Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social and cultural centre in western Romania. The third most populous city in the country, with 319,279 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, Timișoara is the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. In September 2016, Timișoara was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2021. All names of the city are derived from its Hungarian name Temesvár meaning "Castle on Temes river". Archaeological discoveries prove that the area where Timișoara is located today has been inhabited since ancient times; the first identifiable civilization in this area were the Dacians. From coin finds, it is known. While no record of the settlement is known from those times, it is agreed that the site was inhabited through the Middle Ages when the city was mentioned for the first time. Timișoara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as the Roman fort of Castrum Temesiensis or Castrum regium Themes.
The territory known as Banat was conquered during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. The town was destroyed by the Tatars in the 13th century but Timișoara was rebuilt and grew during the reign of Charles I, upon his visit there in 1307, ordered the fortress to be fortified with stone walls and to build a royal palace. Timișoara's importance grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. By the middle of the 14th century, Timișoara was at the forefront of Western Christendom's battle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks. French and Hungarian Crusaders met at the city before engaging in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Beginning in 1443, John Hunyadi used Timișoara as a military stronghold against the Turks, having built a powerful fortress; the city was besieged by the Ottomans in 1462, 1476, 1491, 1522. In 1552, a 16,000-strong Ottoman army led by Kara Ahmed Pasha conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region; the local military commander, István Losonczy, other Christians were massacred on 27 July 1552 while escaping the city through the Azapilor Gate.
Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716 during the Ottoman-Habsburg war. Subsequently, the city came under Habsburg rule, it remained so until the early 20th century as part of the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, except for the Ottoman occupation between 1788–1789 during the 1787–91 Austro-Turkish War; the city was defortified starting in 1892 up until 1910, several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city centre, paving the way for further expansion of the city. It was the 1st mainland European city and 2nd in the world after New York to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884, it was the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1869.
It is said that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara's footbridges over the Bega, the "Metal Bridge", however, it was planned by Róbert Tóth, the head of the Bridge Department, at the Reșița rail factory. On 31 October 1918, local military and political elites established the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Germans, Hungarians and Romanians. On 1 November they proclaimed the short-lived Banat Republic. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918–1919; the city was ceded from Hungary to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Centre, the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations took place during this time.
During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids during the second half of 1944. On 23 August 1944, which until was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight, German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success. After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, Timișoara underwent Sovietization and Systematization; the city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution. On 20 December, three days after bloodshed began there, Timișoara was declared the first city free of Communism in Romania. Timișoara lies at an altitude of 90 metres on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timiș and Bega rivers; the waters of the two rivers form a swampy and flooded land.
Timișoara developed on one of few places wher
Ealing is a district of west London, located 7.9 miles west of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Ealing, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Ealing is in the historic county of Middlesex; until the urban expansion of London in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries, it was a rural village within Ealing parish. Improvement in communications with London, culminating with the opening of the railway station in 1838, shifted the local economy to market garden supply and to suburban development. By 1902, Ealing became known as the "Queen of the Suburbs" due to its greenery and as it was halfway between city and country; as part of the growth of London in the 20th century, Ealing expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1901 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It now forms a significant retail centre with a developed night time economy. Ealing has the characteristics of both leafy suburban and inner-city developments, some areas like Pitshanger retain a village "feel".
Ealing's town centre is colloquial with Ealing Broadway, the name of both a rail interchange and a shopping centre. Most of Ealing, including the commercial district, South Ealing, Ealing Common, Montpelier and most of Hanger Hill fall under the W5 postcode. Areas to the north-west of the town centre such as Argyle Road and West Ealing fall under W13 instead. A small section north-east of the town centre, near Hanger Hill, falls under the NW10 postcode area; the population of Ealing, comprising the Ealing Broadway, Ealing Common, Cleveland and Hanger Hill wards, was 71,492 in the 2011 census. The adjacent area of Hanwell is associated with Ealing despite having a separate postcode; the Saxon name for Ealing was recorded c.700 as'Gillingas', meaning'place of the people associated with Gilla', from the personal name Gilla and the Old English suffix'-ingas', meaning'people of'. Over the centuries, the name has changed, has been known as'Illing', 1130. Archaeological evidence shows that parts of Ealing have been occupied for more than 7,000 years Iron Age pots have been discovered in the vicinity on Horsenden Hill.
A settlement is recorded here in the 12th century amid a great forest that carpeted the area to the west of London. The earliest surviving English census is that for Ealing in 1599; this list was a tally of all 85 households in Ealing village giving the names of the inhabitants, together with their ages and occupations. It survives in manuscript form at The National Archives, was transcribed and printed by K J Allison for the Ealing Historical Society in 1961. Settlements were scattered throughout the parish. Many of them were along what is now called St. Mary's Road, near to the church in the centre of the parish. There were houses at Little Ealing, Ealing Dean, Haven Green, Drayton Green and Castlebar Hill; the Church of St. Mary's, the parish church, dates back to the early 12th century; the parish of Ealing was divided into manors, such as those of Pitshanger. These were farmed. There were animals such as cows and chickens. Great Ealing School was founded in 1698 by the Church of St Mary's; this subsequently became the "finest private school in England" and had many famous pupils in the 19th century such as William S. Gilbert and Cardinal Newman.
As the area became built-up, it declined and closed in 1908. The first known maps of Ealing were made in the 18th century. With the exception of driving animals into London on foot, the transport of heavy goods tended be restricted to those times when the non-metalled roads were passable due to dry weather. However, with the passing of the Toll Road Act, this highway was gravelled and so the old Oxford Road became an busy and important thoroughfare running from east to west through the centre of the parish; this road was renamed as Uxbridge Road. The well-to-do of London smells. In 1800 the architect John Soane bought Payton Place and renamed it Pitzhanger Manor, not to live but just for somewhere green and pleasant, where he could entertain his friends and guests. Soon after the Duke of Kent bought a house at Castlebar. Soon, more affluent Londoners followed but with the intention of taking up a permanent residence, conveniently close to London; the only British prime minister to be assassinated, Spencer Perceval, made his home at Elm House.
Up until that point, Ealing was made up of open countryside and fields where, as in previous centuries, the main occupation was farming. As London grew in size, more food and materials went in and more. Since dray horses can only haul loads a few miles per day, frequent overnight stops were needed. To satisfy this demand a large number of inns were situated along the Uxbridge Road, where horses could be changed and travellers refresh themselves, prompting its favour by highwaymen. Stops in Ealing included The Bell, The Green Man and The Old Hats. At one point in history there were two pubs called the Old Hat either side of one of the many toll gates on the Uxbridge Road in West Ealing. Following the removal of the toll gate the more Westernmost pub was renamed The Halfway House; as London developed, the area became predominantly market gardens which required a greater propo
Presbyterian polity is a method of church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. Each local church is governed by a body of elected elders called the session or consistory, though other terms, such as church board, may apply. Groups of local churches are governed by a higher assembly of elders known as the presbytery or classis. Responsibility for conduct of church services is reserved to an ordained minister or pastor known as a teaching elder, or a minister of the word and sacrament. Presbyterian polity was developed as a rejection of governance by hierarchies of single bishops, but differs from the congregationalist polity in which each congregation is independent. In contrast to the other two forms, authority in the presbyterian polity flows both from the top down and from the bottom up; this theory of governance developed in Geneva under John Calvin and was introduced to Scotland by John Knox after his period of exile in Geneva. It is associated with French, Dutch and Scottish Reformation movements, the Reformed and Presbyterian churches.
Among the early church fathers, it was noted that the offices of elder and bishop were identical, were not differentiated until and that plurality of elders was the norm for church government. St. Jerome "In Epistle Titus", vol. iv, said, "Elder is identical with bishop. After it was... decreed throughout the world that one chosen from among the presbyters should be placed over the others." This observation was made by Chrysostom in "Homilia i, in Phil. I, 1" and Theodoret in "Interpret ad. Phil. Iii", 445. Presbyterianism was first described in detail by Martin Bucer of Strasbourg, who believed that the early Christian church implemented presbyterian polity; the first modern implementation was by the Geneva church under the leadership of John Calvin in 1541. Presbyterian polity is constructed on specific assumptions about the form of the government intended by the Bible: "Bishop" and "elder" are synonymous terms. Episcopos means overseer and describes the function of the elder, rather than the maturity of the officer.
A bishop holds the highest office of the church. Preaching and the administration of the sacraments is ordinarily entrusted to specially trained elders in each local congregation, approved for these tasks by a governing presbytery, or classis, called by the local congregation. In addition to these ministers, there are "others … with gifts for government … call "elders" or "ruling elders". Pastoral care, church discipline and legislation are committed to the care of ruling assemblies of presbyters among whom the ministers and "ruling elders" are equal participants. All Christian people together are the priesthood, on behalf of whom the elders are called to serve by the consent of the congregation. Presbyterianism uses a conciliar method of church government. Thus, the presbyters and "elders" govern together as a group, at all times the office is for the service of the congregation, to pray for them and to encourage them in the faith; the elders together exercise oversight over the local congregation, with superior groups of elders gathered on a regional basis exercising wider oversight.
Presbyterians have viewed this method of government as approximating that of the New Testament and earliest churches. However, sometimes it is admitted that episcopacy was a form of government, used early in the church for practical reasons. Presbyterianism is distinct from congregationalism, in that individual congregations are not independent, but are answerable to the wider church, through its governing bodies. Moreover, the ordained ministry possesses a distinct responsibility for preaching and sacraments. Congregational churches are sometimes called "Presbyterian" if they are governed by a council of elders. Thus, these are ruled by elders only at the level of the congregations, which are united with one another by covenants of trust. There are two types of elder. An excerpt from Miller expands this. In every Church organized, that is, furnished with all the officers which Christ has instituted and which are necessary for carrying into full effect the laws of his kingdom, there ought to be three classes of officers, viz: at least one Teaching Elder, Bishop, or Pastor — a bench of Ruling Elders — and Deacons.
The first to "minister in the Word a
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
The Heidelberg Catechism, one of the Three Forms of Unity, is a Protestant confessional document taking the form of a series of questions and answers, for use in teaching Reformed Christian doctrine. It was written in 1563 in Heidelberg, present-day Germany, its original title translates to Catechism, or Christian Instruction, according to the Usages of the Churches and Schools of the Electoral Palatinate. Commissioned by the prince-elector of the Electoral Palatinate, it is sometimes referred to as the "Palatinate Catechism." It has been translated into many languages and is regarded as one of the most influential of the Reformed catechisms. Elector Frederick III, sovereign of the Electoral Palatinate from 1559 to 1576, commissioned the composition of a new Catechism for his territory. While the catechism's introduction credits the "entire theological faculty here" and "all the superintendents and prominent servants of the church" for the composition of the catechism, Zacharius Ursinus is regarded as the catechism's principal author.
Caspar Olevianus was asserted as a co-author of the document, though this theory has been discarded by modern scholarship. Johann Sylvan, Adam Neuser, Johannes Willing, Thomas Erastus, Michael Diller, Johannes Brunner, Tilemann Mumius, Petrus Macheropoeus, Johannes Eisenmenger, Immanuel Tremellius and Pierre Boquin are all to have contributed to the Catechism in some way. Frederick himself wrote the preface to the Catechism and oversaw its composition and publication. Frederick, Lutheran but had strong Reformed leanings, wanted to out the religious situation of his Lutheran territory within the Catholic Holy Roman Empire; the Council of Trent had just finished its work with its conclusions and decrees against the Protestant faiths, the Peace of Augsburg had only granted toleration for Lutheranism within the empire where the ruler was Lutheran. One of the aims of the catechism was to counteract the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as well as Anabaptists and "strict" Gnesio-Lutherans like Tilemann Heshusius and Matthias Flacius, who were resisting Frederick's Reformed influences on the matter of the Eucharist.
The Catechism based each of its statements on biblical source texts. Frederick himself defended it at the 1566 Diet of Augsburg as based in scripture rather than based in reformed theology when he was called to answer to charges of violating the Peace of Augsburg; the Catechism is divided into fifty-two sections, called "Lord's Days," which were designed to be taught on each of the 52 Sundays of the year. A synod in Heidelberg approved the catechism in 1563. In the Netherlands, the Catechism was approved by the Synods of Wesel, Dort, the Hague, as well as the great Synod of Dort of 1618–19, which adopted it as one of the Three Forms of Unity, together with the Belgic Confession and the Canons of Dort. Elders and deacons were required to subscribe and adhere to it, ministers were required to preach on a section of the Catechism each Sunday so as to increase the poor theological knowledge of the church members. In many Reformed denominations originating from the Netherlands, this practice is still continued.
In its current form, the Heidelberg Catechism answers. These are divided into three main parts: This part consists of the Lord's Day 2, 3, 4, it discusses: The Fall, The natural condition of man, God's demands on him in His law. This part consists of Lord's Day 5 through to Lord's Day 31, it discusses: The need for a Redeemer The importance of faith, the content of, explained by an exposition of the 12 Articles of the Christian faith, known as the Apostle's Creed. The discussion of these articles is further divided into sections on: God the Father and our creation God the Son and our salvation God the Holy Spirit and our sanctification Justification The Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper And the keys of the kingdom of heaven The Preaching of the Gospel and Church Discipline This part consists of the Lord's Day 32 through to Lord's Day 52, it discusses: Conversion The Ten Commandments The Lord's prayer The first Lord's Day should be read as a summary of the catechism as a whole. As such, it illustrates the character of this work, devotional as well as dogmatic or doctrinal.
The first Question and Answer reads: What is Thy only comfort in life and death? The answer is: That I with body and soul, both in life and death, am not my own, but belong unto my faithful Savior Jesus Christ; the Catechism is most notoriously and explicitly anti-Catholic in the additions made in its second and third editions to Lord’s Day 30 concerning "the popish mass,", condemned as an "accursed idolatry." Following the War of Palatine Succession Heidelberg and the Palatinate were again in an unstable political situation with sectarian battle lines. In 1719 an edition of the Catechism was published in the Palatinate that included Lord's Day 30; the Catholic reaction was so strong, the Catechism was banned by Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine. This provoked a reaction from Reformed count
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Sola Scriptura is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice. While the scriptures' meaning is mediated through many kinds of secondary authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of a denominated church, the ecumenical creeds, the councils of the catholic church, so on - sola scriptura, on the other hand, rejects any original infallible authority other than the Bible. In this view, all secondary authority is derived from the authority of the scriptures and is therefore subject to reform when compared to the teaching of the Bible. Church councils, Bible commentators, private revelation, or a message from an angel or an apostle are not an original authority alongside the Bible in the sola scriptura approach. Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, one of the five solae, it was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by many of the Reformers, who taught that authentication of scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man.
Some evangelical and Baptist denominations state the doctrine of sola scriptura more strongly: scripture is self-authenticating, clear to the rational reader, its own interpreter, sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. By contrast and Methodism considered forms of Protestantism, uphold the doctrine of prima scriptura, with scripture being illumined by tradition, in Methodism, experience as well, thus completing the four sides of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral; the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that to "accept the books of the canon is to accept the ongoing Spirit-led authority of the church's tradition, which recognizes, interprets and corrects itself by the witness of Holy Scripture". The Catholic Church regards the apostolic preaching and writing as equal since they believe that many of their traditions came from the Apostles; the Catholic Church describes this as "one common source... with two distinct modes of transmission", while some Protestant authors call it "a dual source of revelation".
Sola scriptura is one of the five solae, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Reformation. The key implication of the principle is that interpretations and applications of the scriptures do not have the same authority as the scriptures themselves. Martin Luther said, "a simple layman armed with Scripture is greater than the mightiest pope without it"; the intention of the Reformation was to correct what he asserted to be the errors of the Catholic Church by appeal to the uniqueness of the Bible's textual authority. Catholic doctrine is based in sacred tradition, as well as scripture. Sola scriptura meant rejecting the infallible authority given to the magisterium to interpret both scripture and tradition. Sola scriptura, does not ignore Christian history, tradition, or the church when seeking to understand the Bible. Rather, it sees the church as the Bible's interpreter, the regula fidei as the interpretive context, scripture as the only final authority in matters of faith and practice.
As Luther said, "The true rule is this: God's Word shall establish articles of faith, no one else, not an angel can do so." Lutheranism teaches that the Bible of the Old and New Testaments is the only divinely inspired book and the only source of divinely revealed knowledge. Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith in Lutheranism, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, clarity and sufficiency. Lutheranism teaches that the Bible does not contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the word of God. Most Lutheran traditions acknowledge that understanding scriptures is complex given that the Bible contains a collection of manuscripts and manuscript fragments that were written and collected over thousands of years. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America teaches that "Lutheran Christians believe that the story of God’s steadfast love and mercy in Jesus is the heart and center of what the Scriptures have to say."As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets".
The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies "Holy Scripture" with the Word of God and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible. Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel"; the apocryphal books were not written by inspiration. The prophetic and apostolic scriptures are said by the Lutheran church to be authentic as written by the prophets and apostles, that a correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Biblical Hebrew and Koine Greek. A mistranslation is not God's word, no human authority can invest it with divine authority. Scripture, regarded as the word of God, carries the full authority of God in Lutheranism: every single statement of the Bible calls for instant and unrestricted acceptance; every doctrine of the Bible is the teaching of God and