Makerere University, Kampala is Uganda's largest and third-oldest institution of higher learning, first established as a technical school in 1922. In 1963, it became the University of East Africa, offering courses leading to general degrees from the University of London, it became an independent national university in 1970 when the University of East Africa was split into three independent universities: University of Nairobi, University of Dar es Salaam, Makerere University. Today, Makerere University is composed of nine colleges and one school offering programmes for about 36,000 undergraduates and 4,000 postgraduates. U. S. News & World Report has ranked Makerere University as the eighth best university in Africa and the 569th best university worldwide; the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2016 ranked it as the fourth best university in Africa. Makerere University was alma mater to many post-independence African leaders, including Ugandan president Milton Obote and Tanzanian presidents Julius Nyerere and Benjamin Mkapa.
The president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Joseph Kabila, Kenyan president Mwai Kibaki are Makerere alumni. In the years after Uganda's independence, Makerere University was a focal point for the literary activity, central to African nationalist culture. Many prominent writers, including Nuruddin Farah, Ali Mazrui, David Rubadiri, Okello Oculi, Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, John Ruganda, Paul Theroux, V. S. Naipaul and Peter Nazareth, were at Makerere University at one point in their writing and academic careers; because of student unrest and faculty disenchantment, the university was closed three times between 2006 and 2016. The final time was on 1 November 2016 when President Yoweri Museveni declared it closed indefinitely; the university was reopened in January 2017. The trade school that became Makerere University began operating in 1921 with the first classes in carpentry, building construction and mechanics. In 1922 it was founded as the "Uganda Technical College" with additional courses in the arts, education and medicine.
That same year it was again renamed as Makerere College. In 1928, the vocational classes were separated from the college and renamed Kampala Technical School. In 1937 the college began offering post-secondary education certificate courses. In 1943, the British Protectorate government proposed the university, which led to a controversial struggle, it was described as "a plot to steal African soil for European settlement," by the Bataka Party. In response to this campaign, there was rioting in the capital of Kampala. In 1949 Makerere College was granted university status and its name became Makerere College, University of East Africa. In the same year, the Bataka Party had been banned by the British Protectorate government, because of acts of riot and arson committed after a Bataka protest gathering; the university was closed three times between 2006 and 2016. Beginning on 1 August 2016, the non-teaching staff went on strike demanding their back pay; the strike lasted the government agreed to pay them by the end of October.
This was but one more broken promise in the cycle of failed promises and more promises. That strike was followed by a strike of the lecturers over unpaid incentive pay, that strike was joined by students in solidarity; this led to President Yoweri Museveni closing the university "indefinitely". Additional protests, including from parents whose children were left hanging in mid-semester, led to Museveni appointing a special commission to try to rectify the situation but with no promises of reopening; the commission's report is due in late February 2017. The University Council is the supreme governing body of the university while Senate is the chief academic organ of the University. Appointments Board Finance and Administration Quality Assurance, Gender and ICT Estates and Works Staff Development and Retirement Benefits Students Affairs and Disciplinary Honorary Awards Audit College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences College of Business and Management Sciences College of Computing & Information Sciences College of Education and External Studies College of Engineering, Design and Technology College of Health Sciences College of Humanities and Social Sciences College of Natural Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal resources and BioSecurity School of Law Makerere University Business School Alokolum Seminary Katigondo Seminary Ggaba Seminary Kinyamasika Seminary Mbale School Clinical Officers Mbale School Hygiene Mulago Paramedical Schools Kampala University Barnabas Nawangwe, architect and current Vice Chancellor John Ddumba Ssentamu, economist and banker, former Vice Chancellor Venansius Baryamureeba, computer scientist, former Vice Chancellor Hugh Dinwiddy, lecturer in literature, warden of Northcote Hall George Kirya, diplomat, former Vice Chancellor at Makerere and former Chairman of Uganda Health Services Commission Mahmood Mamdani, political scientist and historian Ali Mazrui, academic and political scientist Apolo Nsibambi, former Prime Minister of Uganda and former Chancellor of Makerere University Joe Oloka-Onyango, former Dean of Law and human rights expert Okot p'Bitek, poet John Ssebuwufu, a renowned chemist, former Vice Chancellor of Makerere University, current Chancellor of Kyambogo University David Serwadda, former dean, School of Public Health Nelson Sewankambo, College of Health Sciences Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, current Dean of Students, Makerere University School of Medicine Sylvia Tamale, academic, women's rights activist Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, novelist Timothy Wangusa, poet, one time minister of education David Wasawo, zool
Pontifical Xavierian University
The Pontifical Xavierian University is a private higher education institution founded in 1623. It is one of the oldest, most traditional, prestigious Colombian universities, directed by the Society of Jesus, with its main facilities in Bogotá and a second campus in Cali. "La Javeriana", as it is known by its students, has traditionally educated the Colombian elite. It is one of the 33 universities entrusted to the Society of Jesus in Latin America and one of 167 around the world; the Javeriana University in Bogotá has 18 schools comprising 61 departments and 181 academic programs catering to areas of knowledge, giving the university its multidisciplinary nature. It has 45 buildings in 445 acres; the Javeriana University in Cali offers 18 schools in four faculties. It is located in Cali, its Law School received a high quality accreditation by Resolution 6808 6 August 2010, of the Ministry of National Education. The campus in Cali has sectional divisions of the Bolsa de Valores de Colombia, Temple University's Fox School of Business, others.
The University is one of the twelve universities in Colombia having a high quality institutional accreditation, granted to it for eight years by Resolution 1320, 12 June 2003, of the Ministry of National Education. The university has 21 undergraduate programs with high quality accreditation, eight programs in advanced stages of the accreditation process. In graduate programs, quality is acknowledged through the Qualified Registries; the university has 87 graduate programs with Qualified Registries and has presented another 29 to these processes. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings Javeriana is ranked in the 501 to 600 range worldwide; the College of the Society of Jesus was established in Santafé de Bogotá in 1604 as part of the San Bartolome School and Cloister. In 1623, the Audience and the Archbishop recognized; the students at that time received their degree, including Pedro Claver. That is the origin of what was known as the Academy of Saint Francis Xavier. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish colonies, which closed the first stage of Universidad Javeriana's history.
163 years after the university closed, an act of restoration was signed. In 1937 the School of Economics and Legal Sciences was founded, with the others following. In 1970, after multiple petitions from the community of Cali, the university started a programme in that city; the Universidad Javeriana in Cali took the name of "Cali Branch", offering degrees in business and psychology. The university offers 40 undergraduate programs, 69 professional specializations, 45 medical and surgical specializations, 8 dentistry specializations, 22 masters, 8 PhDs. School of Theology School of Philosophy School of Medicine School of Dentistry School of Nursing School of Psychology School of Law School of Political Science and International Relations School of Arts: drama, music School of Social Sciences: anthropology, literature, sociology School of Sciences: biology and physics, nutrition, biochemistry School of Engineering: civil engineering, industrial engineering, electronic engineering, systems engineering School of Economics and Management Sciences: management, economy.
School of Education: child pedagogy, basic education emphasizing Spanish and human sciences School of Communication and Language: communication studies, information science, languages School of Design and Architecture: architecture, industrial design, design of visual communication School of Environmental and Rural Studies: ecology and regional development The University has 61 departments and 14 institutes. Departments are academic units aimed at developing an area of knowledge through research and the implementation of services such as continuing education and advisory activities. Institutes are academic units responsible for research and consulting in areas requiring a special interdisciplinary approach. To provide technological support to research, education and administrative processes, the University has next-generation network services. Mention can be made of the technological components available in the following units: The SIU with its "People Soft" platform for Academic Management.
It has 130 laboratories and workshops. La Javeriana is among the leading universities researching the Muisca people and culture; the Xavierian University has two libraries: the General Library and the Mario Valenzuela, S. J. Library; the latter library specializes in philosophy and theology, is rated as the best in these disciplines in Latin America. It has seven document and resource centers in the following fields of knowledge: bio-ethics, political science, law, social communication, clinical epidemiology; the library stock numbers 418,008 titles among books, journals and dissertation papers, music scores, maps, VHS and DVD film recordings, sound videos, sound recordings. The system has about 90 subscriptions to databases and has access to complete text contents for online consultation of journals
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture and forest regulation. This includes management for aesthetics, recreation, urban values, wilderness, wood products, forest genetic resources, other forest resource values. Management can be based on economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through forests, preventing fire; the forest is a natural system that can supply different services. The working of this system is influenced by the natural environment: climate, soil, etc. and by human activity. The actions of humans in forests constitute forest management. In developed societies, this management tends to be elaborate and planned in order to achieve the objectives that are considered desirable; some forests have been and are managed to obtain traditional forest products such as firewood, fiber for paper, timber, with little thinking for other products and services.
As a result of the progression of environmental awareness, management of forests for multiple use is becoming more common. For the management. There has been increased public awareness including forest management. Public concern regarding forest management may have shifted from the extraction of timber for earning money for the economy, to the preservation of additional forest resources, including wildlife and old growth forest, protecting biodiversity, watershed management, recreation. Increased environmental awareness may contribute to an increased public mistrust of forest management professionals, but it can lead to greater understanding about what professionals do for forests for nature conservation and ecological services. The importance of taking care of the forests for ecological as well as economical sustainable reasons has been shown in the TV show Ax Men. Many tools like GIS and photogrammetry modelling have been developed to improve forest inventory and management planning. Since 1953, the volume of standing trees in the United States have increased by 90% due to sustainable forest management.
The abundance and diversity of birds, mammals and other wildlife are affected by strategies and types of forest management. Forest management varies in intensity from a leave alone, natural situation to a intensive regime with silvicultural interventions. Forest Management is increased in intensity to achieve either economic criteria or ecological criteria
Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute
The Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute, sometimes referred to as IAVH, is an independent non-regulatory research institute of the Executive Branch of the Government of Colombia charged with conducting scientific research on the biodiversity of the country including hydrobiology and genetic research. The institute is named after Alexander von Humboldt, a German naturalist who conducted research on the biodiversity of Colombia and Latin America. Official website
National Autonomous University of Mexico
The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico. It ranks in world rankings based on the university's extensive research and innovation. UNAM's campus is a UNESCO World Heritage site, designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In 2016, it had an acceptance rate of only 8%. UNAM generates a number of strong research publications and patents in diverse areas, such as robotics, computer science, physics, human-computer interaction, philosophy, among others. All Mexican Nobel laureates are either alumni or faculty of UNAM. UNAM was founded, in its modern form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its predecessor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. UNAM obtained its autonomy from the government in 1929; this has given the university the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government.
This has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence. UNAM was the birthplace of the student movement of 1968, which turned into a nationwide rebellion against autocratic rule and began Mexico's three-decade journey toward democracy; the university was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra Minister of Education in the Porfirio Díaz regime, who sought to create a different institution from its 19th-century precursor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree signed by Crown Prince Phillip on behalf of Charles I of Spain and brought to a definitive closure in 1865 by Maximilian I of Mexico. Instead of reviving what he saw as an anachronistic institution with strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church, he aimed to merge and expand Mexico City's decentralized colleges of higher education and create a new university, secular in nature and national in scope, that could reorganize higher education within the country, serve as a model of positivism and encompass the ideas of the dominant Mexican liberalism.
The project unified the Fine Arts, Political Science, Engineering, Medicine and the National Preparatory schools. The new university's challenges were political, due to the ongoing Mexican Revolution and the fact that the federal government had direct control over the university's policies and curriculum; this opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz. Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, Luis Cabrera. By July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law. In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed. In 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. In 1921, he created the school's coat-of-arms: the image of an eagle and a condor surrounding a map of Latin America, from Mexico's northern border to Tierra del Fuego, the motto, "The Spirit shall speak for my race".
Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s, the second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system; the strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school. The striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations led to autonomy for the university; the institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education. During the early 1930s, the rector of UNAM was Manuel Gómez Morín; the government attempted to implement socialist education at Mexican universities, which Gómez Morín, many professors, Catholics opposed as an infringement on academic freedom. Gómez Morín with the support of the Jesuit-founded student group, the Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos fought against socialist education. UNAM supported the recognition of the academic certificates by Catholic preparatory schools, which validated their educational function. In an interesting turn of events, UNAM played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit institution in 1943, the Universidad Iberoamericana in 1943.
However, UNAM opposed initiatives at the Universidad Iberoamericana in years, opposing the establishment of majors in industrial relations and communications. In 1943 initial decisions were made to move the university from the various buildings it occupied in the city center to a new and consolidated university campus; the first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952; the University Olympic Stadium was inaugurated on the same day. In 1957 the Doctorate Council was created to organize graduate studies. Another major student strike, again over examination regulations, occurred in 1966. Students forced the rector to resign; the Board of Regents did not accept this resignation, so the professors went on