Hebei is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province, its one-character abbreviation is "冀", named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei means "north of the river", referring to its location to the north of the Yellow River; the modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928. Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei; the province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.
A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào, after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history. Plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC. During the Spring and Autumn period, Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. During this period, a nomadic people known as Dí invaded the plains of northern China and established Zhongshan in central Hebei. During the Warring States period, Jin was partitioned, much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao; the Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han dynasty ruled the area under two provinces, You Prefecture in the north and Ji Province in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan in the north and Yuan Shao further south.
Hebei came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei, established by the descendants of Cao Cao. After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern dynasties ensued. Hebei in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan; the Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half, which had its capital at Ye, near modern Linzhang, Hebei. The Sui dynasty again unified China in 589. During the Tang dynasty, the area was formally designated "Hebei" for the first time. During the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang; the next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan Liao dynasty in the north.
During the Northern Song dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars; the Mongol Yuan dynasty did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat at capital Dadu; the Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili", meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital, Beijing. When the Manchu Qing dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, Hebei became known as "Zhili", or "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia; the Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Within a few years, China descended with regional warlords vying for power.
Since Zhili was so close to Peking, the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking to Nanking; as a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, that the capital had been relocated elsewhere. During the Second World War, Hebei was under the control of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of Japan, a puppet state of Imperial Japan; the founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around Chengde, previo
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Beijing Normal University
Beijing Normal University, colloquially known as 北师大 or Beishida, is a public research university located in Beijing, with a strong emphasis on basic disciplines of the humanities and sciences. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China, was recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Education as a Class A Double First Class University; the term "normal school" refers to an institution that aimed to train schoolteachers in the early twentieth century. This terminology is preserved in the official names of such institutions in China after these schools gained university status and expanded to offer courses beyond education-related fields; this term reflects BNU's heritage as a former unit of the Imperial University of Peking dedicated to training schoolteachers. Professor Qi Dong, a well-known scholar in Developmental Psychology, has served as the President since July, 2012; the University grew out of the Faculty of Education at the Imperial University of Peking, established as China's first modern university, on the initiative of the emperor of the Qing Dynasty after the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898.
In 1908 the Faculty of Education was named the "Imperial Capital School of Supreme Teacher Training" and was separated from the Imperial University of Peking, which subsequently became Peking University, another prestigious university in China. After the Republic of China was established, the Imperial Capital School of Supreme Teacher Training was renamed Peking Normal College in 1912; the college established its first graduate programs in 1920 and began to recruit female students in 1921. In 1923 it was renamed again to Peking Normal University, thus becoming the first normal university in modern Chinese history; the Peking Women’s College of Education merged into Peking Normal University in 1931. When communist forces established the People's Republic of China in 1949, the capital of Peking was renamed Beijing and the university was renamed Beijing Normal University. During a national initiative of university rearrangement in 1952, Fu Jen Catholic University merged with Beijing Normal University.
In 1954, BNU moved from its Hepingmen campus to a newly established campus at Beitaipingzhuang and has remained there since. Students at Beijing Normal University have played a significant role in patriotic and other social movements in the May Fourth Movement in 1919, the Cultural Revolution, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989; the New York Times has described it as "one of the most progressive institutions" in China. Beijing Normal University was selected to be a Project 211 institution in 1996. In 2002, BNU signed an agreement with the Ministry of Education and Beijing municipal government to become the 10th university participating in Project 985, through which it receives special support from the Chinese government aimed at elevating its reputation to the level of a "world-class" university. During its centennial celebration in 2002, an asteroid discovered in 1996 was named after the university as 8050 Beishida. After a special visit from Premier Wen Jiabao to the university on May 4, 2006, the Chinese government implemented a Fee-Waiver Policy for teacher training programs in six normal universities that are supervised by the Ministry of Education, including Beijing Normal University.
The university has a distinct emphasis on increasing educational equity. Its 2009 demographic composition data shows that 40% of its enrolled students are from western China one third are from rural areas, a quarter are from low-income families. Ethnic minorities comprise more than 10% of students. In total, the university has 55 undergraduate degree programs, 162 master programs, 100 doctoral programs. Sixteen of them are honored as "national key disciplines", including 5 general disciplines and 11 specialized disciplines, are recognized as among the top ranked programs in China: Beijing Normal University possesses 74 research laboratories, including 4 National Key Labs, 7 Key Labs of the Ministry of Education, 5 Key Labs of the Beijing Municipality. Key research centers and facilities include 7 key research facilities in humanities and social sciences of the Ministry of Education, 2 research centers of Engineering & Technology of the Beijing Municipality, 3 research centers jointly established with the Beijing Municipality, more than 40 other research centers.
Additionally, the university has an institute dedicated to Proteomics, the only one established in a university by the Ministry of Education. The university has established a Science Park comprising 6 hectares. Beijing Normal University's annual research budget in the sciences exceeds RMB 100 million. In 2010, 150 projects were funded by the National Natural Science Foundation, with a record high amount of RMB 62 million. Funding for research in the humanities and social sciences has increased in the last five years to RMB 150 million, the third largest budget nationally. Since 2002, the annual increase in budget has been over RMB 30 million, equating to RMB 40,000 per capita; this increase in funding reflects BNU's institutional commitment to basic theory and research in the humanities and social sciences. Beijing Normal University was among the first Chinese institutions to recruit international students, it is popular for its Mandarin Chinese study programs. Among its most prestigious programs is Princeton in Beijing, a collaboration with Princeton University in the United States.
Regarding international co-operation, the Beijing Normal University is part of a university consortium (together with the Danube University Krems, the Univ
Primary education called an elementary education is the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education. Primary education takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which exists in some countries, takes place between primary school and high school. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education consists of grades 1-6; the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 2 was to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015, by which time their aim was to ensure that all children everywhere, regardless of race or gender, will be able to complete primary schooling. Due to the fact that the United Nations focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, as they are both home to the vast majority of children out of school, they hypothesized that they might not have been able to reach their goal by 2015.
According to the September 2010 fact sheet, this was because there were still about 69 million school-age children who were not in school with half of the demographic in sub-Saharan Africa and more than a quarter in Southern Asia. In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the official entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009; this would depend upon the duration of the primary level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle. Not only was it important for children to be enrolled in education, but countries will have needed to ensure that there are a sufficient number of teachers and classrooms to meet the demand of pupils; as of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, equaled the current teaching force in the region. However, the gender gap for children not in education had been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of girls not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should be noted that in some regions, the percentage had increased.
According to the United Nations, there are many things in the regions that have been accomplished. Although enrollment in the sub-Saharan area of Africa continues to be the lowest region worldwide, by 2010 "it still increased by 18 percentage points—from 58 percent to 76 percent—between 1999 and 2008." There was progress in both Southern Asia and North Africa, where both areas saw an increase in enrollment, For example, In Southern Asia, this had increased by 11 percent and in North Africa by 8 percent- over the last decade. Major advances had been made in the poorest of countries like the abolition of primary school fees in Burundi where there was an increase in primary-school enrollment which reached 99 percent as of 2008. Tanzania experienced a similar outcome; the country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period. Moreover, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua, Zambia in Southern Africa "broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education."
1st grade: 6 to 7 years old 2nd grade: 7 to 8 years old 3rd grade: 8 to 9 years old 4th grade: 9 to 10 years old 5th grade: 10 to 11 years old 6th grade: 11 to 12 years old 7th grade: 12 to 13 years old 8th grade: 13 to 14 years old 9th grade: 14 to 15 years old crèche École maternelle toute petite section Cycle I petite section moyenne section grande section Cycle II grande section École primaire CP CE1 Cycle III CE2 CM1 CM2 SecondaryCollège Brevet diploma Lycée Baccalauréat diploma In Somalia, pupils start primary school when they are 7 and finish it at the age of 11 starting from form 1 to form 4. Pupils must firstly have attended casual school known as dugsi and learnt the Muslim holy book Qur'an, the meaning of the Arabic language. Pupils who had not done this are not permitted to start primary school as they will be examined before starting. Pupils' age may sometimes vary seeing that some pupils achieve higher than their predicted grade and may skip the year while some require to repeat the year if they had not achieved the grade required from them.
After finishing primary, students move to intermediate school. In Tunisia pre-school education is optional and provided in three settings: Kindergartens:socio-educational institutions that come under the supervision of Ministry of culture. Kouttabs:religious institutions cater for children between 3 and 5 years of age, their task is to initiate them into learning the Quran as well as reading and arithmetic. They are under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs Preparatory year: It is an integral part of basic education but it is not compulsory, it is supervised by the Ministry of Education and is provided in public and quasi-public primary schools 9 years of basic education are compulsory. Kindergarten: 5–6 years 1st grade: 6–7 years 2nd grade: 7–8 years 3rd grade: 8–9 years 4th grade: 9–10 years 5th grade: 10–11 years 6th grade: 11–12 years 7th grade: 12–13 years 8th grade: 13–14 years 9th grade: 14–15 years In Hong Kong, students attend primary schools for the first six years of compuls
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing Normal University is a normal university in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. Located in the ancient capital of six dynasties in Chinese history, Nanjing Normal University is one of the national key universities of "Project 211" under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and Jiangsu Provincial Government, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines. The International Research And Training Centre For Rural Education is affiliated with the university's Education Faculty; the origin of Nanjing Normal University can be traced back to 1902 with the establishment of Sanjiang Normal College as one of the cradles of China's higher normal schools. Today, it has developed into a comprehensive university, well known for its educational and scientific research, is ranked as one of the top 50 universities in China by several mainstream institutions, it has 6 national key disciplines, 3 national key cultivated disciplines, 10 provincial priority disciplines, 5 provincial first-level and national key cultivated disciplines.
At present, NNU owns three campuses, Xianlin and Zijin, among which Suiyuan Campus is renowned as "the most beautiful campus of the Orient". It has 7 programs that are ranked top 10 in China according to the China Discipline Ranking by the Ministry of Education, including pedagogy, psychology and communication, Chinese languages and literatures, foreign languages and literatures, Marxism. Four disciplines including chemistry, agricultural science, phytology and zoology are listed among the world's top 1% of ESI; the history of Nanjing Normal University can be traced back to 1902 with the establishment of Sanjiang Normal College, one of the cradles of China's higher normal schools. It evolved into Liangjiang Advanced Normal College, National Nanjing Higher Normal School, National Southeastern University, National Dyisyi Chungshan University, National Jiangsu University, National Central University, Nanjing University in the following decades; the other origin of Nanjing Normal University is the Nanking University, established in 1888.
And it developed into Private Ginling University in 1910. In 1951, Private Ginling University and Private Ginling Women Arts and Science College, known as Private Ginling Women University, were integrated to National Ginling University. In 1952, as the result of the nationwide adjustment of higher education, some schools and departments of Nanjing University and Ginling University were separated from the former universities and merged into Nanjing Normal College, set up on the former site of the Ginling Women University. In 1984, Nanjing Normal College was renamed Nanjing Normal University. In 1996, it entered the list of key universities of "Project 211". In 2000, Nanjing Power College was incorporated into the university. On July 11, 2018, a Pakistani student enrolled at Nanjing Normal University through a scholarship for foreign students, Moiz-ud-Din, was stabbed and beaten by a local cyclist shortly after an altercation characterized as a "roadside dispute" near the city's entertainment district.
The student subsequently died from his injuries at a nearby hospital. The argument and violent attack were caught on surveillance cameras, which led to the arrest of the assailant. Municipal police announced the capture and investigation of the suspect on social media, the Pakistani embassy in Beijing and consulate-general in Shanghai have announced their cooperation in the investigation; the incident received widespread attention on Chinese social media. Classmates at the university began a hashtag campaign. However, according to a video commentary on the incident uploaded by Beijing News, there was intense uproar and "extreme reactions" on the internet, people demanded justice for Moiz. Nanjing Normal University is now ranked as one of the top 5 normal universities and top 50 comprehensive universities in China with a number of national top subjects. According to the academic evaluation held by the Ministry of Education of China in 2012, NNU ranked 3rd in China for pedagogy, 6th for geography as well as Marxism studies, 7th for foreign languages and literatures, 9th for psychology and fine arts, 13th for law, etc.
Up to 2016, there are 26 colleges and schools in Nanjing Normal University, including: Ginling College School of Business School of Law School of Public Administration School of Chinese Language and Literature School of Foreign Languages and Cultures School of Journalism and Communication School of Social Development School of Marxism Studies School of Mathematical Sciences School of Geography Sciences School of Life Sciences School of Psychology School of Education Science School of Chemistry and Materials Science School of Physics and Technology School of Computer Science and Technology School of Electrical and Automation Engineering School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering School of Environment School of Fine Arts School of Music School of Sports Science and Physical Education School of Teacher Education International College for Chinese Studies Honors CollegeAlso, Nanjing Normal University has two independent colleges, Zhongbei College of Nanjing Normal University and Taizhou College of Nanjing Normal University.
Zhongbei College, which shares some of the education resources with the main campus, is located next to the Xianlin Campus of Nanjing Normal University, while Taizhou College is located independently in Taizhou, Jiangsu. Nanjing Normal University offers 22 doctoral degree programs of first-level disciplines and other 4 doctoral degree programs of second-level disciplines which are not included above, 37 master’s
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G