De Rose told the women that the Squires. Mr. De Rose stated that he would set up an organization that would include a sorority environment as well as be similar to the Squires. The Knights of St. Mary of Sorrows provided the initial donations and were aware that the Squire Roses would support their charities and functions. All Counselors were to be practical Catholic women who met the Church requirements to work with youth, in 1994 the same young ladies, bringing their friends and parents, continued to ask the Squires if they could join.
When turned down, the ladies asked if they could assist the Squires in their projects, thus getting them involved in service to their parish, by December the Squires agreed to recruit young ladies for this offshoot organization. By 1996, the groundwork for the Squire Roses had been laid and they did not want to be a Squirerettes, or Columbiettes which are organizations either under the direction of local or state Knights of Columbus. The new members of the Squire Roses defined their vision, motto and they continually upgrade their investiture and officer ceremonies. In 2010 they started to develop their own charter which is presented to all new Squire Roses Circles in the USA, for more information on how the Squire Roses chose their name contact the St. Two times a year the priest wear the Rose vestments to serve mass, the first Knights of Columbus state organization to recognatize the Squire Roses was Washington, D. C. and was followed by the Knights of Columbus in Virginia. 1997 - Washington DC Knights of Columbus adopt the Squire Roses as their program for young ladies.
The first Circle of Squire Roses is created on March 9 of this year,2001 - The number of Circles grows to five, with Squire Roses numbering over 50. 2004 -2005 - Circles in Washington DC fail, due to adult sponsors moving out of the area, two Circles in Virginia fail due to lack of membership recruiting. 2006 -2009 - With the introduction of Jason Seiler to run the Columbian Squires for the State of Virginia, the Squires win multiple awards, including the top two international awards for growth. Likewise the Squire Roses add three new Circles, over doubling their membership in the state. Mr. Seiler is in talks with Knights of Columbus State Councils for New Jersey, California and Texas to adopt the Squire Roses as their official youth group for young ladies, aged 10 to 18