International Soccer

International Soccer known as Cup Final, is a sports video game written by Andrew Spencer for the Commodore 64 and published by Commodore International in 1983. International Soccer can be played by one player against an AI opponent; each team can select one of a number of colored shirts, the AI opponent is graded into 9 different difficulty levels. The game itself is a simple game of football - there is no offside rule and no possibility to foul opponents; each game is divided into two 200-second halves. There are no shootouts. There are six colors a person can choose from for play: red, blue, grey and orange; the winning team is presented a gold trophy after the game by a girl in a blue dress and red ball in her hand. The game includes a gray-scale mode, more suited for black-and-white television sets. International Soccer was well received, gaining a Certificate of Merit in the category of "1984 Best Computer Sports Game" at the 5th annual Arkie Awards. InfoWorld described International Soccer as Commodore's best competitor to the successful Atarisoft games.

The magazine wrote that the "mini masterpiece" was "surprisingly good, considering it's published by Commodore", praising gameplay and animation. Ahoy! wrote that International Soccer "is a pure action game, but, oh, what action!", praising the graphics and game-play. International Soccer at Lemon 64 International Soccer at Gameplay video

William Harben

William Nathaniel Harben was one of the most popular American authors of the early 20th century. He specialized in stories about the people of the mountains of Northern Georgia, he was sometimes credited as Will N. Will Harben. Harben was born in 1858 in Georgia to a rich family, he grew up to be a merchant in that same town. At age 30, Harben started writing stories. In 1889, Harben wrote his first bestseller, Slave, a story of a white girl raised in slavery in the American South. After the publication of this novel, moved his family to New York City. Harben's next novel, Almost Persuaded, was a religious novel; the novel gained enough attention. Harben published Mute Confessor, a romantic novel, Land of the Changing Sun, a science fiction novel, he produced three detective novels during this decade. Harben achieved his greatest literary success with Northern Georgia Sketches, a collection of short stories about Georgia "hillbillies", he became a friend of William Dean Howells. Two of his memorable characters were mountaineers Abner Daniel and Pole Baker, rustic philosophers and comedic characters.

Harben died in New York City in 1919 at age 61. White Marie: A Story of Georgia Plantation Almost Persuaded A Mute Confessor: The Romance of a Southern Town The Land of the Changing Sun The Carruthers Affair The North Walk Mystery Northern Georgia Sketches Westerfelt The Woman who Trusted: A Story of Literary Life in New York Abner Daniel The Substitute The Georgians: A Novel Pole Baker: A Novel Ann Boyd Mam' Linda: A Novel Gilbert Neal: A Novel The Redemption of Kenneth Galt Dixie Hart The Fruit of Desire Jane Dawson: A Novel Nobody's Paul Rundel: A Novel The Desired Woman The New Clarion: A Novel The Inner Law Second Choice: A Romance The Triumph The Hills of Refuge The Cottage of Delight The Divine Event Love Never Dies "Noted Novelist Corrects Misconceptions of the South". New York Times. December 8, 1907. William Harben on IMDb Will Harben in New Georgia Encyclopaedia Works by William Harben at Project Gutenberg

Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia

Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia includes a number of surgical interventions that can help improve the quality of life of a patient with tetraplegia. Loss of upper-limb function in patients with following a spinal cord injury is a major barrier to regain autonomy; the functional abilities of a tetraplegic patient increase for instance if the patient can extend the elbow. This can give a better use of a manual wheelchair. To be able to hold objects a patient needs to have a functional pinch grip, this can be useful for performing daily living activities. A large survey in patients with tetraplegia demonstrated that these patients give preference to improving upper extremity function above other lost functions like being able to walk or sexual function. Surgical procedures do exist to improve the function of the tetraplegic patient's arms, but these procedures are performed in fewer than 10% of the tetraplegic patients; each tetraplegic patient is unique, therefore surgical indication should be based on the remaining physical abilities and expectations of the patient.

In 2007 a resolution was presented and accepted at the world congress in reconstructive hand surgery and rehabilitation in tetraplegia, that stated that every patient with tetraplegia should be examined and informed about the options for reconstructive surgery of the tetraplegic arms and hands. This resolution demonstrates the necessity to increase the awareness on this subject amongst physicians. Reconstructive surgery of the upper limb in tetraplegic patients began during the mid-20th century; the first attempts at regaining gripping function of the hand took place in Europe at the end of the 1920s with the construction of flexor-hinge splints. In the early 1940s, a surgeon called Sterling Bunnell was one of the first to refer to the reconstruction of gripping function for the tetraplegic hand, he described surgeries of combining tenodeses and tendon transfers to restore hand function. He advocated transferring the m. brachioradialis to the wrist extensors when these muscles are paralyzed.

In the 1950s, understanding of the tenodesis effect influenced the development of surgical techniques such as the static flexor tenodesis. These procedures provided the basic functions of pinch. Tendon transfers were developed to accomplish both digital release and gripping functions in two surgical stages; the originators of these procedures were Lipscomb et al. Zancolli, House et al. House et al. contributed important clinical investigations while showing the value of different surgical procedures. According to Zancolli, transfer of the m. brachioradialis to the m. extensor carpi radialis tendons was proposed by Vulpius and Stoffel in 1920. In tetraplegia, this was first proposed by Wilson, and first described by Freehafer. In 1967, Alvin Freehafer of Cleveland, contributed valuable ideas towards achieving independence in the arms of tetraplegic patients, he and his team published the results of six patients who underwent transfer of the m. brachioradialis to restore active wrist extension. In 1974, Freehafer et al. recommended finger-flexion transfers.

In 1971, surgery of the tetraplegic upper limb experienced a revival after Moberg’s clinical investigations. His main contributions were to restore elbow extension through transfer of the posterior deltoid to triceps. Moberg’s idea of posterior deltoid transfer to restore elbow extension has been used extensively by many surgeons, such as Bryan and DeBenedetti. In 1983, Douglas Lamb of Edinburgh, gave great headway to surgery of the tetraplegic upper extremity when Lamb and Chan recommended reconstruction of elbow extension by transferring the posterior deltoid to the triceps according to Moberg’s technique, published in 1975. A publication by Friedenberg was the starting point for future indications of biceps-to-triceps transfers, including those of Zancolli, Hentz et al. Kuts et al. Allieu et al. and Revol et al. Another major change was the change to one-step procedures, reconstructiong opening and closing phases at the same time. Jan Friden, from Gothenburg, with major experience in this area championed this thought driven by the transport problems in Sweden during winter, it saved the patients an operation and minimized hospital stay.

The development of hand surgery for tetraplegia has received important contributions through published reports and by the international conferences initiated with the influence of Erik Moberg from Goteborg, Sweden. Conferences have been of great interest because of the convergences of hand surgeons interested in the field, promoting discussion and comparison of different surgical methods and experiences. A common goal of surgical reconstruction of the arms in patients with tetraplegia is to restore elbow extension, key pinch and palmar grip. Restoration of these functions, results in increasing a patient's independence. Elbow extension is an important part of upper limb surgical reconstruction in patients with tetraplegia. Although gravity can extend the arm, active elbow extension is needed to maintain a stable arm while extended in space; this is needed to replace an object. Other functional gains include: increasing available workspace, performing pressure relief maneuvers, propelling a manual wheelchair, enhancing self-care and leisure activities, promoting independent transfer.

Elbow extension against gravity further enhances these activities above the shoulder level and reachable workspace. The key pinch is a simple grasp in which the thumb applies force to an object to hold it against the lateral side of the index finger. Restoring this function all