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International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System; the ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, abnormal findings, social circumstances, external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases. ICD-11 is a major step forward, because it has the necessary terminological and ontological elements for seamless use in digital health.

The ICD is published by the WHO and used worldwide for morbidity and mortality statistics, reimbursement systems, automated decision support in health care. This system is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing and presentation of these statistics. Like the analogous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the ICD is a major project to statistically classify all health disorders, provide diagnostic assistance; the ICD is a core statistically based classificatory diagnostic system for health care related issues of the WHO Family of International Classifications. The ICD is revised periodically and is in its 10th revision. ICD-10, as it is therefore known, is from 1992 and the WHO publishes annual minor updates and triennial major updates; the eleventh revision of the ICD was accepted by WHO's World Health Assembly on 25 May 2019 and will come into effect on 1 January 2022. The version for preparation of approval at the WHA was released on 18 June 2018.

The ICD is part of a "family" of international classifications that complement each other, including the International Classification of Functioning and Health which focuses on the domains of functioning associated with health conditions, from both medical and social perspectives, the International Classification of Health Interventions that classifies the whole range of medical, nursing and public health interventions. In 1860, during the international statistical congress held in London, Florence Nightingale made a proposal, to result in the development of the first model of systematic collection of hospital data. In 1893, a French physician, Jacques Bertillon, introduced the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death at a congress of the International Statistical Institute in Chicago. A number of countries adopted Bertillon's system, based on the principle of distinguishing between general diseases and those localized to a particular organ or anatomical site, as used by the City of Paris for classifying deaths.

Subsequent revisions represented a synthesis of English and Swiss classifications, expanding from the original 44 titles to 161 titles. In 1898, the American Public Health Association recommended that the registrars of Canada and the United States adopt it; the APHA recommended revising the system every 10 years to ensure the system remained current with medical practice advances. As a result, the first international conference to revise the International Classification of Causes of Death took place in 1900, with revisions occurring every ten years thereafter. At that time, the classification system was contained in one book, which included an Alphabetic Index as well as a Tabular List; the book was small compared with current coding texts. The revisions that followed contained minor changes, until the sixth revision of the classification system. With the sixth revision, the classification system expanded to two volumes; the sixth revision included morbidity and mortality conditions, its title was modified to reflect the changes: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Causes of Death.

Prior to the sixth revision, responsibility for ICD revisions fell to the Mixed Commission, a group composed of representatives from the International Statistical Institute and the Health Organization of the League of Nations. In 1948, the WHO assumed responsibility for preparing and publishing the revisions to the ICD every ten years. WHO sponsored the seventh and eighth revisions in 1957 and 1968, respectively, it became clear that the established ten year interval between revisions was too short. The ICD is the most used statistical classification system for diseases in the world. In addition, some countries—including Australia and the United States—have developed their own adaptations of ICD, with more procedure codes for classification of operative or diagnostic procedures; the ICD-6, published in 1949, was the first to be shaped to become suitable for morbidity reporting. Accordingly, the name changed from International List of Causes of Death to International Statistical Classification of Diseases.

The combined code section for injuries and their associated accidents was split into two, a chapter for injuries, a chapter for their external causes. With use for morbidity there was a need for coding mental conditions, for the first time a section on mental disorders was added; the international Conference for the Seventh Revision of the International Cla

March 2017 Israel–Syria incident

The March 2017 Israel–Syria incident took place on 17 March 2017, when Israeli Air Force struck a target in Syria. In response the Syrian Army fired several S-200 missiles at Israeli jets above Golan Heights. Israel reported that one Syrian missile had been shot down by an Arrow 2 missile, while none of its aircraft had been damaged. Israel stated it was targeting weapon shipments headed toward anti-Israeli forces Hezbollah, in Lebanon, while the Syrian Army claimed that a military site near Palmyra had been struck. Syria claimed to have shot down one Israeli aircraft. Israel denied Syria's claim that another damaged. Israel has not reported any pilots or aircraft missing in Syria, or anywhere else in the Middle East following the incident. Neither Syria nor Hezbollah have shown photos or video of downed Israeli aircraft or personnel. According to some sources, the incident was the first time Israeli officials confirmed an Israeli strike against Hezbollah during the Syrian Civil War. Following a generic statement by the Israeli Defense Forces reading "Several anti-aircraft missiles were launched from Syria following the mission, IDF aerial defense systems intercepted one of the missiles.

At no point was the safety of Israeli civilians or the IAF aircraft compromised", several news reports started speculating about the use of the Arrow system to defend jet fighters from hostile surface to air missiles. However other Israeli news publications confirmed that the initial reading of the IDF statement was wrong, but the IDF detected Syrian S-200 missiles on course to reach Israel, so the Arrow missile system was used to prevent them falling on settled areas. Indeed, a S-200, after losing its target, hence going ballistic, has the size, the speed and the range of a battlefield artillery rocket such as the FROG-7, one of the standard targets the Israeli missile defense is shaped around; the Jordanian Armed Forces reported. There were no casualties in Jordan. On 19 March 2017, Israeli defense minister Avigdor Liberman said that if Syria uses its air defense system against Israeli aircraft again, Israel will respond by targeting Syrian air defense systems. On 19 March an Israeli Skylark drone crashed in Syria due to human error.

There were further reports on alleged Israeli airstrikes on 22 March 2017, with another round of bombings carried out on suspected Hezbollah targets near Damascus. On 25 March 2017, the Syrian government said that it will respond to future Israeli strikes on Syrian military targets with Scud missile attacks against IDF bases, it will retaliate against future strikes on Syrian civilian targets by firing Scud missiles at the Israeli city of Haifa. February 2018 Israel–Syria incident


The Spercheios known as the Spercheus from its Latin name, is a river in Phthiotis in central Greece. It is 80 km long, its drainage area is 1,830 km2, it was worshipped as a god in the ancient Greek religion and appears in some collections of Greek mythology. In antiquity, its upper valley was known as Ainis. In AD 997, its valley was the site of the Battle of Spercheios, which ended Bulgarian incursions into the Byzantine Empire; the river begins in the Tymfristos mountains on the border with Evrytania and flows to the east through the village Agios Georgios Tymfristou, entering a wide plain. It flows along the towns Makrakomi and Leianokladi, south of the Phthiotidan capital Lamia; the river flows through an area of former wetlands. It empties into the Malian Gulf of the Aegean Sea 13 kilometers southeast of Lamia. In antiquity, the mouth of the river was the site of Antikyra, famed for its black and white hellebore. Several studies have been conducted regarding the river's hydrological regime.

Its silt has filled the Malian Gulf, turning Thermopylae from a narrow pass into a wide plain. Homer's Iliad names the river as the father of Menesthius, one of Achilles's lieutenants. Antoninus Liberalis notes the tradition that Cerambus was punished for claiming that the nymphs of Mount Othrys, the Spercheides, were the daughters of Spercheios by Deino. Antoninus Liberalis relates the account that Spercheios and Polydora's son was Dryops, king of Oeta, who fathered Dryope. Béquignon, Yves. La vallée du Spercheios des origines au IVe siècle. Études d'archéologie et de topographie. Paris: De Boccard