click links in text for more info

International Sign

International Sign is a pidgin sign language, used in a variety of different contexts at international meetings such as the World Federation of the Deaf congress, events such as the Deaflympics and the Miss & Mister Deaf World, informally when travelling and socialising. Linguists do not agree on what the term "International Sign" means and empirically derived dictionaries are lacking. While the more used term is International Sign, it is sometimes referred to as Gestuno, or International Sign Pidgin and International Gesture. International Sign is a term used by the World Federation of the Deaf and other international organisations. Deaf people in the Western and Middle Eastern world have gathered together using sign language for 2,000 years; when Deaf people from different sign language backgrounds get together, a contact variety of sign language arises from this contact, whether it is in an informal personal context or in a formal international context. Deaf people have therefore used a kind of auxiliary gestural system for international communication at sporting or cultural events since the early 19th century.

The need to standardise an international sign system was discussed at the first World Deaf Congress in 1951, when the WFD was formed. In the following years, a pidgin developed as the delegates from different language backgrounds communicated with each other, in 1973, a WFD committee published a standardized vocabulary, they selected "naturally spontaneous and easy signs in common use by deaf people of different countries" to make the language easy to learn. A book published by the commission in the early 1970s, Gestuno: International Sign Language of the Deaf, contains a vocabulary list of about 1,500 signs; the name "Gestuno" was chosen. However, when Gestuno was first used at the WFD congress in Bulgaria in 1976, it was incomprehensible to deaf participants. Subsequently, it was developed informally by deaf and hearing interpreters, came to include more grammar linguistic features that are thought to be universal among sign languages, such as role shifting and the use of classifiers. Additionally, the vocabulary was replaced by more iconic signs and loan signs from various sign languages.

The first training course in Gestuno was conducted in Copenhagen in 1977 to prepare interpreters for the 5th World Conference on Deafness. Sponsored by the Danish Association of the Deaf and the University of Copenhagen, the course was designed by Robert M. Ingram and taught by Betty L. Ingram, two American interpreters; the name "Gestuno" has fallen out of use, the phrase "International Sign" is now more used in English to identify this variety of sign. This may be because current IS has little in common with the signs published under the name'Gestuno'. International Sign has been described as a variable type of signed communication used between two signers who lack a common sign language. Most experts do not technically consider IS to be a full language, but rather a form of communication that arises on the spot, it is characterized by a focus on pantomimic structures. While some degree of standardization takes place in event such WFD and the European Union of the Deaf, it is limited to vocabulary, not grammar.

There is no consensus on. It may either refer to the way strangers sign with each other when they lack a common sign language, or it can refer to a conventionalized form used by a group of people with regular contact; the use of the term "International Sign" might lead to the misconception that it is a standardized form of communication. Deaf people know only one sign language. Signers from differing countries may use IS spontaneously with relative success; this communicative success is linked to various factors. First, people who sign in IS have a certain amount of shared contextual knowledge. Secondly, signers may take advantage such as English. Thirdly, communication is made easier by the use of iconic signs and pantomime; the lexicon of International Sign is made by negotiation between signers. IS Signers use a set of signs from their own national sign language mixed with iconic signs that can be understood by a large audience. Most signs are taken from American Sign Language. In 1973, a committee standardized a system of international signs.

They tried to choose the most understandable signs from diverse sign languages to make the language easy to learn for not only the Deaf but for both interim management and an everyday observer. IS interpreter Bill Moody noted in a 1994 paper that the vocabulary used in conference settings is derived from the sign languages of the Western world and is less comprehensible to those from African or Asian sign language backgrounds. A 1999 study by Bencie Woll suggested that IS signers use a large amount of vocabulary from their native language, choosing sign variants that would be more understood by a foreigner. In contrast, Rachel Rosenstock notes that the vocabulary exhibited in her study of International Sign was made up of iconic signs common to many sign languages:Over 60% of the signs occurred in the same form in more than eight SLs as well as in IS; this suggests that the majority of IS signs are not signs borrowed from a specific SL, as other studies found, but rather are common to many natural SLs.

Only 2% of IS signs were found to be unique to IS. The remaining 38 % were borrowed signs that could be traced back to a group of related SLs. International Sign has a simplified lexicon. In IS for example, the En

John J. Phelan Jr.

John Joseph Phelan Jr. was an American financier who served as president and chairman and chief executive of the New York Stock Exchange, where he introduced computerized trading technology. Phelan's leadership tenure at the NYSE included the 1987 stock market crash stock market crash, during which he declined to halt trading. Phelan's calm and confident manner was praised. After the crash, Phelan helped to implement trading curbs known as "circuit breakers" to help prevent rapid stock selloffs in the future. Phelan was born in Manhattan, New York City, on May 7, 1931 to John Phelan Sr. a financier and member of the NYSE, Edna Kelly. He left after two years to serve in the US Marine Corps. After returning from the Marines, Phelan went to work as a floor trader with his father's firm, Phelan & Co. and attended Adelphi University, where he received a bachelor's degree in business administration. John Phelan Jr. died on August 2012 in Manhattan, New York City at age 81 from cancer. Phelan became the first foreigner to own shares of a Chinese company when he was presented with a stock certificate of the Flying Happiness Acoustic Company by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Deng Xiaoping in 1986.

John Phelan was at that time the head of a US delegation of Wall Street financiers. This was remarkable event that signaled Chinese commitment towards developing its own stock exchange as well as further economic reforms along market economy lines, he married Joyce and had three sons: John and Peter. Phelan was on the board of Catholic Charities. Appearances on C-SPAN

Controlled lake

A controlled lake is both a general and specific term to describe a body of water. In its general sense it describes a lake or reservoir which has its water level controlled by some form of dam. In the specific, it refers to three small lakes within the New York City water supply system's Croton Watershed lying within central Putnam County in the state's far southwestern corner; the term "controlled lake" is used to describe a body of water – whether a natural lake enlarged by emplacement of a dam, a dry area flooded and dammed, or a stretch in a natural watercourse such as a stream or river dammed to create a manmade empoundment – that has its level controlled by a dam. The purpose of the dam – whether to generate electricity, manage flood control, provide water for drinking, irrigation or recreational opportunities, increase shoreline real estate values, or any combination thereof – does not matter. Last, it does not matter whether the water body is referred to as a "lake" when in reality it is a reservoir.

The term "controlled lake" is used by the New York City water supply system to describe three small auxiliary reservoirs within its Croton Watershed which it owns or has rights to draw water from. These are Lake Gleneida and Lake Gilead in the hamlet of Carmel, Kirk Lake in the hamlet of Mahopac, both within the town of Carmel in Putnam County, New York; each has a spillway controlling its outflow. "Controlled" further applies to controlled access and controlled use, in order to protect the sanitation of the drinking water supply they contain. The three lakes fall under the jurisdiction of the New York City Department of Environmental Protection's Bureau of Water Supply, which manages and protects the city's upstate water supply system; the City may withdraw water from the "controlled lakes" pursuant to rights acquired by the City or as a right of ownership. Recreational use of the controlled lakes falls under DEP regulations. Fishing and self-powered boating are allowed with a valid DEP permit and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation-issued fishing license.

Swimming is prohibited. Reservoir Water right

Eyemouth Railway

The Eyemouth Railway was a three-mile single track branch railway, connecting Eyemouth, in the Scottish Borders, with Burnmouth on the main line between Dunbar and Berwick-upon-Tweed. It was built by a local company, but they struggled to raise money, the line was in effect funded by local wealthy businessmen, it opened in 1891. In 1948 there was heavy rainfall, the viaduct that carried the line over the Eye Water was undermined, the line was closed for year while repairs were undertaken; the line succumbed to road competition, it closed in 1962. As early as 1846, when the North British Railway was in the earliest stages of its railway operation, representatives of the village of Eyemouth requested a branch line connection. At this period the North British was hugely committed financially and was concentrating on securing territory that might be attractive for competing railway companies to enter. Eyemouth did not fall into this category and the request was declined. In 1864 the request was repeated.

Nothing was done. In the aftermath of the Eyemouth disaster of 1881, in which 189 fishermen perished at sea in a storm, there was a mood locally to improve the village's economy; this was to be done by improving the harbour, connecting the village to the nearby main line network. The Harbour was extended to 9.5 acres and deepened by two feet, the middle pier was constructed. This work was decided upon at once, was carried out in 1885 - 1887; the railway connection was to be to the North British Railway main line between Edinburgh and Berwick-upon-Tweed, which ran nearby, there was a station at Burnmouth, three miles away. The fishing fleet's catch, the imported mussel bait, all had to be carted from Burnmouth. Six local people met on 13 October 1881 to consider the matter, they decided to build a railway without directly involving the larger concern. A public meeting a week supported the idea, but raising the money for a line proved difficult; the Eyemouth Railway was incorporated by Certificate of the Board of Trade on 18 August 1884.

Once more the North British Railway agreed to work the line for 50% of gross receipts, with the Eyemouth company obliged to pay for the junction and other alterations at Burnmouth. The lack of money continued to be an obstacle, the Directors, all local men without railway experience, disputed among themselves the choice of route though it had been determined in their Act, the Board failed to start work. A means of reducing the capital required for the line to £22,000 was found with the help of G. B. Wieland of the North British Railway, in 1884, but so share subscription was not forthcoming, on 30 April 1889 the company's Parliamentary deposit of £2,400 was forfeited, its plight moved Sir James Percy Miller, 2nd Baronet, who lived locally and was a director of the North British, to take shares, as did Lord Tweeddale, Wieland became Company Secretary. A working agreement with the NBR was confirmed, construction of the 2.97 mile line began in July, from a junction at Burnmouth, running parallel to the main line for half a mile before turning coastward.

An ill-timed explosive blast at the junction works derailed the Flying Scotsman on 24 October. It was built as a light railway, the only substantial engineering work being a high seven arch viaduct over the Eye. Blasting operation on the construction damaged the engine of the Up Flying Scotsman: Burnmouth: Accident on the Railway. On Thursday morning, the Flying Scotsman, which leaves Edinburgh for Berwick at 10 o'clock, met with an alarming accident near Burnmouth Station, it appears that blasting operations were being conducted on the new Eyemouth railway, where it converges with the North British system, that a blast occurred just as the Scotsman approached, It was too late to put up a signal against her, she came into contact with the material thrown up on to the line by the blast. The engine was damaged, but it and the remainder of the train kept on the rails. At Berwick, reached about half-an-hour late, the engine had to be changed; the North British took a 999-year lease at a guaranteed 4% on the company's capital in March 1891, the line opened on 13 April 1891.

There was a passenger train service of six trains each way daily. The local promoters wished the railway to reach directly to the harbour, but this would have required passing through the village at considerable expense, the NBR declined to build the extension. In 1894 the Harbour Trustees entered a Parliamentary Bill for further improvements to the harbour, they included authorisation for the NBR to subscribe up to £60,000 to the works, "in respect of the advantages derived by from the harbour"; the NBR did not contribute. The North British Railway negotiated with the treasury and secured the return of the forfeited deposit of 1889. Seaside holidays in picturesque locations were becoming fashionable, the railway brought the village a significant income from holidaymakers; the fortunes of the railway itself showed a gradual increase, passenger income in 1913 was £2,498, rising to £12,102 in 1920. Goods receipts were £1,628 and £4,278. Short branch railways worked by, leased by a dominant network company lasted long, the Eyemouth Railway was absorbed by the North British Railway by Act of 1 August 1900.

There was an exceptional rainstorm in August 1948. The East Coast Main Line railway was breached, a blocked culvert at Ayton impounded a huge volume of floodwater on land abo

The Southern Vampire Mysteries

The Southern Vampire Mysteries known as The True Blood Novels and The Sookie Stackhouse Novels, is a series of books written by bestselling author Charlaine Harris. The first installment, Dead Until Dark, won the Anthony Award for Best Paperback Mystery in 2001 and served as the source material for the HBO drama series True Blood; the book series has been retronymed the True Blood Series upon reprinting, to capitalize on the television adaptation. In The Southern Vampire Mysteries/True Blood Series, Harris develops a detailed mythology and alternate history that approaches supernatural beings as real; the setting is contemporary, the stories reference popular culture. The series is narrated in first person perspective by Sookie Stackhouse, a waitress and a telepath in the fictional town of Bon Temps in northwestern Louisiana; the 12th book, was released on May 1, 2012. Harris was contracted to write 10 books, but she revealed at Comic Con 2009 that she has signed a contract for three additional books.

On May 14, 2012, Harris' Facebook administrator announced that Dead Ever After would be the final book of the series. Dead Until Dark Living Dead in Dallas Club Dead Dead to the WorldFairy Dust” “Dracula NightDead as a Doornail “One Word Answer” Definitely Dead All Together Dead “Lucky” From Dead to WorseGift WrapDead and GoneTwo BlondesDead in the Family Small-Town Wedding Dead Reckoning Deadlocked Dead Ever After “If I Had a Hammer” “Playing Possum” Two years prior to the first novel's timeline, vampires around the world have revealed themselves, via television, to the world as actual, not mythical, beings after the development of a synthetic blood product that provides adequate sustenance for vampires and therefore does not require them to feed on human blood. Worldwide, reaction to the vampires' "Great Revelation" is mixed; the policy in Muslim countries is death and torture for vampires, while most African nations and Bosnia refuse to acknowledge vampires' existence. Some nations, such as France and Italy, acknowledge vampires and do not torture them, but do not give them equal rights as citizens.

Canada, Mexico, Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom, the United States are more tolerant. Rather than acknowledging the legend that vampires are deceased humans who have risen from the dead to prey on the living, the vampires insist they are the victims of a medical condition that makes them allergic to sunlight and affects their dietary needs. Vampires are pale and cold, possess unfathomable strength and speed, have keen senses of hearing and vision; this makes it easy. They have the ability to remain still and silent. Vampires can control the minds of humans by staring into a human's eyes and speaking in a soothing, trance-inducing voice. Vampires can induce complete or partial amnesia in a glamored human, can compel them to do anything the vampire desires. A few vampires can fly. Vampires' fangs see blood, are sexually aroused, or need to fight. All vampires are compelled to obey their individual maker. Harris' vampires do not age, they can survive and recover from most forms of physical injury, but they will die if staked, exposed to sunlight, burnt by fire drained of their blood, or decapitated.

Silver is toxic to them. Unlike the vampire mythology of other universes, crucifixes have no effect on vampires in Harris' universe, garlic only produces allergic reactions, vampires can be photographed, most are able to enter places of worship or step on "holy ground", they cannot enter a home unless invited, if an invitation is withdrawn, they are physically unable to remain on the premises. Since vampires can glamor humans to invite them to enter their homes, humans must avoid eye contact and order the vampire off the premises when an unfriendly one tries to gain entry. Fangbangers, the human cult followers fascinated by vampires, include volunteers willing to be bitten to provide fresh blood nourishment to vampires. If a vampire and a human share blood, it will form a blood bond. Vampire blood without exchange is sought after by humans as a drug that can enhance strength, heal wounds, increase attractiveness, among other desirable effects. Due to the shortage of willing vampire donors, human "drainers" attack vampires and drain their entire blood supply, either staking the vamps or leaving victims to die in the sun.

The blood is sold as a drug, in vials on the underground market. It can be addictive, but may cause psychotic or murderous rampages by human users upon first use. In "One Word Answer", a vampire's blood given to a dead body, in combination with magic words, raises the ghost of the body's former inhabitant. Though many vampires in this universe try to live among humans, they remain secretive about their organization and government; the vampires divided the continental United States into four divisions, each represented by a symbol: the Whale, the Feather

1918 Detroit Tigers football team

The 1918 Detroit Tigers football team was an American football team that represented the University of Detroit in the 1918 college football season. The team compiled a 0–2 record and was outscored by its opponents by a combined total of 19 to 2; the 1918 team played in a season shortened by World War I travel restrictions and the 1918 flu pandemic. Games scheduled for the month of October were cancelled due to travel and other restrictions imposed by the United States Department of War. Teams were permitted to play two games in November, though restrictions remained on games that required travel of long distances. James F. Duffy, head coach of the 1917 team, missed the 1918 season due to wartime military service. In the spring of 1918, Duffy enlisted in the United States Navy; as a result, the University of Detroit football team played the 1918 season without a coach. Duffy returned for the 1919 season. On November 16, 1918, the University of Detroit football team lost by a 13–2 score to Albion at Alumni field in Albion, Michigan.

The game was played on a muddy field. Two Detroit players were taken to the hospital; the University of Detroit played only two games against Albion. Albion won the 1918 game, Detroit won the other game, played in 1930, by a 51–0 score. On Thanksgiving Day, the University of Detroit team lost by a 6–0 score to Detroit Junior College at Goldberg field in Detroit. DJC's captain and fullback, Wayne Brenkert, scored the game's only points on a 30-yard touchdown run in the first quarter. DJC became Wayne University; the schools did not meet again until 1940. Thereafter, they met another 10 times, but the 1918 game remained the only victory by a DJC/Wayne squad