Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The Lamborghini Gallardo is a sports car built by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 2003 to 2013. It is Lamborghini's first best-selling model with 14,022 built throughout its production run. Named after a famous breed of fighting bull, the V10 powered Gallardo has been Lamborghini's sales leader and stable-mate to a succession of V12 flagship models—first to the Murciélago to the current flagship, the Aventador. On 25 November 2013, the last Gallardo was rolled off the production line; the Gallardo was replaced by the Huracán in 2014. The first generation of the Gallardo was powered with an firing 4,993 cc 90 degree V10 engine generating a maximum power output of 500 PS; the Gallardo offers two choices of transmissions, a conventional six-speed manual transmission, a more advanced six-speed electro-hydraulically controlled semi-automatic electrohydraulic manual transmission, which Lamborghini abbreviates to "E-gear". The "E-gear" allows the driver to change gears much faster than they could with a manual transmission.
The driver shifts up and down via paddles behind the steering wheel, but can change to an automatic mode via the gear selector located in place of the gear shift lever. The vehicle was designed by Luc Donckerwolke and was based on the 1995 Calà prototype designed by Italdesign Giugiaro. For the 2006 model year Lamborghini introduced many changes to the car to counter some criticisms garnered from the press and owners; these changes were realised in the form of the limited edition Gallardo SE. The exhaust system was changed to a more sporty one, the suspension was revised, a new steering rack was fitted, the engine power was increased by 20 PS to a maximum of 520 PS, the biggest change was overall low gearing ratios in 1st to 5th gear; these changes gave the car much better performance than the original. The Lamborghini Concept S is a concept car based on the Gallardo, featuring a speedster body designed by Luc Donckerwolke, it was first shown at that year's Geneva Motor Show. The Concept S was intended to be a modern interpretation of the single-seat roadsters of the past.
Utilising a'saute-vent' instead of a traditional windscreen, dividing the interior into two distinct compartments by continuing the bodywork between the seats, which serves as an air inlet feeding the mid-mounted 5.0 L V10 engine, giving the car a distinctly futuristic look along with increasing aerodynamic flow. The rear-view mirror is electronically retractable to allow the driver to see behind, when necessary, or to retract it into the dashboard when not needed. Though considered more of a styling exercise than a working production vehicle, the final working show car only had to be modified from the original computer-aided designs. Lamborghini was rumoured to be building 100 examples for customers, but decided to keep it as a styling exercise. Only 2 cars were produced: the high-window prototype sits in the Lamborghini museum with no engine, while the running low-window prototype featured at Pebble Beach was up for auction on 10 December 2015 at RM Sotheby's Manhattan event "Driven by Disruption".
It failed to sell. The convertible variant of the Gallardo, called the Gallardo Spyder, was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in January 2006, it was considered by the company to be an new model, with the engine having a power output of 520 PS and a low-ratio six-speed manual transmission. The Spyder has a retractable soft-top. At the 2007 Geneva Auto Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Gallardo Superleggera; the name paid tribute to the construction style of the first Lamborghini production model, the 350 GT, designed and built by Carrozzeria Touring and its emphasis on weight reduction. The Superleggera is lighter than the base model by 100 kg due the use of carbon fibre panels for the rear diffuser, the rearview-mirror housings, the interior door panels, the central tunnel, engine cover; the engine power was uprated by 10 PS courtesy of an improved intake, exhaust and ECU for a total power output of 530 PS. The 6-speed E-Gear transmission was standard on US spec models with the 6-speed manual transmission offered as a no cost option.
Production of the Superleggera amounted to 618 units worldwide. In December 2004, two Gallardos were donated to the Italian Polizia di Stato in honour of the force's 152nd anniversary. One car was donated by Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. while a second one was donated by an independent organisation. The Gallardo police cars were used by the traffic police during emergencies and alarm situations on the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway under the powers of the special safety operative, being employed along that tract of highway and, above all, for the transport of body organs destined for transplantation. However, both of the cars were destroyed in the course of duty; when the Huracán, Gallardo's successor, was introduced, Lamborghini S.p. A produced a personalised version for the Italian police force serving as the replacement of the destroyed cars. Two Gallardos have been "temporary" police cars for the Metropolitan Police in London, one in 2005 and one in 2006, for specific publicity events; the car used in 2006 was seen at the start of the 2006 Gumball Rally.
Both vehicles were lent by Lamborghini London and were fitted with yellow and blue battenburg markings, police logos and a small blue lightbar. The Gallardo SE is a limited edition
The Dodge Viper is a sports car manufactured by Dodge, a division of American car manufacturer FCA US LLC from 1991 through 2017, having taken a brief hiatus from 2010–2013. Production of the two-seat sports car began at New Mack Assembly Plant in 1991 and moved to Conner Avenue Assembly Plant in October 1995. Although Chrysler considered ending production because of serious financial problems, on September 14, 2010, the chief executive Sergio Marchionne announced and previewed a new model of the Viper for 2012. In 2014, the Viper was named number 10 on the "Most American Cars" list, meaning 75% or more of its parts are manufactured in the U. S; the Viper was conceived in late 1988 at Chrysler's Advanced Design Studios. The following February, Chrysler president Bob Lutz suggested to Tom Gale at Chrysler Design Center that the company should consider producing a modern Cobra, a clay model was presented to Lutz a few months later. Produced in sheet metal by Metalcrafters, the car appeared as a concept at the North American International Auto Show in 1989.
Public reaction was so enthusiastic that chief engineer Roy Sjoberg was directed to develop it as a standard production vehicle. Sjoberg selected 85 engineers to be "Team Viper", with development beginning in March 1989; the team asked the then-Chrysler subsidiary Lamborghini to cast a prototype aluminum block for the sports car to use in May. The production body was completed with a chassis prototype running in December. Though a V8 engine was first used in the test mule, the V10 engine, which the production car was meant to use, was ready in February 1990. Official approval from Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca came in May 1990. One year Carroll Shelby piloted a pre-production car as the pace vehicle in the Indianapolis 500 race. In November 1991, the car was released to reviewers with the first retail shipments beginning in January 1992; the first prototype was tested in January 1989. It debuted in 1991 with two pre-production models as the pace car for the Indianapolis 500 when Dodge was forced to substitute it in place of the Japanese-built Dodge Stealth because of complaints from the United Auto Workers, went on sale in January 1992 as the RT/10 Roadster.
Lamborghini helped with the design of the V10 engine for the Viper, based on the Chrysler's LA V8 engine. A major contributor to the Viper since the beginning was Dick Winkles, the chief power engineer, who had spent time in Italy. Engineered to be a performance car, the Viper contained no exterior-mounted door handles or key cylinders and no air conditioning; the roof was made from canvas, the windows were made from vinyl and used zippers to open and close, much like the Jeep Wrangler. However, the Viper was still equipped with some domestic features, including manually-adjustable sport leather-trimmed bucket seats with lumbar support, an AM-FM stereo cassette player with clock and high fidelity sound system, interior carpeting. Aluminium alloy wheels were larger in diameter due to the larger brakes. A lightweight fiberglass hard roof option on models was available to cover the canvas soft roof, was shipped with each new car. There were no airbags, in the interest of weight reduction. Adjustable performance suspension was an available option for most Vipers.
The engine weighs 711 lb and generates a maximum power output of 400 hp at 4,600 rpm and 465 lb⋅ft at 3,600 rpm, due to the long-gearing allowed by the engine, provides fuel economy at a United States Environmental Protection Agency-rated 12 mpg‑US in the city and 20 mpg‑US on the highway. The body is a tubular steel frame with resin transfer molding fiberglass panels; the car has a curb weight of 3,284 lb and lacks modern driver aids such as traction control and anti-lock brakes. The SR I can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.2 seconds, 0–100 mph in 9.2 seconds, can complete the 1⁄4 mile in 12.6 seconds at the speed of 113.8 mph and has a maximum speed of 165 mph. Its large tires allow the car to average close to one lateral g in corners, placing it among the elite cars of its day. However, the car proves tricky to drive at high speeds for the unskilled drivers. Although the 1996 model year is the beginning of the second generation, in the Viper community, the 1996 model of the RT/10 is sometimes referred to as "Generation 1.5" since it saw the carryover of many first-generation parts during the model year while transitioning to second-generation parts.
The roadster relocated the exposed side exhaust pipes to a single muffler at the rear exiting via two large central tailpipes during the middle of the model year, which reduced back pressure, therefore increased the power to 415 hp. Torque would increase by 23 lb⋅ft to 488 lb⋅ft. A removable hardtop was now available along with a sliding glass window; some steel suspension components were replaced by aluminum. In the 1996 model year, Dodge introduced the Viper GTS, a new coupé version of the Viper RT/10. Dubbed the “double bubble”, the roof featured raised sections that looked like bubbles to accommodate the usage of helmets and taking design cues from the Shelby Daytona designed by Pete Brock. More than 90% of the GTS was new in comparison to the RT/10 despite similar looks; the GTS would come with the same 7,990 cc V10 but power would be increased to 450 hp (33
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
A grand tourer is a car, designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement; the term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s. The grand touring car concept originated in Europe in the early 1950s with the 1951 introduction of the Lancia Aurelia B20 GT, features notable luminaries of Italian automotive history such as Vittorio Jano, Enzo Ferrari and Johnny Lurani. Motorsports became important in the evolution of the grand touring concept, grand touring entries are important in endurance sports-car racing; the grand touring definition implies material differences in performance, speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In the post-war United States, manufacturers were less inclined to adopt the "ethos of the GT car", preferring to build automobiles "suited to their long, smooth roads and labor-saving lifestyles" with wide availability of powerful straight-six and V8 engines in all price-ranges of automobile.
Despite this, the United States, enjoying early post-war economic expansion, became the largest market for European grand-touring cars, supplying transportation for movie stars and the jet set. Classic grand-touring cars from the post-war era have since become valuable automobiles among wealthy collectors. Within ten years, grand touring cars found success penetrating the new American personal luxury car market; the terms "grand tourer", "grand turismo", "grande routière", "GT" are among the most misused terms in motoring. The grand touring designation "means motoring at speed, in style and comfort." "Purists define "gran turismo" as the enjoyment and comfort of open-road touring."According to one author, "the ideal is of a car with the ability to cross a continent at speed and in comfort yet provide driving thrills when demanded" and it should exhibit the following: The engines "should be able to cope with cruising comfortably at the upper limits on all continental roads without drawbacks or loss of usable power."
"Ideally, the GT car should have been devised by its progenitors as a Grand Tourer, with all associated considerations in mind." "It should be able to transport at least two in comfort with their luggage and have room to spare — in the form of a two plus two seating arrangement." The design, both "inside and out, should be geared toward complete control by the driver." Its "chassis and suspension provide suitable roadholding on all routes" during travels. Grand tourers emphasize comfort and handling over straight-out high performance or ascetic, spartan accommodations. In comparison, sports cars are more "crude" compared to "sophisticated Grand Touring machinery." However, the popularity of using GT for marketing purposes has meant that it has become a "much misused term signifying no more than a tuned version of a family car with trendy wheels and a go-faster stripe on the side."Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts.
Softer suspensions, greater storage, more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. The GT abbreviation— and variations thereof— are used as model names. However, some cars with GT in the model name are not Grand Touring cars. Among the many variations of GT are: GTA: "Gran Turismo Alleggerita"- the Italian word for lightweight. "GTAm" indicates a modified version. GTA is sometimes used for automatic transmission models. GTB: "Gran Turismo Berlinetta" GTC: Various uses including "Gran Turismo Compressore" for supercharged engines, "Gran Turismo Cabriolet, "Gran Turismo Compact", "Gran Turismo Crossover" and "Gran Turismo Corsa"- the Italian word for "racing". GTD: Gran Turismo Diesel GT/E:"Gran Turismo Einspritzung"- the German word for fuel injection GTE: "Grand Touring Estate" GTi or GTI: "Grand Touring Injection used for hot hatches following the introduction of the Volkswagen Golf GTi GTO: "Gran Turismo Omologata"- the Italian word for homologation GTR or GT-R: "Gran Turismo Racing" GTS: sometimes "Gran Turismo Spider" for convertible models.
However, GTS has been used for sedans and other body styles. GT-T: "Gran Turismo Turbo" GTV: Gran Turismo Veloce"- the Italian word for "fast" GTX: "Grand Tourisme Xtreme" HGT: "High Gran Turismo" Several past and present motor racing series have used "GT" in their name; these include: LM GTE 1999-present: A set of regulations for modified road cars, used for the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and several related racing series. LM GTE was called'GT class' and was known as GT2 class from 2005-2010. FIA GT Series 2013-present: A racing series for Group GT3 cars; the FIA GT Series replaced the FIA GT1 World Championship. GT4 European Series 2007-present: A European amateur racing series with the least powerful class of GT cars. IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge 2005-present: A North American racing series for Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. FIA GT3 European Championship 2006-2012: A European amateur racing series for Group GT3 cars. There have been several classes of racing cars called GT; the Group GT3 regulations for modified road cars have been used for various racing series worldwide since 2006.
SEAT León Supercopa
The SEAT León Supercopa is a one-make racing series, organised by SEAT Sport, the motorsport division of Spanish car manufacturer SEAT. It uses a modified version of the SEAT León road car, championships are run in Spain, Germany and France. Championships have been run in the United Kingdom and Hungary; the Supercopa used a car based on the Mk1 León Cupra R model. This was replaced for 2007 in Britain by the Mk2 model; the SEAT León Eurocup was first held from 2008 to 2010, supporting the World Touring Car Championship. It was revived in this case supporting the International GT Open. SEAT introduced the championship to the UK in 2003 under the name SEAT Cupra Championship, as a support series for the British Touring Car Championship, which SEAT Sport UK would go on to enter in 2004; the series was popular and produced future touring car winners such as Rob Huff, James Pickford and Mat Jackson. The series was ended at the end of 2008 due to SEAT UK's withdrawal from motorsport activities. Plans for an independent Supercopa Challenge to be held in the UK in 2009 were scrapped due to a lack of entries.
The Supercopa was started by SEAT Sport in Spain in 2002, ahead of the brand's move into the European Touring Car Championship for 2003. Oscar Nouges and Marc Carol have won the most championships in the series, both have driven in WTCC SUNREDs as well as the 2007 champion Jose Perez-Aircairt driving in WTCC; the German series began in 2004 and was held until 2011. Sebastian Stahl won the first edition, beating Peter Terting, who went on to race in the World Touring Car Championship for SEAT the following year. Aston Martin Racing won in 2008 and became a Porsche factory driver; the Trofeo León Supercopa began in 2008 as part of the Campionato Italiano Turismo Endurance series, is run by SEAT Motorsport Italia. The French Supercopa was run from 2010 to 2012, organised by Oreca as part of the GT Tour, supporting the FFSA GT Championship; the Hungarian Seat Leon Supercopa started in 2007. León Supercopa at SEAT Sport SEAT Deutschland SEAT Motorsport Italia SEAT Supercopa France SEAT León Eurocup