Manley Ottmer Hudson
Manley Ottmer Hudson was a U. S. lawyer, specializing in public international law. He was a judge at the Permanent Court of International Justice, a member of the International Law Commission, a mediator in international conflicts; the American Society of International Law named a medal after him. He was nominated twice for the Nobel peace prize. Hudson was born in Missouri, he studied at the William Jewell College in Liberty, achieving bachelor in 1906 and master in 1907. He made PhD at Harvard University in 1917, he received further PhDs from William Jewell College, the University of Missouri, the University of Delaware. He became professor at Harvard in 1919, heading the department of international law from 1923 to 1954, he was a guest lecturer at the Hague Academy of International Law, the University of Calcutta, the Graduate Institute of International Studies in 1936. Furthermore, he was an advisor and member of the law department of the League of Nations, the United States Department of State, others.
He became editor of the American Journal of International Law in 1924. Hudson was the father of two sons. A member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration since 1933, he became a judge at the Permanent Court of International Justice in 1936 and held that position until the dissolution of that court in 1946. Since 1936, he was an associate of the Institut de Droit International, he was an advisor and lecturer for international law at the Naval War College from 1946 to 1952. From 1949 to 1952, he was president of the American Society of International Law and first chairman of the International Law Commission, he was appointed Special Rapporteur for the study of nationality including statelessness by the International Law Commission on 26 July 1951. He retired in 1954, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1960, his widow gave his collected 18000 letters and manuscripts to the library of Harvard in 1964. He left his collection of 1000 law books to the American Society of International Law, which created the Manley-O.-Hudson medal in his honor.
He was nominated for the Nobel peace prize in 1933 and 1951. His successor at Harvard was Louis Bruno Sohn; the Permanent Court of International Justice and the Question of American Participation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925. Current International Cooperation. Calcutta, India: Calcutta University Press, 1927. Progress in International Organisation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1932. By Pacific Means. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1935; the Permanent Court of International Justice 1920-1942. New York: Macmillan, 1943. ASIL Presidents: Manley Ottmer Hudson Manley Ottmer Hudson Papers 1894-1960 via Harvard University
Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles and cargo captured during armed conflict. The most common use of prize in this sense is the capture of an enemy ship and her cargo as a prize of war. In the past, the capturing force would be allotted a share of the worth of the captured prize. Nations granted letters of marque that would entitle private parties to capture enemy property ships. Once the ship was secured on friendly territory, she would be made the subject of a prize case, an in rem proceeding in which the court determined the status of the condemned property and the manner in which the property was to be disposed of. At the outset, prize taking was all smash and grab "like breaking a jeweler's window", but by the fifteenth century a body of guiding rules, the maritime law of nations, had begun to evolve. Grotius's seminal treatise on international law published in 1604 called De Iure Praedae Commentarius was an advocate's brief justifying Dutch seizures of Spanish and Portuguese shipping.
Grotius defends the practice of taking prizes as not traditional or customary but just. His Commentary points out that the etymology of the name of the Greek war god Ares was the verb "to seize". Prize law developed between the Seven Years' War of 1756–63 and the American Civil War of 1861–65; this period coincides with the last century of fighting sail and includes the Napoleonic Wars, the American and French Revolutions, America's Quasi-War with France of the late 1790s. Much of Anglo-American prize law derives from 18th Century British precedents in particular a compilation called the 1753 Report of the Law Officers authored by William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield said to be the most important exposition of prize law published in English, along with the subsequent High Court of Admiralty decisions of William Scott, Lord Stowell. American Justice Joseph Story, the leading United States judicial authority on prize law, drew on the 1753 report and Lord Stowell's decisions, as did Francis Upton, who wrote the last major American treatise on prize law, his Maritime Warfare and Prize.
While the Anglo-American common law case precedents are the most accessible description of prize law, it is important to bear in mind that in prize cases, courts construe and apply international customs and usages, the Law of Nations, not the laws or precedents of any one country. Fortunes in prize money were to be made at sea as vividly depicted in the novels of C. S. Forester and Patrick O'Brian. During the American Revolution the combined American naval and privateering prizes totaled nearly $24 million; such huge revenues were earned. With so much at stake, prize law attracted some of the greatest legal talent of the age, including John Adams, Joseph Story, Daniel Webster and Richard Henry Dana, Jr. author of Two Years Before the Mast. Prize cases were among the most complex of the time, as the disposition of vast sums turned on the fluid Law of Nations, difficult questions of jurisdiction and precedent. One of the earliest U. S. cases for instance, that of the Active, took 30 years to resolve jurisdictional disputes between state and federal authorities.
A captured American privateer captain, 20-year-old Gideon Olmsted, shipped aboard the British sloop Active in Jamaica as an ordinary hand in an effort to get home. Olmsted commandeered the sloop, but as Olmsted's mutineers sailed their prize to America, a Pennsylvania privateer took the Active. Olmsted and the privateer disputed ownership of the prize, in November 1778 a Philadelphia prize court jury came to a split verdict awarding each a share. Olmsted, with the assistance of American General Benedict Arnold, appealed to the Continental Congress Prize Committee, which reversed the Philadelphia jury verdict and awarded the whole prize to Olmsted, but Pennsylvania authorities refused to enforce the decision, asserting the Continental Congress could not intrude on a state prize court jury verdict. Olmsted doggedly pursued the case for decades until he won, in a U. S. Supreme Court case in 1809 which Justice Stanley Matthews called "the first case in which the supremacy of the Constitution was enforced by judicial tribunals against the assertion of state authority."
Although Letters of Marque and Reprisal were sometimes issued before a formal declaration of war, as happened during the American Revolution when the rebelling colonies of Massachusetts, Maryland and Pennsylvania all granted Letters of Marque months before the Continental Congress's official Declaration of Independence of July 1776, by the turn of the 19th century it was accepted that a sovereign government first had to declare war. The "existence of war between nations terminates all legal commercial intercourse between their citizens or subjects," wrote Francis Upton in Maritime Warfare and Prize, since "rade and commerce presuppose the existence of civil contracts … and recourse to judicial tribunals. Indeed, each citizen of a nation "is at war with every citizen of the enemy," which imposes a "duty, on every citizen, to attack the enemy and seize his property, though by established custom, this right is restricted to such only, as are the commissioned instruments of the gov
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It operates in more than thirty others. Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Daniel was the business brain, while Alexander laid the literary foundations, publishing such notable authors as Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes, Francis Turner Palgrave, Christina Rossetti, Matthew Arnold and Lewis Carroll. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886 and Rudyard Kipling in 1890. Other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Yeats, Rabindranath Tagore, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Seán O'Casey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy. George Edward Brett opened the first Macmillan office in the United States in 1869 and Macmillan sold its U.
S. operations to the Brett family, George Platt Brett, Sr. and George Platt Brett, Jr. in 1896, resulting in the creation of an American company, Macmillan Publishing called the Macmillan Company. With the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and Harold Macmillan remained close personal friends. Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martin's Press. Macmillan of Canada was founded in 1905. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company, serving until his death in December 1986, he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament. Holtzbrinck Publishing Group purchased the company in 1999. Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001.
McGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand. The US operations of Holtzbrinck Publishing changed its name to Macmillan in October 2017, its audio publishing imprint changed its name from Audio Renaissance to Macmillan Audio, while its distribution arm was renamed from Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services to Macmillan Publishers Services. With Pan Macmillan's purchase of Kingfisher, a British children's publisher, Roaring Brook Press publisher Simon Boughton would take oversee Kingfisher's US business in October 2007. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, are the fastest growing segment of the market. According to The New York Times and other major publishers "fear that massive discounting by retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Sony could devalue what consumers are willing to pay for books." In response, the publisher introduced a new boilerplate contract for its authors that established a royalty of 20 per cent of net proceeds on e-book sales, a rate five per cent lower than most other major publishers.
Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon.com two options: continue to sell e-books based on a price of the retailer's choice, with the e-book edition released several months after the hardcover edition is released, or switch to the agency model introduced to the industry by Apple, in which both are released and the price is set by the publisher. In the latter case, Amazon.com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both physical, from their website. On 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple and four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Macmillan and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing.
In 2010, Macmillan Education submitted to an investigation on grounds of fraudulent practices. The Macmillan division admitted to bribery in an attempt to secure a contract for an education project in southern Sudan; as a direct result of the investigation, sanctions were applied by the World Bank Group, namely a 6-year debarment declaring the company ineligible to be awarded Bank-financed contracts. In December 2011, Bedford and Worth Publishing Group, Macmillan's higher education group, changed its name to Macmillan Higher Education while retaining the Bedford and Worth name for its k–12 educational unit; that month, Brian Napack resigned as Macmillan president while staying on for transitional purposes. In May 2015, London-based Macmillan Science and Education merged with Berlin-based Springer Science+Business Media to form Springer Nature, jointly controlled by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners. US publishing divis
A prize court is a court authorized to consider whether prizes have been lawfully captured whether a ship has been lawfully captured or seized in time of war or under the terms of the seizing ship's letters of marque and reprisal. A prize court may order the sale or destruction of the seized ship, the distribution of any proceeds to the captain and crew of the seizing ship. A prize court may order the return of a seized ship to its owners if the seizure was unlawful, such as if seized from a country which had proclaimed its neutrality. Prize courts were common in the 17th through 19th centuries, during times of American or European naval warfare; the United States in 1780 established the Federal Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture to hear appeals of prize cases from state prize courts. Under current U. S. law, pursuant to 10 U. S. C. §§ 7651–7681, the district courts have exclusive jurisdiction in prize cases. Due to changes in the nature of naval warfare, no prize cases have been heard since the statutes were adopted in 1956.
In England and Wales, prize jurisdiction is exercised by the Admiralty Court, part of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice, by way of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. In France, the prize council has jurisdiction to determine the issue of the prize. Since 2007, piracy has been transferred to criminal courts; the council's jurisdiction is reduced to war time. The way of appeal is open to the President of the French Republic acting as judge; the International Prize Court was an international court proposed at the beginning of the 20th century, to hear prize cases. An international agreement, the Convention Relative to the Creation of an International Prize Court, was established at The Hague on October 18, 1907, but this was never ratified or implemented
Nicaragua the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City; the multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak English. Inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821; the Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, with the English colonizing it in the 17th century and coming under the British rule, as well as some minor Spanish interludes in the 19th century. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and the northernmost part of it was transferred to Honduras in 1960.
Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship and fiscal crisis, leading to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War of the 1980s. The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine and literature the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, such as Rubén Darío. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes", Nicaragua is home to the second-largest rainforest of the Americas; the country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020. The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an popular tourist destination. There are two prevailing theories on; the first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name Nicarao, the chieftain or cacique of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522. This theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicarao and agua, to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country.
However, as of 2002, it was determined that the cacique's real name was Macuilmiquiztli, which meant "Five Deaths" in the Nahuatl language, rather than Nicarao. The second theory is that the country's name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words: nic-anahuac, which meant "Anahuac reached this far", or "the Nahuas came this far", or "those who come from Anahuac came this far". Paleo-Americans first inhabited what is now known as Nicaragua as far back as 12,000 BCE. In pre-Columbian times, Nicaragua's indigenous people were part of the Intermediate Area, between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions, within the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. Nicaragua's central region and its Caribbean coast were inhabited by Macro-Chibchan language ethnic groups, they had coalesced in Central America and migrated to present-day northern Colombia and nearby areas. They lived a life based on hunting and gathering, as well as fishing, performing slash-and-burn agriculture. At the end of the 15th century, western Nicaragua was inhabited by several different indigenous peoples related by culture to the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Aztec and Maya, by language to the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area.
The Chorotegas were Mangue language ethnic groups who had arrived in Nicaragua from what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas sometime around 800 CE. The Pipil-Nicarao people were a branch of Nahuas who spoke the Nahuat dialect, like the Chorotegas, they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in 1200 CE. Prior to that, the Pipil-Nicaraos had been associated with the Toltec civilization. Both the Chorotegas and the Pipil-Nicaraos were from Mexico's Cholula valley, had migrated southward. Additionally, there were trade-related colonies in Nicaragua, set up by the Aztecs starting in the 14th century. In 1502, on his fourth voyage, Christopher Columbus became the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed southeast toward the Isthmus of Panama. Columbus explored the Mosquito Coast on the Atlantic side of Nicaragua but did not encounter any indigenous people. 20 years the Spaniards returned to Nicaragua, this time to its southwestern part. The first attempt to conquer Nicaragua was by the conquistador Gil González Dávila, who had arrived in Panama in January 1520.
In 1522, González Dávila ventured into the area that became known as the Rivas Department of Nicaragua. It was there that he encountered an indigenous Nahua tribe led by a chieftain named Macuilmiquiztli, whose name has sometimes been erroneously referred to as "Nicarao" or "Nicaragua". At the time, the tribe's capital city was called Quauhcapolca. González Dávila had brought along two indigenous interpreters, taught the Spanish language, thus he was able to have a discourse with Macuilmiquiztli. After exploring and gathering gold in the fertile western valleys, González Dávila and his men were attacked and driven off by the Chorotega, led by the chieftain Diriangen; the Spanish attempted to convert the tribes to Christianity. The first Spanish permanent settlements were founded in 1524; that year, the conquistador
An arbitral tribunal is a panel of one or more adjudicators, convened and sits to resolve a dispute by way of arbitration. The tribunal may consist of a sole arbitrator, or there may be two or more arbitrators, which might include either a chairman or an umpire. Members selected to serve on the tribunal are professionals with expertise in law and mediation, although some scholars have suggested that the ideal composition of an arbitral tribunal should include at least one economist in cases that involve questions of asset or damages valuation; the parties to a dispute are free to determine the number and composition of the arbitral tribunal. In some legal systems, an arbitration clause which provides for two arbitrators is understood to imply that the appointed arbitrators will select an additional arbitrator as a chairman of the tribunal, to avoid deadlock arising. Different legal systems differ as to how many arbitrators should constitute the tribunal if there is no agreement. Arbitral tribunals are constituted in two types of proceedings: ad hoc arbitration proceedings are those in which the arbitrators are appointed by the parties without a supervising institution, relying instead on the procedural law and courts of the place of arbitration to resolve any differences over the appointment, replacement, or authority of any or all of the arbitrators.
Although these institutions are headquartered in their respective cities, they are capable of supervising the appointment of arbitral tribunals in nearly any country, avoiding the need for the parties to involve local courts and procedures in the event of disagreement over the appointment, replacement, or authority of any or all of the arbitrators. Permanent tribunals tend to have their own rules and procedures, tend to be much more formal, they tend to be more expensive, for procedural reasons, slower. The parties are free to determine their own procedure for appointing the arbitrator or arbitrators, including the procedure for the selection of an umpire or chairman. If the parties decline to specify the mode for selecting the arbitrators the relevant legal system will provide a default selection process. Characteristically, appointments will be made on the following basis: If the tribunal is to consist of a sole arbitrator, the parties shall jointly appoint the arbitrator not than 28 days after service of a request in writing by either party to do so.
If the tribunal is to consist of three arbitrators:each party shall appoint one arbitrator not than 14 days after service of a request in writing by either party to do so, the two so appointed shall forthwith appoint a third arbitrator as the chairman of the tribunal. If the tribunal is to consist of two arbitrators and an umpire-each party shall appoint one arbitrator not than 14 days after service of a request in writing by either party to do so, the two so appointed may appoint an umpire at any time after they themselves are appointed and shall do so before any substantive hearing or forthwith if they cannot agree on a matter relating to the arbitration. Most arbitration clauses will provide a nominated person or body to select a sole arbitrator if the parties are unable to agree. In default of such a provision, where the parties are unable to agree, an application for an appointment is made to the court. A well drafted arbitration clause will make provision for where a party to the dispute seeks to cause delay by refusing to make or agree an appointment.
This will allow the "non-defaulting" party to appoint a sole arbitrator and for the arbitration to proceed on that basis. Where the tribunal consists of an odd number of arbitrators, one of them may be designated as the umpire or chairman; the selection of title carries some significance. When an arbitrator is "chairman" they will not exercise any special or additional powers, have a presidential function as the tribunal member who sets the agenda. Where a member of the tribunal is an umpire, they do not exercise any influence on proceedings, unless the other arbitrators are unable to agree — in such cases the umpire steps in and makes the decision alone. In some legal systems, it used to be common for each party to the dispute to appoint an arbitrator and for those two arbitrators to appoint a third arbitrator. However, the two arbitrators appointed by the parties to the dispute would act as advocates for the party who appointed them, the umpire would act as a sole arbitrator; such systems can lead to difficulty, as other countries may be reluctant to enforce an arbitration award where two of the three "arbitrators" are unable to demonstrate impartiality or independence.
The standards for enforcing such awards are set out in the New York Convention, as interpreted by local law. In most legal systems the parties are free to specify in what circumstances the appointment of an arbitrator may be revoked. In default, most legal systems provide either that the parties to the dispute must act jointly to remove an arbitrator, or the other