International Phonetic Alphabet chart

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The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association.

Vowels[edit]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

Consonants[edit]

Pulmonic consonants[edit]

Place Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz t̠ʃ d̠ʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ t̠ɕ d̠ʑ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v t̪θ d̪ð tɹ̝̊ dɹ̝ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ʡʢ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̠ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ɻ˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ̥ ʋ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ ʔ̞
Flap/tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̆
Trill ʙ̥ ʙ r ɽ̊ɽ̊ ɽɽ ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̝̊ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral flap/tap ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̆ ʟ̆

Where symbols appear in pairs, the leftmost represents a voiceless consonant, and the rightmost represents a voiced consonant.

Shaded areas denote articulations judged to be impossible.

Non-pulmonic consonants[edit]

Ejectives Stop ʈʼ ʡʼ
Affricate t̪θʼ tsʼ t̠ʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ qχʼ
Lateral affricate tɬʼ cʎ̝̊ʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ
Fricative θʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
Lateral fricative ɬʼ
Clicks Nasal ʘ̃ ǀ̃ ǃ̃ ǃ̃˞ ǂ̃ ◌̃ˀ
Stop ʘ ʘ̬ ǀ ǀ̬ ǃ ǃ̬ ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǂ ǂ̬ ◌ˀ
Lateral nasal ǁ̃
Lateral fricative ǁ ǁ̬
Implosive ɓ̥ ɓ ɗ̥ ɗ ᶑ̥ ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ̊ ɠ ʛ̥ ʛ

Co-articulated consonants[edit]

Nasals
n͡m Labial–alveolar
ŋ͡m Labial–velar
Stops
t͡p Labial–alveolar (voiceless)
d͡b Labial–alveolar (voiced)
k͡p Labial–velar (voiceless)
ɡ͡b Labial–velar (voiced)
q͡ʡ Uvular–epiglottal
Fricatives
ɧ Sj-sound
Approximants
ʍ Labialized velar (voiceless)
w Labialized velar (voiced)
ɫ Velarized alveolar (lateral)
ɥ̊ Labialized palatal (voiceless)
ɥ Labialized palatal (voiced)

Auxiliary symbols[edit]

Diacritics
◌̥ ◌̊ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ ◌͆ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
◌ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ ◌͗ More rounded ◌ʷ Labialized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ ◌͑ Less rounded ◌ʲ Palatalized ◌ⁿ Nasal release
◌̟ ◌˖ Advanced ◌ˠ Velarized ◌ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ ◌˗ Retracted ◌ˁ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ◌ᵊ Mid central vowel release
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ ◌˔ Raised ◌ᶿ Voiceless dental fricative release
◌̩ ◌̍ Syllabic ◌̞ ◌˕ Lowered ◌ˣ Voiceless velar fricative release
◌̯ ◌̑ Non-syllabic ◌̘ Advanced tongue root ◌ʼ Ejective
◌˞ Rhoticity ◌̙ Retracted tongue root ◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra-short
ǀ Minor (foot) group
ǁ Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
Tones and word accents
Level Contour
◌̋ ˥ Extra-high (top) ◌̌ ˩˥ Rising
◌́ ˦ High tone ◌̂ ˥˩ Falling
◌̄ ˧ Mid tone ◌᷄ ˦˥ High rising
◌̀ ˨ Low tone ◌᷅ ˩˨ Low rising
◌̏ ˩ Extra-low (bottom) ◌᷈ ˧˦˧ Rising-falling
◌ꜜ Downstep ↗︎ Global rise
◌ꜛ Upstep ↘︎ Global fall
Transcription
[  ] Phonetic transcription
/  / Phonemic transcription
(  ) Indistinguishable utterance
⸨  ⸩ Sound obscured
{  } Prosodic notation

See also[edit]

External links[edit]