Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since major explorations after the Age of Discovery have occurred for reasons aimed at information discovery. In scientific research, exploration is one of three purposes of empirical research; the term is used metaphorically. For example, an individual may speak of exploring the Internet, etc; the Phoenicians traded throughout the Mediterranean Sea and Asia Minor though many of their routes are still unknown today. The presence of tin in some Phoenician artifacts suggests. According to Virgil's Aeneid and other ancient sources, the legendary Queen Dido was a Phoenician from Tyre who sailed to North Africa and founded the city of Carthage. Hanno the Navigator, a Carthaginean navigator explored the Western Coast of Africa.
The Greek explorer from Marseille, Pytheas was the first to circumnavigate Great Britain, explore Germany, reach Thule. Romans -under Augustus emperor- reached and explored all the Baltic Sea Africa ExplorationThe Romans organized expeditions to cross the Sahara desert with five different routes: through the western Sahara, toward the Niger river and actual Timbuktu. Through the Tibesti mountains, toward Lake Chad and actual Nigeria through the Nile river, toward actual Uganda. Though the western coast of Africa, toward the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde islands. Through the Red Sea, toward actual Somalia and Tanzania. All these expeditions were supported by legionaries and had a commercial purpose. Only the one done by emperor Nero seemed to be a preparative for the conquest of Ethiopia or Nubia: in 62 AD two legionaries explored the sources of the Nile river. One of the main reasons of the explorations was to get gold using the camel to transport it; the explorations near the African western and eastern coasts were supported by Roman ships and related to the naval commerce.
Romans organized several explorations in Northern Europe, as far as Asia up to China. 30 BC-640 AD. The Empire now has a direct connection to the Spice trade Egypt had established beginning in 118 BC.100 AD-166 AD Romano-Chinese relations begin. Ptolemy writes of the Golden Chersonese and the trade port of Kattigara, now identified as Óc Eo in northern Vietnam part of Jiaozhou, a province of the Chinese Han Empire; the Chinese historical texts describe Roman embassies, from a land they called Daqin.2nd century Roman traders reach Siam, Cambodia and Java.161 An embassy from Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius or his successor Marcus Aurelius reaches Chinese Emperor Huan of Han at Luoyang.226 A Roman diplomat or merchant lands in northern Vietnam and visits Nanjing and the court of Sun Quan, ruler of Eastern Wu During the 2nd century BC, the Han dynasty explored much of the Eastern Northern Hemisphere. Starting in 139 BC, the Han diplomat Zhang Qian traveled west in an unsuccessful attempt to secure an alliance with the Da Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.
When Zhang returned to China in 125 BC, he reported on his visits to Dayuan and Daxia. Zhang described Dayuan and Daxia as agricultural and urban countries like China, although he did not venture there, described Shendu and Anxi further west. From about 800 AD to 1040 AD, the Vikings explored Europe and much of the Western Northern Hemisphere via rivers and oceans. For example, it is known that the Norwegian Viking explorer, Erik the Red, sailed to and settled in Greenland after being expelled from Iceland, while his son, the Icelandic explorer Leif Ericson, reached Newfoundland and the nearby North American coast, is believed to be the first European to land in North America. Polynesians were a maritime people, who populated and explored the central and south Pacific for around 5,000 years, up to about 1280 when they discovered New Zealand; the key invention to their exploration was the outrigger canoe, which provided a swift and stable platform for carrying goods and people. Based on limited evidence, it is thought.
It is unknown if one or more boats went to New Zealand, or the type of boat, or the names of those who migrated. 2011 studies at Wairau Bar in New Zealand show a high probability that one origin was Ruahine Island in the Society Islands. Polynesians may have used the prevailing north easterly trade winds to reach New Zealand in about three weeks; the Cook Islands are in direct line along the migration path and may have been an intermediate stopping point. There are cultural and language similarities between New Zealand Maori. Early Maori had different legends of their origins, but the stories were misunderstood and reinterpreted in confused written accounts by early European historians in New Zealand trying to present a coherent pattern of Maori settlement in New Zealand. Mathematical modell
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory; as of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, is affiliated with two academic medical centers; the University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the UA's intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men's basketball and softball; the official colors of the university and its athletic teams are navy blue. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew.
The Arizona Territory's "Thieving Thirteenth" Legislature approved the University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory's mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory's only university. Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson's legislators, by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, still in use today.
Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers bachelor's, master's, professional degrees. Grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with "A" worth 4, "B" worth 3, "C" worth 2, "D" worth 1 and "E" worth zero points; the Center for World University Rankings in 2017 ranked Arizona No. 52 in the world and 34 in the U. S; the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 161st in the world and the 2017/18 QS World University Rankings ranked it 230th. The University of Arizona was ranked tied for 77th in the "National Universities" category by U. S. News & World Report for 2018; the James E. Rogers College of Law Graduate School was ranked tied for 41st nationally; the College of Medicine was rated No. 7 among the nation's medical schools for Hispanic students, according to Hispanic Business Magazine. In 2017, the Eller MBA program was ranked 24th among public institutions and 49th nationally by U.
S. News & World Report, which placed the school's Management Information Systems program as 2nd, the Entrepreneurship program as 5th and the Part-time MBA 30th among U. S public schools. U. S. News & World Report rated UA as tied for 33rd for online MBA programs, tied for 49th for best online graduate nursing programs, tied for 33rd for best online graduate engineering programs nationally. UA graduate programs ranked in the top 25 in the nation by U. S. News & World Report for 2017 include Information Science, Geology and Seismology, Speech Pathology, Rehabilitation Counseling, Earth Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Atomic/Molecular/Optical Sciences and Photography; the Council for Aid to Education ranked UA 12th among public universities and 24th overall in financial support and gifts. Campaign Arizona, an effort to raise over $1 billion for the school, exceeded that goal by $200 million a year earlier than projected. In April 2014, the "Arizona Now" campaign launched with a target of $1.5 billion.
As of 31 December 2016, the campaign has raised $1.59 Billion, two years ahead of schedule. In 2015, Design Intelligence ranked the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's undergraduate program in architecture 10th in the nation for all universities and private; the same publication ranked. The School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona is one of the most ranked area studies programs focusing on the Middle East in the United States. In addition to offering language training in Arabic, Hebrew and Turkish, it is collocated with the Middle East Studies Association; the School of Geography and Development is ranked as one of the top geography graduate programs in the US. The UA is considered a "selective" university by U. S. News & World Report. In the 2014-2015 academic year, 68 freshman students were National Merit Scholars. UA students hail from all states in the U. S. While nearly 69% of students are from Arizona, nearly 11% are from California, 8% are international, followed by a significant student presence from Texas, Washington and New York..
Tuition at the University o
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; the term pseudoscience is considered pejorative because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or deceptively. Those described as practicing or advocating pseudoscience dispute the characterization; the demarcation between science and pseudoscience has scientific implications. Differentiating science from pseudoscience has practical implications in the case of health care, expert testimony, environmental policies, science education. Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs, creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy. Pseudoscience can cause negative consequences in the real world.
Antivaccine activists present pseudoscientific studies that falsely call into question the safety of vaccines. Homeopathic remedies with no active ingredients have been promoted as treatment for deadly diseases; the word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge". Although the term has been in use since at least the late 18th century the concept of pseudoscience as distinct from real or proper science seems to have become more widespread during the mid-19th century. Among the earliest uses of "pseudo-science" was in an 1844 article in the Northern Journal of Medicine, issue 387: That opposite kind of innovation which pronounces what has been recognized as a branch of science, to have been a pseudo-science, composed of so-called facts, connected together by misapprehensions under the disguise of principles. An earlier use of the term was in 1843 by the French physiologist François Magendie.
During the 20th century, the word was used pejoratively to describe explanations of phenomena which were claimed to be scientific, but which were not in fact supported by reliable experimental evidence. From time-to-time, the usage of the word occurred in a more formal, technical manner in response to a perceived threat to individual and institutional security in a social and cultural setting. Philosophers classify types of knowledge. In English, the word science is used to indicate the natural sciences and related fields, which are called the social sciences. Different philosophers of science may disagree on the exact limits – for example, is mathematics a formal science, closer to the empirical ones, or is pure mathematics closer to the philosophical study of logic and therefore not a science? – but all agree that all of the ideas that are not scientific are non-scientific. The large category of non-science includes all matters outside the natural and social sciences, such as the study of history, religion and the humanities.
Dividing the category again, unscientific claims are a subset of the large category of non-scientific claims. This category includes all matters that are directly opposed to good science. Un-science includes pseudoscience, thus pseudoscience is a subset of un-science, un-science, in turn, is subset of non-science. Pseudoscience is differentiated from science because – although it claims to be science – pseudoscience does not adhere to accepted scientific standards, such as the scientific method, falsifiability of claims, Mertonian norms. A number of basic principles are accepted by scientists as standards for determining whether a body of knowledge, method, or practice is scientific. Experimental results should be verified by other researchers; these principles are intended to ensure experiments can be reproduced measurably given the same conditions, allowing further investigation to determine whether a hypothesis or theory related to given phenomena is valid and reliable. Standards require the scientific method to be applied throughout, bias to be controlled for or eliminated through randomization, fair sampling procedures, blinding of studies, other methods.
All gathered data, including the experimental or environmental conditions, are expected to be documented for scrutiny and made available for peer review, allowing further experiments or studies to be conducted to confirm or falsify results. Statistical quantification of significance and error are important tools for the scientific method. During the mid-20th century, the philosopher Karl Popper emphasized the criterion of falsifiability to distinguish science from nonscience. Statements, hypotheses, or theories have falsifiability or refutability if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven false; that is, if it is possible to conceive of an argument which negates them. Popper used astrology and psychoanalysis as examples of pseudoscience and Einstein's theory of relativity as an example of science, he subdivided nonscience into philosophical, mythological and metaphysical formulations on one hand, pseudoscientific formulations on the other, though he did not provide clear criteria for the differences.
Another example which shows the distinct need for a claim to be f
Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston known as Harry Johnston, was a British explorer who traveled in Africa, artist, colonial administrator and linguist who spoke many African languages. He published 40 books on African subjects and was one of the key players in the Scramble for Africa that occurred at the end of the 19th century. Born at Kennington Park, south London, the son of John Brookes Johnstone and Esther Laetitia Hamilton, he attended Stockwell grammar school and King's College London, followed by four years studying painting at the Royal Academy. In connection with his study he travelled to Europe and North Africa, visiting the little-known interior of Tunisia. In 1882 he visited southern Angola with the Earl of Mayo, in the following year met Henry Morton Stanley in the Congo, becoming one of the first Europeans after Stanley to see the river above the Stanley Pool, his developing reputation led the Royal Geographical Society and the British Association to appoint him leader of an 1884 scientific expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro.
On this expedition he concluded treaties with local chiefs, in competition with German efforts to do likewise. In October 1886 the British government appointed him vice-consul in Cameroon and the Niger River delta area, where a protectorate had been declared in 1885, he became acting consul in 1887, deposing and banishing the local chief Jaja. While in West Africa in 1886, Johnston sketched what has been termed a "fantasy map" of his ideas of how the African continent could be divided among the colonial powers; this envisaged two blocks of British colonies, one of continuous territory in West Africa, the Nile valley and much of East Africa as far south as Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa, the other in southern Africa south of the Zambezi. This left a continuous band in Portuguese occupation from Angola to Mozambique and Germany in possession of much of the East African coast; the original proposal for a Cape to Cairo railway was made in 1874 by Edwin Arnold, the editor of the Daily Telegraph, joint sponsor of the expedition by H.
M. Stanley to Africa to discover the course of the Congo River; the proposed route involved a mixture of railway and river transport between Elizabethville, now Lubumbashi in the Belgian Congo and Sennar in the Sudan rather than a rail one. Johnston acknowledged his debt to Stanley and Arnold and when on leave in England in 1888, he revived the Cape-to-Cairo concept of acquiring a continuous band of British territory down Africa in discussion with Lord Salisbury. Johnston published an supporting the idea article in Times anonymously, as "by an African Explorer" and in 1888 and 1889 published a number of articles in other newspapers and journals with Salisbury's tacit approval; the Berlin Conference had allocated Katanga to the sphere of influence of King Leopold of Belgium's Congo Free State, but under the Berlin Conference's Principle of Effectivity this was only provisional. In July 1890, Leopold protested to Lord Salisbury that Johnston, as agent for Cecil Rhodes, was circulating maps showing that the Congo Free State did not include Katanga, in response to Salisbury's enquiries, in August 1890 Johnston presented Rhodes' claim, which included the false information that Msiri, King of Garanganze in Katanga had asked for British protection.
In November 1890, to justify his claim, Johnston sent Alfred Sharpe to act for Rhodes and the British South Africa Company, to obtain a treaty with Msiri, a move which had the potential to precipitate an Anglo-Belgian crisis. Sharpe failed with Msiri, though he obtained treaties with Mwata Kazembe covering the eastern side of the Luapula River and Lake Mweru, with other chiefs covering the southern end of Lake Tanganyika; when Leopold again protested to Salisbury in May 1891, the latter had to admit Msiri had not signed a treaty asking for British protection and left Katanga open to Belgian colonisation. In 1891 Leopold sent the Stairs Expedition to Katanga. Johnston dissuaded it from accessing Katanga through Nyasaland, but it went through German East Africa instead, took Katanga after killing Msiri; the southern border of the Congo Free State was settled by an Anglo-Congo agreement of 1894. In 1879 the Portuguese government formally claimed the area south and east of the Ruo River and in 1882, occupied the lower Shire River valley as far north as the Ruo.
It attempted to gain British acceptance of this claim without success, failed in a claim that the Shire Highlands was part of Portuguese East Africa, as it was not under effective occupation As late as 1888, the British Foreign Office would not accept responsibility for British missionaries and settlers in the Shire Highlands after the African Lakes Corporation had tried but failed to become a Chartered company with interests there and around the western shore of Lake Malawi. However, in 1885–86 Alexandre de Serpa Pinto had undertaken an expedition which reached Shire Highlands, which had failed make any treaties of protection with the Yao chiefs west of Lake Malawi. To prevent possible Portuguese occupation, in November 1888, Johnston was appointed as Commissioner and Consul-general for the Mozambique and the Nyasa districts, arrived in Blantyre in March 1889. On his way to take up his appointment, Johnston spent six weeks in Lisbon attempting to negotiate an acceptable agreement on Portuguese and British spheres of influence in southeastern Africa.
However, as the draft agreement did not expressly exclude the Shire Highlands from the Portuguese sphere, it was rejected by the Foreign Office. Among several pressing problems was t
Bernard Heuvelmans was a Belgian-French scientist, explorer and writer best known as a founding figure of the pseudoscience of cryptozoology. His 1958 book On the Track of Unknown Animals is regarded as one of the best and most influential cryptozoological works. Heuvelmans was born on 10 October 1916 in Le Havre and raised in Belgium and earned a doctorate in zoology from the Free University of Brussels. Heuvelmans was a pupil of a proponent of the Theory of Initial Bipedalism. In 1939, his doctoral dissertation concerned the teeth of the aardvark. During World War II he had escaped from a Nazi prison camp and worked as a jazz singer in Paris. Heuvelmans' books made reference to literary sources, he was influenced by Arthur Conan Doyle's book The Lost World. Though earlier interested in zoological oddities, he credits a 1948 Saturday Evening Post article, "There Could be Dinosaurs" by Ivan T. Sanderson, with inspiring a determined interest in unknown animals. Sanderson discussed the possibility of dinosaurs surviving in remote corners of the world.
Heuvelmans was influenced by the work of Anthonie Cornelis Oudemans, who had defended the existence of the sea serpent. Heuvelmans wrote many other books and articles, only a few of which have been translated into English, his works sold well among general audiences but saw little attention from mainstream scientists and experts. In the Wake of the Sea-Serpents was his second book, it consisted of his book on sea serpents with parts of his book on the giant squid added. As he continued his researches, he saw the need to "give a name to the new discipline in zoology my research implied; that is how I coined the word'cryptozoology', the science of hidden animals". There is evidence that Heuvelmans planned to author a third book on fresh-water cryptozoology, but instead he assisted Irish author Peter Costello to produce his 1974 book In Search of Lake Monsters, providing source material from his files. Science writer David Quammen has stated that Heuvelmans's On the Track of Unknown Animals is "heavily researched and encyclopedic" but contains "leaps of credulity that leave a skeptical reader behind."
He wrote that Heuvelmans was known for making "overstated claims". His book The Natural History of Hidden Animals was criticized. Biologist Aaron Bauer noted that "Heuvelmans's own writings, this book included eschew critical analysis of available data". John Burton has written that the book's "credibility is undermined by sloppy research". Heuvelmans's wife was artist Monique Watteau, they remained friends and colleagues. Heuvelmans converted to Buddhism, he died on 22 August 2001 at the age of 84. Sur la piste. Paris: Plon. 1955. Dans le sillage des monstres marins - Le Kraken et le Poulpe Colossal. Paris: Plon. 1958. On the Track of Unknown Animals. London: Hart-Davis. 1958. ISBN 0-7103-0498-6. On the Track of Unknown Animals. New York: Hill and Wang. 1959. ISBN 0-7103-0498-6. Le Grand-Serpent-de-Mer, le problème zoologique et sa solution. Paris: Plon. 1965. On the Track of Unknown Animals. New York: Hill and Wang. 1965. ISBN 0-7103-0498-6. Abridged, revised. In the Wake of Sea Serpents. New York: Hill and Wang. 1968.
ISBN 0-8090-5815-4. L'homme de Néanderthal est toujours vivant. Paris: Plon. 1974. Dans le sillage des monstres marins - Le Kraken et le Poulpe Colossal. Paris: François Beauval. 1975. Second Edition. Le Grand-Serpent-de-Mer, le problème zoologique et sa solution. Paris: Plon. 1975. Second Edition. Les derniers dragons d'Afrique. Paris: Plon. 1978. Les bêtes humaines d'Afrique. Paris: Plon. 1980. On the Track of Unknown Animals. London: Kegan Paul International. 1995. ISBN 0-7103-0498-6; the Kraken and the Colossal Octopus: In the Wake of Sea-Monsters. London: Kegan Paul International. 2003. ISBN 0-7103-0870-1; the Natural History of Hidden Animals. London: Kegan Paul. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7103-1333-1. Neanderthal: The Strange Saga of the Minnesota Iceman. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. 2016. ISBN 1938398610. Sjögren, B.. Farliga djur och djur som inte finns. Prisma. Sjögren, B.. Berömda vidunder. Bokförlaget Settern. Obituary by Loren Coleman Unknown Explorers Biography Institut Virtuel de Cryptozoologie Biography in French The Centre for Fortean Zoology Bernard Heuvelmans at Library of Congress Authorities, with 19 catalogue records
The okapi known as the forest giraffe, congolese giraffe or zebra giraffe, is an artiodactyl mammal native to the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. Although the okapi has striped markings reminiscent of zebras, it is most related to the giraffe; the okapi and the giraffe are the only living members of the family Giraffidae. The okapi stands about 1.5 m tall at the shoulder and has an average body length around 2.5 m. Its weight ranges from 200 to 350 kg, it has a long neck, large, flexible ears. Its coat is a chocolate to reddish brown, much in contrast with the white horizontal stripes and rings on the legs and white ankles. Male okapis have short, hair-covered, horn-like protuberances on their heads called ossicones, less than 15 cm in length. Females possess hair whorls, ossicones are absent. Okapis are diurnal, but may be active for a few hours in darkness, they are solitary, coming together only to breed. Okapis are herbivores, feeding on tree leaves and buds, ferns and fungi.
Rut in males and estrus in females does not depend on the season. In captivity, estrous cycles recur every 15 days; the gestational period is around 440 to 450 days long, following which a single calf is born. The juveniles are kept in hiding, nursing takes place infrequently. Juveniles start taking solid food from three months, weaning takes place at six months. Okapis inhabit canopy forests at altitudes of 500–1,500 m, they are endemic to the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they occur across the central and eastern regions. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies the okapi as endangered. Major threats include habitat loss due to logging and human settlement. Extensive hunting for bushmeat and skin and illegal mining have led to a decline in populations; the Okapi Conservation Project was established in 1987 to protect okapi populations. Although the okapi was unknown to the Western world until the 20th century, it may have been depicted since the early fifth century BCE on the façade of the Apadana at Persepolis, a gift from the Ethiopian procession to the Achaemenid kingdom.
For years, Europeans in Africa had heard of an animal. The animal was brought to prominent European attention by speculation on its existence found in press reports covering Henry Morton Stanley's journeys in 1887. In his travelogue of exploring the Congo, Stanley mentioned a kind of donkey that the natives called the atti, which scholars identified as the okapi. Explorers may have seen the fleeting view of the striped backside as the animal fled through the bushes, leading to speculation that the okapi was some sort of rainforest zebra; when the British special commissioner in Uganda, Sir Harry Johnston, discovered some Pygmy inhabitants of the Congo being abducted by a showman for exhibition, he rescued them and promised to return them to their homes. The Pygmies fed Johnston's curiosity about the animal mentioned in Stanley's book. Johnston was puzzled by the okapi. Though Johnston did not see an okapi himself, he did manage to obtain pieces of striped skin and a skull. From this skull, the okapi was classified as a relative of the giraffe.
Okapia johnstoni was first described as Equus johnstoni by English zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater in 1901. The generic name Okapia derives from the Lese Karo name o'api, while the specific name is in recognition of Sir Harry Johnston, who first acquired an okapi specimen for science from the Ituri Forest while repatriating a group of Pygmies to the Congo Free State. Remains of a carcass were sent to London by Johnston and became a media event in 1901. In 1901, Sclater presented a painting of the okapi before the Zoological Society of London that depicted its physical features with some clarity. Much confusion arose regarding the taxonomical status of this newly discovered animal. Sir Harry Johnston himself called it a relative of other extinct giraffids. Based on the description of the okapi by Pygmies, who referred to it as a "horse", Sclater named the species Equus johnstoni. Subsequently, Lankester declared that the okapi represented an unknown genus of the Giraffidae, which he placed in its own genus and assigned the name Okapia johnstoni to the species.
In 1902, Swiss zoologist Charles Immanuel Forsyth Major suggested the inclusion of O. johnstoni in the extinct giraffid subfamily Palaeotraginae. However, the species was placed in its own subfamily Okapiinae, by Swedish palaeontologist Birger Bohlin in 1926 due to the lack of a cingulum, a major feature of the palaeotragids. In 1986, Okapia was established as a sister genus of Giraffa on the basis of cladistic analysis; the two genera together with Palaeotragus constitute the tribe Giraffini. The earliest members of the Giraffidae first appeared in the early Miocene in Africa, having diverged from the superficially deer-like climacoceratids. Giraffids spread into Asia by the middle Miocene in a first radiation. Another radiation began in the Pliocene, but was terminated by a decline in diversity in the Pleistocene. Several important primitive giraffids existed more or less contemporaneously in the Miocene, including Canthumeryx, Giraffokeryx and Samotherium. According to palaeontologist and author Kathleen Hunt, Samotherium split into Okapia (18 million years ago