The International Fixed Calendar is a solar calendar proposal for calendar reform designed by Moses B. Cotsworth, who presented it in 1902, it divides the solar year into 13 months of 28 days each. It is therefore a perennial calendar, with every date fixed to the same weekday every year. Though it was never adopted in any country, entrepreneur George Eastman adopted it for use in his Eastman Kodak Company, where it was used from 1928 to 1989; the calendar year has 13 months with 28 days each, divided into 4 weeks. An extra day added as a holiday at the end of the year, sometimes called "Year Day", does not belong to any week and brings the total to 365 days; each year coincides with the corresponding Gregorian year, so January 1 in the Cotsworth calendar always falls on Gregorian January 1. Twelve months are named and ordered the same as those of the Gregorian calendar, except that the extra month is inserted between June and July, called Sol. Situated in mid-summer and including the mid-year solstice, the name of the new month was chosen in homage to the sun.
Leap year in the International Fixed Calendar contains 366 days, its occurrence follows the Gregorian rule. There is a leap year in every year whose number is divisible by 4, but not if the year number is divisible by 100, unless it is divisible by 400. So although the year 2000 was a leap year, the years 1700, 1800, 1900 were common years; the International Fixed Calendar inserts the extra day in leap year as June 29 - between Saturday June 28 and Sunday Sol 1. Each month begins on a Sunday, ends on a Saturday. Neither Year Day nor Leap Day are considered to be part of any week. All the months look like this: The following shows how the 13 months and extra days of the International Fixed Calendar occur in relation to the dates of the Gregorian calendar: *These Gregorian dates between March and June are a day earlier in a Gregorian leap year. March in the Fixed Calendar always has a fixed number of days, includes the Gregorian February 29. Lunisolar calendars, with fixed weekdays, existed in many ancient cultures, with certain holidays always falling on the same dates of the month and days of the week.
The simple idea of a 13-month perennial calendar has been around since at least the middle of the 18th century. Versions of the idea differ on how the months are named, the treatment of the extra day in leap year; the "Georgian calendar" was proposed in 1745 by the Rev. Hugh Jones, an American colonist from Maryland writing under the pen name Hirossa Ap-Iccim; the author named the plan, the thirteenth month, after King George II of Great Britain. The 365th day each year was to be set aside as Christmas; the treatment of leap year varied from the Gregorian rule, however. In a version of the plan, published in 1753, the 13 months were all renamed for Christian saints. In 1849 the French philosopher Auguste Comte proposed the 13-month Positivist Calendar, naming the months: Moses, Aristotle, Caesar, St. Paul, Dante, Shakespeare, Descartes and Bichat; the days of the year were dedicated to "saints" in the Positivist Religion of Humanity. Positivist weeks and years begin with Monday instead of Sunday.
Comte reset the year number, beginning the era of his calendar with the Gregorian year 1789. For the extra days of the year not belonging to any week or month, Comte followed the pattern of Ap-Iccim, ending each year with a festival on the 365th day, followed by a subsequent feast day occurring only in leap years. Whether Moses Cotsworth was familiar with the 13-month plans that preceded his International Fixed Calendar is not known, he did follow Ap-Iccim in designating the 365th day of the year as Christmas. His suggestion was that this last day of the year should be designated a Sunday, hence, because the following day would be New Year's Day and a Sunday he called it a Double Sunday. Since Cotsworth's goal was a simplified, more "rational" calendar for business and industry, he would carry over all the features of the Gregorian calendar consistent with this goal, including the traditional month names, the week beginning on Sunday, the Gregorian leap-year rule. To promote Cotsworth's calendar reform the International Fixed Calendar League was founded in 1923, just after the plan was selected by the League of Nations as the best of 130 calendar proposals put forward.
Sir Sandford Fleming, the inventor and driving force behind worldwide adoption of standard time, became the first president of the IFCL. The League opened offices in London and in Rochester, New York. George Eastman, of the Eastman Kodak Company, became a fervent supporter of the IFC, instituted its use at Kodak; the International Fixed Calendar League ceased operations shortly after the calendar plan failed to win final approval of the League of Nations in 1937. The several advantages of the International Fixed Calendar are related to its organization; the subdivision of the year is regular and systematic: Each month has 4 weeks. Every day of the month falls on the same weekday in each month (e.g. the 17th always falls on a Tu
Sudipen the Municipality of Sudipen, is a 4th class municipality in the province of La Union, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 17,056 people. Sudipen is located 312 kilometres north-north-west of the Philippine capital, 43 kilometres away from the provincial capital of San Fernando, La Union, it is bounded on the west by the municipalities of Balaoan. Sudipen has a total land area of 97 square kilometers, making it the fifth largest municipality by land area in the province. Barangay Bulalaan is the largest barangay with a land area of 8,988 hectares, while Barangay Poblacion is the smallest with only 82 hectares. Sudipen is politically subdivided into 17 barangays. In the 2015 census, the population of Sudipen was 17,056 people, with a density of 170 inhabitants per square kilometre or 440 inhabitants per square mile. Mayor: Wendy Joy D. Buquing Vice Mayor: Melvin G. Macusi Sangguniang Bayan Members: Tita D. Mostoles Edwin M. Belisoa, Jr. Joebet L. Dee Demy L. Danguecan Thelma R. Peña Bery A. Yadao Marcelina P. Leonen Yna P. Castro Edwin O. Oribio - President of the Liga ng mga Barangay Michael A. Amoyen - SK Federation President Noli C.
Cong-o - Indigenous Peoples Mandatory Representative Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System
Star of Danger is a science fantasy novel by American writer Marion Zimmer Bradley, part of her Darkover series. It was first published by Ace Books in 1965. Bradley states in "Author's Notes on Chronology" that in her view, Star of Danger occurs about thirty years after the events in The Spell Sword. Wade Montray, a civil servant of the Terran Empire, is transferred from Earth to Darkover. He's a widower with a teenaged son, fascinated by this alien world. Larry has learned the rudiments of the Darkovan language from tapes, wants to explore outside the confines of the Terran Spaceport complex and the Trade City. During his first solo exploration, Larry runs into a gang of street toughs. A local, Kennard Alton, intervenes. After Larry comports himself well in a one-on-one fight with one of the toughs, Alton invites him to his father's home to share a meal. Alton explains some of the Darkovan customs. Valdir Alton, Kennard's father, invites Larry to return to his home when he wishes. Larry returns to his quarters where his father, Wade, is furious with his son's adventure and confines him to the spaceport.
Larry promised to lend some books to Kennard and realizes the Darkovans will consider it a grave insult if he fails to return to the Alton home. Against his father's wishes, he takes the books to Kennard. Valdir Alton introduces Larry to the head of Darkover's governing council. Hastur questions Larry about his motivations for returning to the Alton home. Larry's answers please Hastur, he expresses his approval. Again, Larry is invited to return, but says his father won't allow another visit. Wade Montray forbids his son's return to the city, his commander tells him they've heard from the Darkovan council, they're offended by his action, as if they are unfit company for his son. The Altons invited Larry to spend the summer at Armida, Terran command recommends that Wade agree in the interest of diplomatic relations. Larry begins to feel more comfortable with the local customs after a couple of weeks at Armida. Kennard, Lord Alton and their guardsmen are out riding when they encounter a forest fire.
Larry joins the others to fight the fire, but it turns out to be a diversion set by raiding bandits who have attacked a nearby village. Valdir's men track the bandits to a canyon; the bandits believe him to be Kennard Alton. In an attempt to gain information, they drug him with kirian; the real Kennard Alton rescues Larry and they escape into the mountains. In the course of their escape, the two boys learn much about each other's cultures, realize that each has benefits and drawbacks. Larry's latent telepathic abilities emerge under the stress of the journey, they encounter banshee-birds and a chieri. The chieri reveals to Kennard that the Darkovans are of Terran origin and returns them, by teleportation, to the spaceport. Kennard tells his father. Larry decides living with the Altons. Under pressure from Valdir Alton, Wade Montray tells Larry that his mother was a daughter of Aldaran, one of the Comyn. Larry Montray, son of Wade Montray Wade Montray, a Terran administrator Kennard Alton, son of Kennard Alton Valdir Alton, Kennard's father, Lord Alton Lorill Hastur, head of the governing council of Darkover Cyrillon, a bandit 1965, US, Ace Books OCLC 11204698, Pub date 1965, Paperback 1967, Pebel OCLC 73904146, Pub date 1967, Paperback, in German as Die Kräfte der Comyn 1979, US, Gregg Press ISBN 0-7278-4513-6, Pub date 1979, Hardcover 1978 UK, Arrow Books ISBN 0-09-916620-8, Pub date 1978, Paperback 1993, UK, Severn House ISBN 0-7278-4513-6, Pub date September 1993, Hardcover 1994, US, DAW Books ISBN 0-88677-607-4, Pub date July 1994, Paperback Brown, Charles N..
"The Locus Index to Science Fiction". Retrieved 2008-09-08. Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 64. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. Star of Danger title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Kuttolsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It has been built along an old Roman road leading from Strasbourg to Saverne. Saverne is twelve kilometres to the north-west while Strasbourg is twenty-five kilometres to the east; the twentieth century route nationale connecting the two avoids Kuttolsheim but passes through Marlenheim, a short distance to the south. Sainte-Barbe chapel: classified as a historic monument; the nave dates from the seventeenth century. Schwefelsee: known since the Roman era, its water was piped to Strasbourg; the lake is a small natural water. The spring's rate of flow reaches 17 litres per second, its temperature is constant and therefore the lake never freezes; the sulfur content of the water allowed it to be used since the Roman era until the 1950s in thermae: its curative properties were used to cure skin diseases. The lake served as a horse bath: a mild slope allows them to go into water. Saint-Jacques-le-majeur church: the choir tower, built by the architect Bernach in the 12th century, is classified as a historic monument.
The present choir and nave have been rebuilt in 1865 after a fire. Buddhist temple: Since 1978, Kuttolsheim is one of the four places in Alsace where a Buddhist centre can be found. Since it is the European Institute of Tibetan Buddhism, the Dalai Lama went there many times. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Kochersberg INSEE commune file official site
NVS Telematic System Ltd is a Russian company that builds technology and equipment controlled by signals from satellite navigation systems GLONASS and GPS. Developing equipment for satellite monitoring of transport is the company's main business. NVS Telematic System is involved in the development, production organization and servicing of the navigation equipment for commercial and private use; the company was founded in 2011 as a satellite of KB Navis, carrying out production of onboard navigation devices in the "Signal" series. In 2012, the Navitrack equipment series was created. A state contract for delivery of automobile navigation equipment GLONASS/GPS and the automated workplaces of monitoring of vehicles in Federal Customs Service of Russia was executed. Works were carried out in the territory of 36 subjects of the Russian Federation in 49 regional divisions of Federal Customs Service of Russia. NVS Telematic equipped 486 vehicles and 26 automated workplaces with GLONASS/GPS navigation devices in the Signal series.
Cooperation between the NAVIS Group and the Federal Customs Service of Russia resulted in the creation of complex system interconnected with system of electronic declaring by means of a multimedia traffic in real time for monitoring and control of passing customs freights without opening any containers. In 2013, a device for satellite monitoring of transport Navitrek UM-04 went into mass production. A search beacon, Navitrek UM-02, functioning on GLONASS/GPS systems together with base stations GSM, was developed. Satellite monitoring of transport by the Navionis product was developed as a web interface. All equipment was adapted under the state project ERA-GLONASS. Introduction of the quality system of management ISO 9001:2008
Constantius III was Western Roman Emperor in 421, from 8 February until his death on 2 September. He earned his position as Emperor due to his capability as a general under Honorius, achieving the rank of Magister militum by 411; that same year, he was sent to suppress the revolt of Constantine III, a Roman general who declared himself emperor. Constantius led his army to Arles in Gaul, the capital of Constantine III, defeated Gerontius, a general rebelling against Constantine, before himself besieging Arles. After defeating a relief force led by Edobichus, Constantius convinced Constantine to surrender, promising safe retirement, but betrayed and beheaded him as soon as he surrendered. Constantius went on to lead campaigns against various barbarian groups in Hispania and Gaul, recovering much of both for the Western Roman Empire. Constantius was proclaimed Western Roman Emperor by Honorius on 8 February 421, he reigned for seven months before dying on 2 September 421. Constantius was born in Moesia at an unknown date.
Constantius served as a general under Honorius, rising to the rank of Magister militum by 411. In 411 Constantius was sent by Honorius to put down the revolt of Constantine III, who had declared himself emperor in Britain in 407. Constantius thereafter led his soldiers to the capital and residence of Constantine. Upon arriving, he defeated the army of Gerontius, a general, rebelling against Constantine, before besieging the city. Constantine refused to surrender, hoping to last until the return of his general Edobichus, raising troops in northern Gaul. Edobichus did return to Arles, however he was swiftly defeated by Constantius. Constantine soon after lost much of the remainder of his forces, as his army, guarding the Rhine chose to support the usurper Jovinus instead, forcing Constantine to surrender. Despite Constantius' assurances that Constantine would be able to safely retire to a clerical office, Constantius had him imprisoned, further had him beheaded during his return to Ravenna, in either August or September 411.
Honorius' remaining rivals were soon defeated, with Gerontius committing suicide in Hispania, Jovinus being defeated by Athaulf, king of the Visigoths. Despite this, Honorius was any Roman after him; this view was opposed by J. B. Bury Template:The Notitia Dignitatum 1920, German scholar Ralf Scharf, John Hester Ward among others. Constantius initiated a campaign against the Visigoths in northern Hispania in 416, blockading them in order to starve them and force their submission. Soon after, the Visigoth king, surrendered to Rome, agreeing to: return Galla Placidia, the sister of Honorius, captured by Alaric c. 412, been forced into marriage with Athaulf, by this time dead. Constantius continued to campaign against various tribal groups, regaining control of much of Hispania and Gaul by 420. During this time period, generals played a critical role in ensuring the continued reign of Roman Emperors Western Roman Emperors. Constantius' position of Magister militum and his skill as a commander allowed him to gain huge influence over the Western Roman Empire, comparable to the earlier Stilicho.
For this reason, Honorius bestowed many honors upon Constantius, such as appointing him consul three times: in 414, alongside Constans. In order to further ensure Constantius' loyalty, Honorius arranged the betrothal of his sister, Galla Placidia, to Constantius in 417. On 8 February 421, Honorius made Constantius co-Western Emperor under himself. Constantius reigned as co-emperor only seven months before dying on 2 September 421, in Ravenna. Constantius was succeeded by Honorius, who ruled alone until his death in 423, whereupon Valentinian III, Constantius' son, assumed the throne, with Galla Placidia serving as regent. Adkins, Lesley. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Facts On File. ISBN 9780816074822. Birley, Anthony; the People of Roman Britain. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520041196. Bury, J. B.. A History of the Later Roman Empire, from Arcadius to Irene. Macmillan and co. OCLC 933179049. Cooley, Alison E.. The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139576604.
Grant, Michael. From Rome to Byzantium: The Fifth Century AD. Routledge. ISBN 9781135166724. Jones, A. H. M.. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Volume 2, AD 395-527. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521201599. Lee, A. D.. From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748668359. Ring, Trudy. Southern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781134259656. Sivan, Hagith. Galla Placidia: The Last Roman Empress. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195379129