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International Refugee Organization

The International Refugee Organization was an intergovernmental organization founded on 20 April 1946 to deal with the massive refugee problem created by World War II. A Preparatory Commission began operations fourteen months previously. In 1948, the treaty establishing the IRO formally entered into force and the IRO became a United Nations specialized agency; the IRO assumed most of the functions of the earlier United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. In 1952, operations of the IRO ceased, it was replaced by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; the Constitution of the International Refugee Organization, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 December 1946, is the founding document of the IRO. The constitution specified the organization's field of operations. Controversially, the constitution defined "persons of German ethnic origin", expelled, or were to be expelled from their countries of birth into the postwar Germany, as individuals who would "not be the concern of the Organization."

This excluded from its purview a group that exceeded in number all the other European displaced persons put together. Because of disagreements between the Western allies and the Soviet Union, the IRO only worked in areas controlled by Western armies of occupation. Twenty-six states became members of the IRO and it formally came into existence in 1948: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Republic of China, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Iceland, Liberia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela; the U. S. provided about 40% of the IRO's $155 million annual budget. The total contribution by the members for the five years of operation was around $400 million, it had rehabilitated around 10 million people during this time, out of 15 million people who were stranded in Europe. The IRO's first Director General was William Hallam Tuck, succeeded by J. Donald Kingsley on 31 July 1949. IRO closed its operations on 31 January 1952 and after a liquidation period, went out of existence on 30 September 1953.

By that time many of its responsibilities had been assumed by other agencies. Of particular importance was the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, established in January 1951 as a part of the United Nations, the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, set up in December 1951; the Search by Fred Zinnemann: The IRO helped the producers to make this story about children refugees, in 1945 Germany. Constitution of the International Refugee Organisation Original, complete constitution of the IRO, as signed by the Government of the United Kingdom: IRO. Area Vocational Training School. Ingolstadt, Germany 1948

Milo Komenich

Milan Melvin "Milo" Komenich was an American professional basketball player. His brother was fellow professional basketball player Bill Komenich. Komenich, a 6'7 center, played collegiately at the University of Wyoming after a standout high school career at Lew Wallace High School in Gary, Indiana, he played for the Cowboys from 1941–1943 and for the 1945–46 season. Alongside guard Ken Sailors, Komenich led the Cowboys to the 1943 National Championship. Komenich was named an All-American in 1943 and 1946, he was elected to the University of Wyoming athletics Hall of Fame in 2006 and is a member of the Indiana Basketball Hall of Fame. During the 1949–50 season, Milo Komenich played in 64 games for the Anderson Packers, averaging 9.9 points per game. Komenich played for the Fort Wayne Pistons of the National Basketball League and the Dow Chemical and 20th Century Fox teams of the AAU. NBA statistics Indiana Basketball Hall of Fame page Wyoming Athletics Hall of Fame page

Vandermonde matrix

In linear algebra, a Vandermonde matrix, named after Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde, is a matrix with the terms of a geometric progression in each row, i.e. an m × n matrix V =, or V i, j = α i j − 1 for all indices i and j. The identical term Vandermonde matrix was used for the transpose of the above matrix by Macon and Spitzbart; the Vandermonde matrix used for the Discrete Fourier Transform matrix satisfies both definitions. The determinant of a square Vandermonde matrix can be expressed as det = ∏ 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. This is called Vandermonde polynomial. If all the numbers α i are distinct it is non-zero; the Vandermonde determinant was sometimes called the discriminant, presently, the discriminant is the square of the Vandermonde determinant. The Vandermonde determinant is an alternating form in the α i, meaning that exchanging two α i changes the sign, while permuting the α i by an permutation does not change the value of the determinant, it thus depends on the choice of an order on the α i, while its square, the discriminant, does not depend on any order, this implies, by Galois theory, that the discriminant is a polynomial function of the coefficients of the polynomial that has the α i as roots.

The main property of a square Vandermonde matrix V = is that its determinant has the simple form det = ∏ 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. This may be proved either by using properties of polynomials or elementary row and column operations; the former is simpler but it is non-constructive and uses unique factorization property of multivariate polynomials. The latter is more elementary, at the price of being more complicated. A third proof, based on Gaussian elimination, is sketched, it is still more complicated, if writt


Kokikai is a style of Aikido, founded by Shuji Maruyama. The organization is called Kokikai Aikido International; the Kokikai style emphasizes natural movement, ki development, good posture and mind-body coordination. It is a minimalist martial art that focuses on making techniques effective while using little physical effort. An axiom of the style is “minimum effort for maximum effect.” The name Kokikai means “school of radiant ki”. The style lists four basic principles: Keep One point Relax progressively Find Correct Posture Develop your Positive MindThe style was founded by Shuji Maruyama, continues to be led by him, he continues to develop the art, so there is no set textbook way of performing any technique. Maruyama was sent to the United States in 1966 by the Aikikai Hombu, he taught in the US for many years. When Koichi Tohei left Aikikai to found Ki-Aikido, Maruyama followed him; this was consistent with Japanese martial arts tradition. Maruyama separated from Ki-Aikido in 1986 to found the Kokikai organization.

As of August 2019, there are Kokikai dojos listed in Australia, Canada, Japan, Russia and in the United States, which are now organized as Aikido Kokikai Federation USA. Official Kokikai Aikido International website - USA Aikido Journal Online Feature on Shuji Maruyama With Shudo Maruyama Sensei: Cold Sake and Sensei’s Lessons

Ayesha Hazarika

Ayesha Hazarika is a Scottish broadcaster and political commentator, former political adviser to senior Labour Party politicians. Hazarika was born in Coatbridge, Scotland, to parents of Indian Muslim descent, was educated at Laurel Bank, a private all-girls school in Glasgow, Scotland, she studied Law at Hull University. While working as a press officer at the Department of Trade and Industry, Hazarika was persuaded by a friend to take a comedy course run by comedian Logan Murray, she began to perform paid comedy gigs alongside her day job at the DTI. In 2003, Hazarika was a semi-finalist in the Channel 4 stand-up comedy competition So You Think You're Funny. However, her comedy took a back seat after 2007 as she focused on her developing career as a political adviser. Hazarika made a return to stand-up in 2016, performing a show at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe inspired by her time in politics. In 2017, she brought State of the Nation, to Edinburgh. From 2007 to 2015, Hazarika served as a political adviser to senior Labour Party figures, including Harriet Harman and Ed Miliband, during which Labour lost two elections.

After leaving her role working for Harman in the aftermath of the 2015 general election, Hazarika was awarded an MBE in the 2016 New Year's Honours List, for political service. It was reported at the time that Harman had proposed that Hazarika receive a peerage, but Miliband had elevated another former adviser to the House of Lords instead. Describing herself as a "moderate" within the Labour Party, Hazarika urged Jeremy Corbyn to resign after the Copeland by-election in early 2017. Following the 2017 general election, she acknowledged "I got it wrong on Corbyn", urged "my fellow Labour colleagues to acknowledge Corbyn's success and to try to find peace with him"; as well as returning to stand-up comedy following her departure from Westminster, Hazarika has since become a regular commentator in the media, including as a columnist for The Scotsman and the London Evening Standard. In September 2017, Hazarika was listed at Number 75 in the'100 Most Influential People on the Left' by commentator Iain Dale.

In 2018, she co-authored the book Punch and Judy Politics: An Insiders' Guide to Prime Minister’s Questions with fellow Labour speechwriter and special adviser Tom Hamilton. In December 2018, Hazarika appeared on series 56 episode 10 of Have I Got News for You as Ian Hislop's teammate

Hillsborough Parish, New Brunswick

Hillsborough is a Canadian parish in Albert County, New Brunswick. Hillsborough Parish is defined in the Territorial Division Act as being bounded: South and west by the south line of lot numbered seventeen, granted to William Carlisle and its prolongation westerly to the distance of twelve miles from The Petitcodiac River. Albert County was established as a Nova Scotian township in 1765, became part of New Brunswick as the Parish of Hillsborough in 1786: named for Wills Hill, Earl of Hillsborough and the lord commissioner of trade and plantations: Hillsborough Parish included Coverdale Parish until 1828 Located on west side of the Petitcodiac River, 2.26 km NW of Surrey: Hillsborough Parish, Albert County: called German Village for Henry Steeves and a group of German settlers who arrived in 1765 from Pennsylvania: renamed with the creation of the post office: PO Hillsborough from 1840: in 1866 Hillsborough was a community with 167 families: Richard E. Steeves was postmaster and David Wallace was a mill owner: the Albert Mining Company was located nearby: in 1871 Hillsborough had a population of 900: in 1898 Hillsborough was a seaport, a port of entry and a settlement on the Salisbury and Hillsborough Railway with 1 post office, 8 stores, 2 hotels, 1 tannery, 1 carriage factory, nearby gypsum mines and a population of 700: Hillsborough was incorporated as a village in 1966 Parish population total does not include incorporated municipalities.

This is a list of rivers, streams, creeks and Islands that are at least in this parish Petitcodiac River Grays Island Stoney Creek Highways and numbered routes that run through the parish, including external routes that start or finish at the parish limits: List of parishes in New Brunswick