Ann Margaret Veneman was the Executive Director of UNICEF from 2005 to 2010. Her appointment was announced on January 2005 by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Veneman was the United States Secretary of Agriculture, the first, as of 2018 the only, woman to hold that position. Veneman served as USDA Secretary from January 20, 2001 to January 20, 2005, leaving to become the fifth executive director of UNICEF, she served in this position from May 1, 2005. A lawyer, Veneman has practiced law in Washington, DC and California, including being a deputy public defender, she has served in other high level positions in U. S. federal and state government, including being appointed California's Secretary of Food and Agriculture, serving from 1995 to 1999. Veneman serves as a co-leader of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative at the Bipartisan Policy Center, she is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Veneman was raised on a peach farm in California, her father, John Veneman, was former undersecretary of Health and Welfare and member of the California State Assembly.
She earned her bachelor's degree in political science from the University of California, Davis, a Master of Public Policy from the Richard & Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, a Juris Doctor degree from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. She has been awarded honorary doctoral degrees from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Veneman began her legal career as a staff attorney with the General Counsel's office of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District in Oakland, California, in 1976. In 1978, she returned to Modesto. In 1980, she joined the Modesto law firm of Damrell and Nelson, where she was an associate and a partner. Veneman joined the United States Department of Agriculture's Foreign Agricultural Service in 1986, serving as Associate Administrator until 1989. During this time she worked on the Uruguay Round talks for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, she subsequently served as Deputy Undersecretary of Agriculture for International Affairs and Commodity Programs from 1989 to 1991.
From 1991 to 1993, she served as United States Department of Agriculture's Deputy Secretary, the first woman appointed as the Department's second-highest-ranking official. At this point Veneman took a break from political and administrative office to practice with the law firm and lobby group Patton, Boggs & Blow and served on several boards of directors and advisory groups. In 1995, Veneman re-entered government, when she was appointed Secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, again being the first woman to hold the position. From 1999 to 2001, Veneman was an attorney with Nossaman LLP, where she focused her attention on food, environment and trade related issues. On 20 January 2001 she was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate and sworn in as Secretary of Agriculture, a position she held until January 20, 2005. Veneman has received several distinctions throughout her career. In 2009, Veneman was named to ranking 46th. In 2009, she received the Award of Distinction from the University of California Davis College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.
Veneman is an Honorary Member of Rotary International, received Sesame Workshop's Leadership Award for Children, a Humanitarian Award from the United Nations Association of New York. In 2004, Veneman was honored with an Honorary Membership with the U. S. State Department's U. S.-Afghan Women's Council and an Honorary Membership with Sigma Alpha Sorority, the national professional agriculture sorority. She was awarded the Main Street Partnership John Chaffee Award for Distinguished Public Service, the American PVO Partners Award for Service to People in Need, the Grape & Wine Public Policy Leadership Award. Additional awards include the Richard E. Lyng Award for Public Service, the UC Berkeley Goldman School of Public Policy Alumni of the Year Award, the California State Fair's Agriculturalist of the Year Award, the National 4-H Alumni Recognition Award. In 2002, Veneman received the California Council for International Trade Golden State Award, the Dutch American Heritage Award, Junior Statesman Foundation Statesman of the Year Award and the United Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Distinguished Service Award.
In 2001, Veneman received the Outstanding Woman in International Trade Award, the UC Davis Outstanding Alumna of the Year Award and the Food Research and Action Center Award. In 1995, she received a Cal Aggie Alumni Citation for Excellence and the Kiwanis Club of Greater Modesto National Farm-City Week Award. Veneman is a board member of Malaria No More, a New York-based nonprofit, launched at the 2006 White House Summit with the goal of ending all deaths caused by malaria. Veneman is co-chair of Mothers Day Every Day, along with former U. S. President Bill Clinton's Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala; the "campaign was launched by CARE and the White Ribbon Alliance supporting access of basic health care and maternal services for women around the world." Veneman serves as a board member of the Close Up Foundation, a civic education organization, has served on a number of advisory councils and committees those involving higher education. In 2002, Veneman received successful treatment. Veneman is a second cousin of Star Wars creator George Lucas.
As the 27th Sec
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 known as A or H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A for pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 flu known as avian influenza, it is enzootic in many bird populations in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia, it is epizootic and panzootic, killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread. Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus.
Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006, 55 in June 2007. The global HPAI situation improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. In July 2013, the WHO announced a total of 630 confirmed human cases which resulted in the deaths of 375 people since 2003. Several H5N1 vaccines have been developed and approved, stockpiled by a number of countries, including the United States, France and Australia, for use in an emergency. Research has shown that a contagious strain of H5N1, one that might allow airborne transmission between mammals, can be reached in only a few mutations, raising concerns about a pandemic and bioterrorism. HPAI A is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient.
Still, around 60% of humans known to have been infected with the current Asian strain of HPAI A have died from it, H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. In 2003, world-renowned virologist Robert G. Webster published an article titled "The world is teetering on the edge of a pandemic that could kill a large fraction of the human population" in American Scientist, he called for adequate resources to fight what he sees as a major world threat to billions of lives. On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. Experts have identified key events marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, many of those key events have occurred more than expected. Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A, its endemic presence, its large host reservoir, its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic.
At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic, as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. While genetic analysis of the H5N1 virus shows that influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring can be far more lethal than the Spanish flu pandemic, planning for a future influenza pandemic is based on what can be done and there is no higher Pandemic Severity Index level than a Category 5 pandemic which speaking, is any pandemic as bad as the Spanish flu or worse.
In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus have symptoms that include fever, sore throat, muscle aches, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal. The severity of the infection depends in large part on the state of the infected persons' immune systems and whether they had been exposed to the strain before. No one knows; the avian influenza hemagglutinin binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza hemagglutinins bind alpha 2-6 sialic acid receptors. This means when the H5N1 strain infects humans, it will replicate in the lower respiratory tract, will cause viral pneumonia. There is as yet no human f
The United Nations Children's Fund known as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries, devastated by World War II. The Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is regarded as the founder of UNICEF and served as its first chairman from 1946. On Rajchman's suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed its first executive director, serving from 1947 until his death in 1965. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. In 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, the words "international" and "emergency" were dropped from the organization's name, though it retained the original acronym, "UNICEF". UNICEF relies on contributions from private donors. UNICEF's total income for 2015 was US$5,009,557,471. Governments contribute two-thirds of the organization's resources.
Private groups and individuals contribute the rest through national committees. It is estimated. UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006. Most of UNICEF's work is with a presence in 190 countries and territories. UNICEF's network of over 150 country offices and other offices, 34 National Committees carry out UNICEF's mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, educational supplies. A 36-member executive board establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans.
The executive board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for three-year terms. Each country office carries out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government; this five-year program focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of women. Regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives, they establish policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Executive Board's work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups; these five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups, are elected by the Executive Board each year from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis.
As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board. Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board services the Executive Board, it is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, helps to organize the field visits of the Executive Board. There are national committees in 38 countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization; the national committees raise funds from the public sector. UNICEF is funded by voluntary contributions, the National Committees collectively raise around one-third of UNICEF's annual income; this comes through contributions from corporations, civil society organizations around six million individual donors worldwide. In the United States and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy.
UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others. Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF; these non-governmental organizations are responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children's rights, providing other support. The US Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the national committees, founded in 1947. On 19 April 2007, Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg was appointed UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children, in which role she has visited Brazil and Burundi. In 2009, the British retailer Tesco used "Change for Good" as advertising, trademarked by UNICEF for charity usage but not for commercial or retail use; this prompted the agency to say, "it is the first time in Unicef's history that a commercial entity has purposely set out to capitalise on one of our campaigns and subsequently damage an income stream which several of our programs for children are dependent on".
They went on to call on the public "who have children’s welfare at heart, to consider who they support when making consumer choices". In 2013 William Armstrong was the first British m
Lee Jong-wook was a Korean public health doctor. He was the director-general of the World Health Organization for three years. Lee joined the WHO in 1983, working on a variety of projects including the Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunizations and Stop Tuberculosis, he began his term as director-general in 2003, was the first figure from Korea to lead an international agency. In 2004, Lee was listed as one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine. Born on 12 April 1945 in Seoul, Lee obtained a medical degree at Seoul National University obtained an MA at the University of Hawaii in public health, he is the third son in a family of six children. Two brothers are professors. Lee took care of leprosy patients in South Korea when he was studying medicine. There were few medical facilities set up at the time and he worked in a volunteer capacity, he met and married Kaburaki Reiko, a Japanese woman who visited Korea in order to help out there. He worked at the World Health Organization, at country and headquarter levels for 23 years.
His work in WHO started in 1983. He started his work as an advisor on leprosy, also treated tuberculosis and promoted the vaccination of children against preventable diseases. In 1994, Lee moved to Geneva to work at WHO headquarters as chief in prevention and vaccines. In 1995, he was nicknamed Vaccine Czar according to Scientific American. Lee became official candidate for 6th director-generals of WHO. 1983-2006: Staff of WHO 1994-98: Director in Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization, Executive Secretary, Children's Vaccine Initiative 1998-99: Senior Policy Adviser to 5th General, Gro Harlem Brundtland 1999-2000: Special Representative of the Director-General 2003-2006: Director-General of WHOHe had said that global efforts to control the HIV/AIDS pandemic would be the right course that would give meaning to his tenure as director-general of the agency. The 3 by 5 policy, the basic idea of Lee, was criticized by many concerned people. International AIDS Society president Joep Lange, had a comment that the project was “totally unrealistic”.
Médecins sans Frontières expressed similar reservations toward Lee's plan. He visited 60 countries in the three years of his Generalship including Darfur, sites of the Indian Ocean tsunami, Mauritius, he was famed as a man of action during this time. His adventurous spirit led him to "experience more, see more, do more," said his son Tadahiro, he died on 22 May 2006, while in office, in Geneva, following surgery for a blood clot in the brain. He died after preparing for UN general meetings, his symptom was caused by inner injury of brain. Dr. Lee fell ill at a luncheon on Saturday in Geneva, he died in intensive care unit of Geneva University Hospital after receiving emergency surgery for a blood clot on his brain. Secretary General of United Nations at that time, Kofi Annan mentioned President George W. Bush of United States said He was posthumously awarded the Hibiscus Cordon of the Order of Civil Merit by the South Korean government, he was survived by Reiko Kaburaki Lee. Reiko continues to volunteer in Peru helping poor children.
The South Korean government announced the establishment of the a Memorial Prize in Lee's memory. After his death, You Si min, the Minister of Health and Welfare of the Republic of Korea revealed the plans concerning the new awards and urged other nations and persons concerned to participate at a meeting of WHO in 2007. Mr. Lee Sung-joo, permanent representative of the Republic of Korea, spoke of the award in Dr. Lee's memory to motivate and inspire young leaders aspiring to be the next Dr. Lee Jong-wook. Starting in 2009, the awards would be given for the fields "young leadership" and "contributor of health management" at the annual assembly of WHO, which takes place in May each year. List of Korea-related topics Kyungbock High School WHO biography WHO statement on the death of Lee Jong-wook Dr. Lee Jong-wook elected Director-General - International Chronicle Fred Beisser. "Lee Jong-wook". Social Reformer. Find a Grave. Retrieved August 19, 2011
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population. In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly – there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic being the worst in recorded history. There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic. Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. Species that are thought to be important in the emergence of new human strains are pigs and ducks; these novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread rapidly and infect large numbers of people. Influenza A viruses can be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics.
The propagation of influenza viruses throughout the world is thought in part to be by bird migrations, though commercial shipments of live bird products might be implicated, as well as human travel patterns. The World Health Organization has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic; this starts with the virus infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere; the 13 November 2009 worldwide update by the WHO stated that "s of 8 November 2009, worldwide more than 206 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 6,250 deaths."
Influenza known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. In humans, common symptoms of influenza infection are fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache and weakness and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal in young children and the elderly. While sometimes confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. Although nausea and vomiting can be produced in children, these symptoms are more characteristic of the unrelated gastroenteritis, sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu."Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions and blood. Healthy individuals can become infected if they breathe in a virus-laden aerosol directly, or if they touch their eyes, nose or mouth after touching any of the aforementioned bodily fluids.
Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C, indefinitely at low temperatures. Most influenza strains can be inactivated by disinfectants and detergents. Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans; these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species. When it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s, a deadly avian strain of H5N1 posed a great risk for a new influenza pandemic. Vaccinations against influenza are most given to high-risk humans in industrialized countries and to farmed poultry; the most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. This vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.
A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes over time and different strains become dominant. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being effective. Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified and named according to the isolate that they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage. So a flu from a virus similar to the isolate A/Fujian/411/2002 is called Fujian flu, human flu, H3N2 flu. Variants are sometimes adapted to; some variants named using this convention are: Bird Flu Human Flu Swine Flu Horse Flu Dog FluAvian variants have sometimes been named according to their deadliness in poultry chickens: Low
United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, the main deliberative, policy-making, representative organ of the UN. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the UN, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receive reports from other parts of the UN, make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions, it has established numerous subsidiary organs. The General Assembly meets under its president or secretary-general in annual sessions at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City, the main part of which lasts from September to December and part of January until all issues are addressed, it can reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, powers and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter; the first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
Voting in the General Assembly on certain important questions, recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns, the election, suspension or expulsion of members is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a straightforward majority; each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members; the Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote power structure allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote. During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the "North-South dialogue:" the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries; these issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership.
In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193; because of their numbers, developing countries are able to determine the agenda of the Assembly, the character of its debates, the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations, pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression; the Assembly can consider the matter with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. The first session of the UN General Assembly was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
The next few annual sessions were held in different cities: the second session in New York City, the third in Paris. It moved to the permanent Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City at the start of its seventh regular annual session, on 14 October 1952. In December 1988, in order to hear Yasser Arafat, the General Assembly organized its 29th session in the Palace of Nations, in Geneva, Switzerland. All 193 members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly, with the addition of Holy See and Palestine as observer states. Further, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization or entity, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations; the agenda for each session is planned up to seven months in advance and begins with the release of a preliminary list of items to be included in the provisional agenda. This is refined into a provisional agenda 60 days before the opening of the session.
After the session begins, the final agenda is adopted in a plenary meeting which allocates the work to the various Main Committees, who submit reports back to the Assembly for adoption by consensus or by vote. Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months; the scheduled portions of the sessions commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day", per the UN Rules of Procedure. The last two of these Regular sessions were scheduled to recess three months afterwards in early December, but were resumed in January and extended until just before the beginning of the following sessions; the General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues.
The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such