The International Hydrographic Organization is an intergovernmental organization representing hydrography. In October 2019 the IHO comprised 93 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas and navigable waters are properly surveyed and charted, it does this through the setting of international standards, the co-ordination of the endeavours of the world's national hydrographic offices, through its capacity building programme. The IHO enjoys observer status at the United Nations, where it is the recognised competent authority on hydrographic surveying and nautical charting; when referring to hydrography and nautical charting in Conventions and similar Instruments, it is the IHO standards and specifications that are used. The IHO was established in 1921 as the International Hydrographic Bureau; the present name was adopted in 1970, as part of a new international Convention on the IHO adopted by the member nations. The former name International Hydrographic Bureau was retained to describe the IHO secretariat until 8 November 2016, when a revision to the Convention on the IHO entered into force.
Thereafter the IHB became known as the "IHO Secretariat", comprising an elected Secretary-General and two supporting Directors, together with a small permanent staff, at the Organization's headquarters in Monaco. During the 19th century, many maritime nations established hydrographic offices to provide means for improving the navigation of naval and merchant vessels by providing nautical publications, nautical charts, other navigational services. There were substantial differences in hydrographic procedures charts, publications. In 1889, an International Maritime Conference was held at Washington, D. C. and it was proposed to establish a "permanent international commission." Similar proposals were made at the sessions of the International Congress of Navigation held at Saint Petersburg in 1908 and the International Maritime Conference held at Saint Petersburg in 1912. In 1919, the national Hydrographers of Great Britain and France cooperated in taking the necessary steps to convene an international conference of Hydrographers.
London was selected as the most suitable place for this conference, on 24 July 1919, the First International Conference opened, attended by the Hydrographers of 24 nations. The object of the conference was "To consider the advisability of all maritime nations adopting similar methods in preparation and production of their charts and all hydrographic publications; this is still the major purpose of the IHO. As a result of the 1919 Conference, a permanent organization was formed and statutes for its operations were prepared; the IHB, now the IHO, began its activities in 1921 with 18 nations as members. The Principality of Monaco was selected as the seat of the organization as a result of the offer of Albert I of Monaco to provide suitable accommodation for the Bureau in the Principality; the IHO develops nautical charting standards. These standards are subsequently adopted and used by its 91 member countries and others in their surveys, nautical charts, publications; the universal use of the IHO standards means that the products and services provided by the world's national hydrographic and oceanographic offices are consistent and recognisable by all seafarers and for other users.
Much has been done in the field of standardisation. The IHO has encouraged the formation of Regional Hydrographic Commissions; each RHC coordinates the national surveying and charting activities of countries within each region and acts as a forum to address other matters of common hydrographic interest. The 15 RHCs plus the IHO Hydrographic Commission on Antarctica cover the world; the IHO, in partnership with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, directs the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans programme. Establishment of the Chart Specifications Committee and International Charts: The exploration of the seabed and movements of the sea Standardization of maritime measurements, hydrographic terminology, marine cartographic products, geographical information systems for navigation High efficiency of the rapid dissemination of information on safety at sea Training of hydrographers and nautical cartographers Most IHO publications, including the standards and associated documents such as the International Hydrographic Review, International Hydrographic Bulletin, the Hydrographic Dictionary and the Year Book are available to the general public free of charge from the IHO website.
The IHO publishes the international standards related to charting and hydrography, including S-57, IHO Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data, the encoding standard, used for electronic navigational charts. In 2010, the IHO introduced a new, contemporary hydrographic geospatial standard for modelling marine data and information, known as S-100. S-100 and any dependent product specifications are underpinned by an on-line registry accessible via the IHO website. S-100 is aligned with the ISO 19100 series of geographic standards, thereby making it compatible with contemporary geospatial data standards; because S-100 is based on ISO 19100, it can be used by other data providers for their maritime-related data and information. Various data and information providers from both the government and pri
The Indian Journal of Dental Research is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Society of Dental Research. It covers orodental diseases and community dentistry, oral pathology, dentofacial orthopedics; the journal is indexed in EBSCO, EMCARE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, Expanded Academic ASAP, Health & Wellness Research Center, Health Reference Center Academic, MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SafetyLit, Scopus, SIIC databases, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory. Open access in India Official website
The 1996 Bosch Spark Plug Grand Prix was a CART race which happened at the Nazareth Speedway on April 28, 1996. It was the 5th round of the 1996 IndyCar season. Penske Racing driver Paul Tracy set the a mph speed of 190.737 mph, the pole. It was a New Track Record. At lap 15, 1st caution came out as Hiro Matsushita collided with Juan Manuel Fangio II; the restart came out at lap 22. The top 10 at lap 25: Paul Tracy, Emerson Fittipaldi, Scott Pruett, Michael Andretti, Jimmy Vasser, Al Unser, Jr. Bobby Rahal, Robby Gordon, Greg Moore and Christian Fittipaldi. At lap 53, Hiro Matsushita was the 1st driver to retire. At lap 79, Andretti stalled his car after a 13.4 pitstop. He continued in the race. At the following lap, the race leader Paul Tracy had hit three mechanics in one move after stop his car in his pit area; the mechanics were taken to the hospital. At lap 89, Paul Tracy received a black flag penalty because of the incident with his mechanics; the top 6 at lap 95 was: Al Unser, Jr.. Greg Moore, Emerson Fittipaldi, Bobby Rahal and Christian Fittipaldi.
At lap 115, 2nd caution came out. At the following lap, Gil de Ferran retired after having suspension problems, he collided with Adrian Fernandez in the pits. Restart came out at lap 128. At lap 141, the top 12 was: Emerson Fittipaldi, Al Unser, Jr.. Greg Moore, Bobby Rahal, Jimmy Vasser, Paul Tracy, Scott Pruett, Christian Fittipaldi, Raul Boesel, Robby Gordon and Adrian Fernandez. With 33 laps to go, 3rd caution came out as Robby Gordon hit the wall at turn 1, he retired. When the restart would come out, Raul Boesel's engine blew up; the restart came out with 23 laps to go. Andretti's lead was growing up and any problem happened to him as he won the race. Michael Andretti Greg Moore Al Unser, Jr. Emerson Fittipaldi Paul Tracy Bobby Rahal Jimmy Vasser Scott Pruett Christian Fittipaldi Adrian Fernandez Bryan Herta André Ribeiro Alex Zanardi Mike Groff Maurício Gugelmin Teo Fabi Eddie Lawson Jeff Krosnoff Stefan Johansson Parker Johnstone Raul Boesel engine Robby Gordon contact Gil de Ferran suspension Roberto Moreno lost wheel Juan Manuel Fangio II did not finish Hiro Matsushita did not finish Jimmy Vasser 73 points Al Unser, Jr. 53 points Scott Pruett 49 points Greg Moore 36 points Gil de Ferran 33 points Christian Fittipaldi 32 points Last race - Teo Fabi After this race, Mark Blundell, who broke his foot in Brazil was in good conditions to race in the next round: The US 500.
For the last time CART decided to run a 200 lap race in Nazareth Speedway. For 1997 until the last time CART raced there, it was a 225 lap race. After 2002, the race went to Indy Racing League, but it was still a 225 lap race