Anderston is an area of Glasgow, Scotland. It forms the south western edge of the city centre, it was an independent burgh of barony from 1824 until it was incorporated into the City of Glasgow in 1846. The district is served by Anderston railway station; the land on which the present day district of Anderston stands was once known as the Bishop's Forest. These lands, situated to the west of medieval Glasgow, were granted to the Bishop of Glasgow by King James II of Scotland in 1450; the lands of Stobcross, which occupied part of this area, were the property of the Anderson family from the late 16th century, here they built their mansion, Stobcross House. Tradition has it. Stobcross House was demolished in 1875 to make way for Queen’s Dock. Anderston was an unproductive section of land, feued out for weavers' cottages in 1725 by James Anderson of Stobcross House, it was named Anderson Town in his honour becoming Anderston. It began close to Gushet Farm, which became Anderston Cross and today is the site of the Kingston Bridge which carries the M8 motorway.
Ownership of the area changed in 1735. Under his stewardship and bleaching was added to weaving and soon large steam-driven looms took over from hand weaving. In those days Anderston had bleachfields down by the river and Main Street consisted of weavers' cottages along both sides; as business and trade increased so did the size of Anderston. Finnieston, a nearby village was established in 1768, named for the Rev. John Finnie, the Orr family tutor and soon a busy community was growing up. From its origins as a weavers' village, the area became an industrial centre with the growth of Glasgow's cotton industry. Other industries included engineering and glassmaking; this led to a large Irish immigrant population moving to the area, they formed a key part in the character of the area. Thomas Lipton opened his first shop in Stobcross Street; the area would later become the home of Italian and Asian populations. By 1791, the population of the village of Anderston was around 4,000. In the countryside surrounding the village there were many country estates such as Hydepark and Lancefield.
These would be commemorated in the street names of Anderston as the area expanded and became urbanised in the 19th century. The eastern boundary of Anderston was for many years marked by Royalty Stones number 208 and 209, on the north and south sides of the present Argyle Street; the Blythswood Burn had flowed through the site, had marked the eastern boundary of the Stobcross lands. The Royalty Stones stood on the site from around 1782 until they were removed during the comprehensive development which took place in the area in the 1960s and 1970s. By the late 18th century, Anderston was a thriving community, with its population employed in weaving and related industries such as bleaching and printing. Other industries were thriving by this period, such as the Delftfield Pottery, the Anderston Brewery and the Verreville Glassworks; the area's first church, the Anderston Relief Church in Heddle Place, was erected in 1770. The area of Anderston now known as Cranstonhill was known in ancient times as Drumother Hill.
It became corrupted to Drumover Hill, the reason for this being a myth that it was the place where vagabonds were escorted to, to the tune of the "Rogues' March", when they were drummed out of town. Alexander Peden prophesied in the 17th century that this hill would one be day be the site of the'Cross of Glasgow.' At that time, the hill stood in open countryside a few miles from the Burgh of Glasgow. In the early 19th century, Henry Houldsworth, a cotton mill owner, bought the lands of Cranstonhill and a villa which stood there; the estate would give way to reservoirs and tenement housing. In 1824, when Anderston's population stood at around 10,000, the town was made a Burgh of Barony; the first Town Council was elected, with Henry Houldsworth being chosen as the first Provost of Anderston. The council included three Bailies, eleven councillors and a Treasurer; the Burgh motto was the Latin Alter Alterius Auxilio Veget, which translates as'the one flourishes by the help of the other.' However, Anderston's status as an independent Burgh would not last long.
In 1846, when the Burgh's population stood at 16,000, it was incorporated into the City of Glasgow. During the rest of the 19th century, the area continued to grow and new industries developed, such as shipbuilding, iron-founding, tool manufacturing and engineering; the close proximity to the docks on the River Clyde meant that Anderston became an ideal place for the establishment of whisky bonds, grain stores and timber yards. This period saw the establishment of the famous Cranstonhill and Bilsland Bakeries; the rapid development of industry in the area led to a demand for working class housing, most of the Anderston area was built in the late 19th century, comprising the solid stone tenement buildings which are synonymous with Glasgow. This was the period when many of Anderston's churches were built to serve the growing community; these included Anderston Parish Church and St Patrick's RC Church. By the close of the 19th century shipping and associated industries had taken over the area and spread to fill the parkland beside the Clyde and the area was densely populated and characterised by back-street workshops and packed tenements.
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The Tradeston Bridge is a pedestrian bridge across the River Clyde in Glasgow which opened on 14 May 2009. It links the districts of Anderston to Tradeston and the neighbouring district of Kingston – the aim of the bridge being to aid the regeneration of Tradeston by giving it a direct link to the city's financial district on the western side of the city centre; the design was prepared by Dissing+Weitling, a Danish architectural firm, with the UK engineers Halcrow Group. The bridge was built by BAM Nuttall, it cost £7 million to construct and is used by pedestrians and cyclists with no motorised traffic being allowed upon it. The span is horizontally curved in an S shape with outward canting on both curves. Tradeston Bridge - Architect's page
Economy of the United Kingdom
The economy of the United Kingdom is developed and market-orientated. It is the fifth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product, ninth-largest by purchasing power parity, twenty second-largest by GDP per capita, comprising 3.5% of world GDP. In 2016, the UK was the tenth-largest goods exporter in the world and the fifth-largest goods importer, it had the second-largest inward foreign direct investment, the third-largest outward foreign direct investment. The UK is one of the most globalised economies, it is composed of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland; the service sector dominates, contributing around 80% of GDP. Britain's aerospace industry is the second-largest national aerospace industry, its pharmaceutical industry, the tenth-largest in the world, plays an important role in the economy. Of the world's 500 largest companies, 26 are headquartered in the UK; the economy is boosted by North Sea gas production. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with South East England and North East Scotland being the richest areas per capita.
The size of London's economy makes it the largest city by GDP in Europe. In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialise, during the 19th century it had a dominant role in the global economy, accounting for 9.1% of the world's GDP in 1870. The Second Industrial Revolution was taking place in the United States and the German Empire; the costs of fighting World War I and World War II further weakened the UK's relative position. In the 21st century, the UK remains a great power with the ability to project power and influence around the world. Government involvement is exercised by Her Majesty's Treasury, headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. Since 1979 management of the economy has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach; the Bank of England is the UK's central bank, since 1997 its Monetary Policy Committee has been responsible for setting interest rates, quantitative easing, forward guidance. The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, the world's fourth-largest reserve currency after the United States Dollar, the Euro and the Japanese Yen, is one of the 10 most-valued currencies in the world.
The UK is a member of the Commonwealth, the European Union, the G7, the G20, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the United Nations. After the Second World War, a new Labour government nationalised the Bank of England, civil aviation, telephone networks, gas and the coal and steel industries, affecting 2.3 million workers. Post-war, the United Kingdom enjoyed a long period without a major recession; the annual rate of growth between 1960 and 1973 averaged 2.9%, although this figure was far behind other European countries such as France, West Germany and Italy. Deindustrialisation meant the closure of operations in mining, heavy industry, manufacturing, resulting in the loss of paid working-class jobs; the UK's share of manufacturing output had risen from 9.5% in 1830 during the Industrial Revolution to 22.9% in the 1870s. It fell to 13.6% by 1913, 10.7% by 1938, 4.9% by 1973.
Overseas competition, lack of innovation, trade unionism, the welfare state, loss of the British Empire, cultural attitudes have all been put forward as explanations. It reached crisis point in the 1970s against the backdrop of a worldwide energy crisis, high inflation, a dramatic influx of low-cost manufactured goods from Asia. During the 1973 oil crisis, the 1973–74 stock market crash, the secondary banking crisis of 1973–75, the British economy fell into the 1973–75 recession and the government of Edward Heath was ousted by the Labour Party under Harold Wilson, which had governed from 1964 to 1970. Wilson formed a minority government in March 1974 after the general election on 28 February ended in a hung parliament. Wilson secured a three-seat overall majority in a second election in October that year; the UK recorded weaker growth than many other European nations in the 1970s. In 1976, the UK was forced to apply for a loan of £2.3 billion from the International Monetary Fund. Denis Healey Chancellor of the Exchequer, was required to implement public spending cuts and other economic reforms in order to secure the loan, for a while the British economy improved, with growth of 4.3% in early 1979.
However, following the Winter of Discontent, when the UK was hit by numerous public sector strikes, the government of James Callaghan lost a vote of no confidence in March 1979. This triggered the general election on 3 May 1979 which resulted in Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Party forming a new government. A new period of neo-liberal economics began with this election. During the 1980s, many state-owned industries and utilities were privatised, taxes cut, trade union reforms passed and markets deregulated. GDP fell by 5.9% but growth subsequently returned and rose to an annual rate of 5% at its
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company, headquartered in London. Apart from investment banking, Barclays is organised into four core businesses: personal banking, corporate banking, wealth management, investment management. Barclays traces its origins to a goldsmith banking business established in the City of London in 1690. James Barclay became a partner in the business in 1736. In 1896, several banks in London and the English provinces, including Backhouse's Bank and Gurney's Bank, united as a joint-stock bank under the name Barclays and Co. Over the following decades, Barclays expanded to become a nationwide bank. In 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash dispenser. Barclays has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of London and South Western Bank in 1918, British Linen Bank in 1919, Mercantile Credit in 1975, the Woolwich in 2000 and the North American operations of Lehman Brothers in 2008. Barclays has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Qatar Holdings, an investment vehicle of the State of Qatar, is the largest shareholder of the company. According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al. Barclays was the most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition, with AXA and State Street Corporation taking the 2nd and 3rd positions, respectively. Barclays traces its origins back to 1690 when John Freame, a Quaker, Thomas Gould started trading as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street, London; the name "Barclays" became associated with the business in 1736, when Freame's son-in-law James Barclay became a partner. In 1728 the bank moved to 54 Lombard Street, identified by the'Sign of the Black Spread Eagle', which in subsequent years would become a core part of the bank's visual identity; the Barclay family were connected both as proponents and opponents. David and Alexander Barclay were engaged in the slave trade in 1756.
David Barclay of Youngsbury, on the other hand, was a noted abolitionist, Verene Shepherd, the Jamaican historian of diaspora studies, singles out the case of how he chose to free his slaves in that colony. In 1776 the firm was styled "Barclay and Bening" and so remained until 1785, when another partner, John Tritton, who had married a Barclay, was admitted, the business became "Barclay, Bevan and Tritton". In 1896 several banks in London and the English provinces, notably Backhouse's Bank of Darlington and Gurney's Bank of Norwich, united under the banner of Barclays and Co. a joint-stock bank. Between 1905 and 1916 Barclays extended its branch network by making acquisitions of small English banks. Further expansion followed in 1918 when Barclays amalgamated with the London and South Western Bank and in 1919 when the British Linen Bank was acquired by Barclays Bank, although the British Linen Bank retained a separate board of directors and continued to issue its own bank notes. In 1925 the Colonial Bank, National Bank of South Africa and the Anglo-Egyptian Bank were amalgamated and Barclays operated its overseas operations under the name Barclays Bank – Barclays DCO.
In 1938 Barclays acquired the first Indian exchange bank, the Central Exchange Bank of India, which had opened in London in 1936 with the sponsorship of Central Bank of India. In 1941 during the Nazi Occupation of France, a branch of Barclays in Paris headed by Marcel Cheradame worked directly with the invading force. Senior officials at the bank volunteered the names of Jewish employees as well as ceding an estimated 100 Jewish bank accounts to the Nazi occupiers; the Paris branch used its funds to increase the operational power of a large quarry that helped produce steel for the Nazis. There was no evidence of contact between the head office in London and the branch in Paris during the occupation. Marcel Cheradame was kept as the branch manager. In May 1958, Barclays was the first UK bank to appoint a female bank manager. Hilda Harding managed Barclays' Hanover Square branch in London until her retirement in 1970. In 1965, Barclays established Barclays Bank of California in San Francisco. Barclays launched the first credit card in the UK, Barclaycard, in 1966.
On 27 June 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash machine, in Enfield. The British actor Reg Varney was the first person to use the machine. In 1969, a planned merger with Martins Bank and Lloyds Bank was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, but the acquisition of Martins Bank on its own was permitted; that year, the British Linen Bank subsidiary was sold to the Bank of Scotland in exchange for a 25% stake, a transaction that became effective from 1971. Barclays DCO changed its name to Barclays Bank International in 1971. In August 1975, following the secondary banking crash, Barclays acquired Mercantile Credit Company. In 1980, Barclays Bank International expanded its business to include commercial credit and took over American Credit Corporation, renaming it Barclays American Corporation; the following year Barclays Bank and Barclays Bank International merged, as part of the corporate reorganisation the former Barclays Bank plc became a group holding company, renamed Barclays plc, UK retail banking was integrated under the former BBI, renamed Barclays Bank PLC from Barclays Bank Limited.
In 1986 Barclays sold its South African business operating under the Barclays National Bank name after protests against Barclays' involvement in South Africa and its apartheid government. That year Barclay
Department for Work and Pensions
The Department for Work and Pensions is the largest government department in the United Kingdom, is responsible for welfare and pension policy. The department has four operational organisations: Jobcentre Plus administers working age benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance, decides which claimants receive Employment and Support Allowance; the department was created on 8 June 2001 as a merger of the Department of Social Security, Employment Service and the policy groups of the Department for Education and Employment involved in employment policy and international issues. The department was tasked with creating Jobcentre Plus and the Pensions Service from the remains of the Employment Service and the Benefits Agency; the department is therefore responsible for pension policy. It aims "to help its customers become financially independent and to help reduce child poverty". In 2019 the department was found by an independent inquiry to have broken its own rules, in a case where a disabled woman killed herself in 2017 after her benefits were stopped when she missed a Work Capability Assessment because she had pneumonia.
Previous research published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health by Oxford University and Liverpool University had found that there were an additional 590 suicides between 2010 and 2013 in areas where such assessments were carried out. The researchers said that the DWP had introduced the policy of moving people off benefits without understanding the consequences; the DWP Ministers are: The Permanent Secretary is Peter Schofield. With the creation of the department in June 2001, the Pension Service was created, bringing together many different departments and divisions; the Pension Service is a'dedicated service for current and future pensioners'. The Pension Service consists of local Pension Centres and centrally-based centres, many of latter are based at the Tyneview Park complex in Newcastle upon Tyne. At Tyneview Park the following centres are found: Future Pension Centre provides state pension forecasts for people approaching retirement age. Newcastle Pension Centre dealt with the London area, the Home Counties, part of West Midlands.
Now the service is virtual. Pension Tracing Service helps track old pensions and pension schemes. International Pension Centre deals with all enquiries regarding the payment of state pension, bereavement benefits, incapacity benefits and other such benefits for those living abroad. Local Pension Centres deal with localised claims for retirement related benefits. Pension Centres are found all over the country. Benefits dealt with at local Pension Centres include: Pension Credit Winter Fuel Payments Cold Weather Payments The Disability and Carers Service offers financial support for those who are disabled and their carers, whether in or out of employment; the DCS have offices throughout the country and deal with the following benefits: Disability Living Allowance Attendance Allowance Carer's Allowance Vaccine Damage Payment Personal Independence PaymentThe department has been found to invite disabled people to interviews in buildings which are themselves not accessible to people with disabilities.
When the person does not attend the interview they deny the person disability benefits, causing malnutrition and destitution. The DWP systematically underpaid disabled claimants who were transferred from Incapacity Benefit to Employment and Support allowance risking hardship for claimants. A cross party committee of MP's, the Public Accounts Committee accused the DWP of a culture of indifference to claimants. Before 2008, The Pension Service and the Disability and Carers Service were two separate executive agencies. Both former agencies kept their corporate branding and provided services under their separate identities; the decision was made due to the two agencies sharing about half of the same customers. The status of PDCS as an executive agency was removed on 1 October 2011 with the functions being brought back inside the department. Prior to July 2012 the Child Support Agency was the operating arm of the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission. All are now operated wholly from within the department, with the names continuing as brand identifiers.
The department's public bodies include: the Health and Safety Executive the Pensions Ombudsman the Pensions RegulatorThe department has corporate buildings in London, Blackpool, Aberdeen, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sheffield. Jobcentre Plus, The Pension Service and the Disability and Carers Service operate through a network of around 1,000 Jobcentres, contact centres and benefit processing centres across the UK; the total annual budget of the department in 2011-12 is £151.6 billion, representing 28% of total UK Government spending. The department spends a far greater share of national wealth than any other department in Britain, by a wide margin; the department spends an average of £348
Exhibition Centre railway station
Exhibition Centre railway station called Finnieston and Stobcross due to its location in the Stobcross area of the city, is a railway station in Glasgow on the Argyle Line. It serves the SSE Hydro and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, which are accessible by adjoining footbridge from an island platform; the station suffers badly from congestion at concerts as most of Greater Glasgow can be reached from the station. There is a siding adjacent to Platform 2, that can be used as a turnback siding for trains terminating at Anderston or Glasgow Central Low Level; the line is served by Class 318s and Class 320s. Ticket gates are in operation. In the days when the station was named Stobcross, the formation in front of Platform 1 was double track, with a platform where the overhead electrification masts are located. Just inside the tunnel from Partick, there was a junction; the route, now disused, to the north went to the Glasgow Central Railway's Maryhill Central. The route to the west is used by the Argyle Line link to the Clyde North Line.
The line went to Partick Central railway station and onwards along the River Clyde to Dumbarton. In 2017, the station's signage was changed to Craiglang, after the fictional town from the sitcom Still Game as a live version of the show was playing at the nearby SSE Hydro. Actors Ford Kiernan and Greg Hemphill provided pre-recorded safety announcements during this time, they had provided on-board announcements during a 2014 live-show run. Heavy rain in December 1994 resulted in the River Kelvin bursting its banks at Kelvinbridge and the resultant torrent through the disused Glasgow Central Railway tunnel flooded the Argyle Line trapping Class 314 Units at Glasgow Central Low Level. At 08:34 on Monday 3 September 2007, a set of empty coaches derailed after leaving the sidings at Exhibition Centre to start the 08:38 service from Anderston to Motherwell; this derailment resulted in two members of staff being injured and the line between Partick and Rutherglen being closed for two days. Brailsford, Martyn, ed..
Railway Track Diagrams 1: Scotland & Isle of Man. Frome: Trackmaps. ISBN 978-0-9549866-9-8. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. "Hidden Glasgow on Partick Central". "Hidden Glasgow on 1994 Floods". Video footage of Exhibition Centre station
Glasgow Queen Street railway station
Glasgow Queen Street is a city centre railway terminus in Glasgow, Scotland. It is the smaller of the city's two main line railway terminals and the third busiest station in Scotland; the station is situated between George Street to the south and Cathedral Street Bridge to the north, at the northern end of Queen Street adjacent to George Square. Queen Street station serves the Greater Glasgow areas northern towns and suburbs; the station serves the Edinburgh Waverley shuttle and is the terminus for all inter-city services to destinations in the North of Scotland. The other main city-centre station in Glasgow is Glasgow Central; the station was built by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, opened on 21 February 1842. In 1865 the E&GR was absorbed into the North British Railway, in 1878 the entire station was redesigned by the civil engineer James Carswell, it became part of the LNER group in 1923. The climb through the tunnel to Cowlairs is at 1 in 42 and until 1909 trains were hauled up on a rope operated by a stationary engine, although experiments were carried out using banking engines in 1844–48.
Three people died in 1928. Modern diesel trains have no difficulty with the climb; the adjacent Buchanan Street station of the rival Caledonian Railway closed on 7 November 1966 as a result of the Beeching cuts and its services to Stirling, Inverness and Aberdeen transferred to Queen Street. This caused difficulties with longer trains, as Queen Street is in a confined position between George Square and the tunnel. In the 1980s, HST were used on Cross Country and East Coast services run by InterCity, having to use Platform 7 with the end of the train being close to the tunnel mouth. Queen Street station's platforms are on two levels, with the High Level platforms running directly north-south, the Low Level running east-west, they are connected by staircases at either end of the Low Level platforms, by lifts accessible from Platform 7 on the High Level. In 2018, the typical Monday to Saturday service is: 10 trains per hour to Edinburgh Waverley, 4 via Falkirk High, 4 via Airdrie and Bathgate and 2 via Cumbernauld and Falkirk Grahamston.
2 trains per hour to Springburn. 2 trains per hour to Anniesland via Maryhill. 3 trains per hour to Stirling 1 train per hour to Aberdeen via Dundee. 1 train per hour to Dundee. 6 trains per day to Oban 3 trains per day to Mallaig 1 train every 3 hours to Inverness 6 trains per hour to Airdrie, of which 4 continues to Edinburgh via Bathgate. 2 trains per hour to Balloch 2 trains per hour to Helensburgh Central 2 trains per hour to Milngavie 1 train per day to Markinch 1 train per day to/from London Euston The High Level station is the larger of the two levels, is the terminus for the Edinburgh shuttles and all routes north of the Central Belt run by ScotRail diesel multiple units. The high level railway approaches the station building through the Queen Street Tunnel, which runs beneath the Buchanan Galleries shopping centre to the Sighthill area northeast of the city centre. Platforms 1–7 occupy the High Level, Platform 1 being at the western end of the trainshed, being shorter – it is only used for local stopping services.
Platforms 8 and 9 comprise the Low Level station, it is the most central stop on the North Clyde Line of the Glasgow suburban electric network. Trains run between Helensburgh on the Firth of Clyde and suburban Milngavie to Airdrie, on the eastern edge of the Greater Glasgow conurbation and onward to Edinburgh via Bathgate and Livingston; the line is electrified. Services on the West Highland Line to Oban, Fort William and Mallaig use the Low Level station when the main route into the High Level is unavailable due to engineering work; as of September 2014, the Fort William to London Euston overnight sleeper calls here instead of Westerton in the northwestern suburbs, eliminating the need for those travelling between Glasgow & Fort William on the sleeper to change there, the only locomotive-hauled train to call here. The Low Level line between High Street, Queen Street and Charing Cross was built before the Glasgow Subway, making it the oldest underground railway in the city. In May–June 2014, work was carried out to redevelop the Low Level platforms, which now have new compliant seating.
Queen Street signal box, opened in 1881, was on a gantry spanning the tracks close to the tunnel mouth. It closed on 26 February 1967 when control of the high level station was transferred to a panel in Cowlairs signal box; that box was superseded by the new Cowlairs signalling centre on 28 December 1998. This in turn was abolished in October 2013 and the station is now under the supervision of Edinburgh IECC; the low level station had two signal boxes,'Queen Street West' and'Queen Street East'. Both boxes were over the tracks and closed on 8 February 1960; the low level lines came under the control of Yoker Signalling Centre on 19 November 1989. Minor refurbishment of the station has taken place over in recent years, which has seen the station internally repainted and paved with new flooring, the CRT screens that displayed train timetables and passenger information were replaced with new LED information boards similar to those in Glasgow Central Station but smaller, in January 2008. In August 2006 Network Rail