Kigeli V of Rwanda
Kigeli V Ndahindurwa was the last ruling King of Rwanda, from 28 July 1959 until the abolition of the Rwandan monarchy on 25 September 1961, shortly before the country acceded to independence from Belgium. After a brief period of moveabouts after leaving Rwanda, the titular King lived in exile during the final part of his life in the town of Oakton, United States. In exile, he was known for heading the King Kigeli V Foundation, an organisation promoting humanitarian work for Rwandan refugees, he was notable for his activities in maintaining the dynastic, cultural heritage of his reigning royal house, including noble titles, dynastic orders of chivalry and other distinctions. After the king's death, a successor was said to be shortly revealed. In January 2017, it was announced. Yuhi VI is the nephew of both the late King Kigeli V and the previous King Mutara III, as well as a grandson of King Yuhi V of Rwanda. Kigeli was born Ndahindurwa on 29 June 1936 in Kamembe, Rwanda, to Yuhi Musinga, the deposed King Yuhi V of Rwanda, Queen Mukashema, the seventh of his eleven wives.
He is ethnically Tutsi. Kigeli had fourteen siblings; when Kigeli was 4 years old, his father was exiled by the Belgian government to Moba, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Following the death of his father, in 1944 he returned to Rwanda. Kigeli was baptised in the Catholic Church in his teens, taking the Christian name Jean-Baptiste, remained a devout Catholic throughout his life, he received his education at the Groupe Scolaire Astrida in Rwanda, at the Nyangezi College in the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. After he finished school in 1956, he worked in local government in Rwanda until 1959. After his half-brother, King Mutara III Rudahigwa, died under mysterious circumstances on 25 July 1959, it was announced on 28 July that Kigeli would succeed him as King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa. "Kigeli" is sometimes transcribed as "Kigeri". Though married, Kigeli's late half-brother had had no children. Kigeli's appointment was a surprise to the Belgian administration, who were not involved in his selection, who described the event as a coup d'état, a view shared by the newly politically empowered Hutu elite.
Kigeli himself felt shocked and overwhelmed at the news of his ascension. The tense atmosphere and presence of armed Rwandans at the funeral prevented the Belgians from objecting, as well as preventing Hutu interference. Despite this, Kigeli was favoured by all sides: Tutsi traditionalists, Hutu nationalists, the Catholic clergy all felt optimistic on his appointment. However, the manner of his appointment led to a loss of prestige for the Belgian authorities, gave both Hutu and Tutsi revolutionaries the impression that violence might further their goals; the fact that the Tutsi establishment had engineered the rise to power compromised Kigeli's ability to act in the traditional role as a neutral arbiter of differing factions. Kigeli duly followed regal tradition by disregarding past ethnic and ideological affiliations, embracing the role of the'father of all Rwandan people'. However, political instability and tribal conflict grew despite efforts by others. Only a month after Kigeli's November 1959 ascension, Hutu versus Tutsi militancy increased to the point that hundreds died.
Many Tutsi went into exile. Issues with the restive Hutu population were encouraged by the Belgian military, promoting widespread revolt. Kigeli wrote, "I am not clinging to power... I will always accept the people’s verdict. In 1961, Kigeli was in Kinshasa to meet Secretary General of the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld when Dominique Mbonyumutwa, with the support of the Belgian government, led a coup d'état that took control of the Rwandan state; the monarchy's rule was formally overthrown on 28 January 1961. The coup resulted in the 1961 referendum about the fate of the nation's royal system; the election results showed that, with about 95% turnout, around 80% of voters opposed the continuation of the monarchy. Kigeli criticized the affair as rigged; the government deported Kigeli to what is now Tanzania on 2 October 1961. He subsequently lived in multiple other locations, leaving the region of Tanganyika for places such as Kampala and Nairobi, Kenya, he was granted political asylum in the United States in July 1992.
He resided in the U. S. for the rest of his life. Granted political asylum by the United States, he settled near Washington, D. C. where he claimed welfare, lived in subsidized housing. He subsequently settled in the Oakton, area, he traveled internationally to speak on behalf of the Rwandan people and called for peace and harmony between the different groups. Kigeli continued to remember the victims of the Rwandan Genocide and attempted to reconcile all political and religious parties in Rwanda to use the democratic process to solve any disputes. Kigeli was a friend of former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela and the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Patrice Lumumba. In an August 2007 BBC interview, Kigeli expressed an interest in returning to Rwanda if the Rwandan people were prepared to accept
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger was an American politician and businessman. As a prominent Republican, he served in a variety of state and federal positions for three decades, including Chairman of the California Republican Party, 1962–68. Most notably he was Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1987. Weinberger was born in California, he served in the 41st Infantry Division in the Pacific theater of World War II. Weinberger's entry into politics was as a California State Assemblyman from 1953 to 1959, he would go on to serve as Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission and Director of the Office of Management and Budget under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. An accomplished private sector businessman, he became vice president and general counsel of Bechtel Corporation, still Chairman of Forbes magazine. Weinberger's tenure as Secretary of Defense is the third longest in U. S. history, spanned the final years of the Cold War. He is known for his key role in the administration's Strategic Defense Initiative and for being indicted in the Iran–Contra affair.
Weinberger was awarded both the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987 and an honorary British knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II. Weinberger was born in San Francisco, the younger of two sons of Herman Weinberger, a Colorado man, his father was of Jewish descent from Bohemia, while his maternal grandparents were immigrants from England. Weinberger had stated that his mother's Episcopal religion was "an enormous influence and comfort all my life". Weinberger was named "Caspar" for a friend of his mother's. Weinberger was a first cousin of the nationally broadcast radio personality Don McNeill of Don McNeill's Breakfast Club. Caspar Weinberger's father, was the younger brother of Luella Weinberger McNeill, mother of Don McNeill; the 1910 Census shows Herman and Luella living in the household of Nathan Weinberger, the grandfather of Caspar Weinberger. Weinberger's paternal grandparents had left Judaism because of a dispute at a Bohemian synagogue, he was raised in a home with no denominational ties, though with a general Christian orientation.
Weinberger would become an active Episcopalian and expressed his faith in God. Weinberger attended San Francisco Polytechnic High School, he gained admission to Harvard University. When he enrolled at Harvard College, his mother rented an apartment nearby for the first semester that Weinberger and his older brother, attended Harvard, she returned to her husband in San Francisco. Weinberger received his Bachelor of Arts in government, magna cum laude, in 1938 and a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1941, both from Harvard, he edited the Harvard student newspaper, The Harvard Crimson, recalls in his memoirs entitled In the Arena: A Memoir of the 20th Century two specific interviews of which he was most pleased: one with the decorated soldier Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. and another with Alabama-born actress Tallulah Bankhead. Prior to attending Harvard Law School, Weinberger had been offered a scholarship to study at the University of Cambridge, he entered the United States Army as a private in 1941, was commissioned as a second lieutenant at the United States Army Officer Candidate School in Fort Benning and served with the 41st Infantry Division in the Pacific.
At the end of the war he was a captain on General Douglas MacArthur's intelligence staff. Early in life, he developed an interest in politics and history, during the war years, a special admiration for Winston Churchill, whom he would cite as an important influence in his life. From 1945–1947, Weinberger worked as a law clerk for a federal judge before joining a San Francisco law firm. In 1952, Weinberger entered the race for California's 21st State Assembly district in the San Francisco Bay area as a Republican at the persuasion of his wife, Jane Weinberger, who served as his campaign manager, he won and was reelected in 1954 and 1956. As the Chairman of the Assembly Government Organization Committee, Weinberger was responsible for the creation of the California Department of Water Resources and was instrumental in the creation of the California State Water Project. Weinberger unsuccessfully opposed the construction of the Embarcadero Freeway, saying it would ruin the view of the Bay and damage property values.
Weinberger felt vindicated. Although unsuccessful in his 1958 campaign for California Attorney General, Weinberger continued to be active in politics and was chosen by Nixon in 1962 to become chairman of the California Republican Party. Governor Ronald Reagan named him chairman of the Commission on California State Government Organization and Economy in 1967 and appointed him State director of finance early in 1968. Weinberger moved to Washington in January 1970 to become chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, he is credited for having revitalized the FTC by enforcing consumer protection. He subsequently served under President Richard Nixon as deputy director and director of the Office of Management and Budget and Secretary of Health and Welfare. While serving in the Office of Management and Budget, Weinberger earned the nickname "Cap the Knife" for his cost-cutting ability. For the next five years, Weinberger was vice president and general counsel of the Bechtel Corporation in California.
Weinberger was vying for Reagan to appoint him as Secretary of State but was given the position of Secretary of Defense instead. Weinberger took the lead in implementing a rollback strategy against Soviet communism. In 1984, journalist Nicholas Lemann interviewed
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Ermias Sahle Selassie
Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie is the only son of Prince Sahle Selassie of Ethiopia and Princess Mahisente Habte Mariam. He is the grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, furthermore of Dejazmach Habte Mariam Gebre-Igziabiher, the heir to the former Welega kingdom of Leqa Naqamte, served as governor of Welega province; the prince is ninth in the line of succession to the vacant imperial throne. Prince Ermias was educated in Ethiopia, Great Britain, the United States. In England, he received his education at Old Ride Preparatory School, at Haileybury College, he obtained a BA degree in the social studies, with an emphasis in economics, from the University of California, in Santa Barbara. He continued his education at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy between 1983 and 1985. Prince Ermias is fluent in Amharic and German. Prince Ermias was first married on 9 June 1989 to Woizero Gelila Fesseha, daughter of Afe-Negus Fesseha Gabre-Selassie, a former Lord Chief Justice of Ethiopia, by her is the father of twin sons: Prince Sahle-Selassie Ermias.
Born on 20 February 1992. Prince Fesseha Zion Ermias. Born on 20 February 1992. Prince Ermias and his first wife divorced in July 2004. On 25 February 2011, Prince Ermias married Woizero Saba Kebede; the Prince and his wife live in the Metro Washington DC area. Prince Ermias serves as the President of the Crown Council of Ethiopia in exile; the Crown Council has pursued a mission devoted to the promoting a humanitarian role. Prince Ermias is patron of the Haile Selassie Fund for Children in Need which continues to sponsor student scholarships, the St. George of Lalibela Foundation. On 16 September 2010, Prince Ermias delivered remarks at a briefing entitled "Traditional Leadership in the Modern World: Humanitarianism and the Diaspora" in the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington, D. C; this briefing was conducted by Representative Diane Watson, a member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, whose congressional district in Los Angeles includes Little Ethiopia. Empaneled with visiting royalty from Cameroon and the Kingdom of Swaziland, Prince Ermias described the cultural leadership exercised by deposed and exiled royalty among members of ethnic communities living in either ancestral lands or diaspora in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Founder of the Imperial Society of Saint George of Lalibela, Washington DC, 1998. Board Member of Tuition Credit Exchange Inc. Chairman Advisory Board of Bezant Corporation. Patron of the Haile Selassie Foundation for Ethiopia’s Children Inc. Patron for Africa for the Flying Hospital Charity. Director of the La Roche College. Member of the Board of the United States National Slavery Museum. Honorary Member Advisory Committee of the Angel Foundation. Member of the Luso-Ethiopian Friendship Association. Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Francis I of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Knight Grand Collar of the Royal Order of the Drum. Grand Cordon of the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl of Sulu Golden Key of the City of Frankfort, United States, by Mayor Graham ISSA Silver Star Award by the International Strategic Studies Association for "Outstanding Contributions to Strategic Progress Through Humanitarian Achievement" for his work for Ethiopian refugees in Africa Medal of Merit of South Carolina, United States Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Order of Saint Lazarus.
Knight Grand Cross of Merit of the Companionate of Merit of the Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus. Line of succession to the Ethiopian Throne Biography at Ethiopian Crown Council website
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: International nongovernmental organizations: non-governmental organizations that operate internationally; these include international non-profit organizations and worldwide companies such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement, International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières. Intergovernmental organizations known as international governmental organizations: the type of organization most associated with the term'international organization', these are organizations that are made up of sovereign states. Notable examples include the United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Council of Europe, International Labour Organization and International Police Organization; the UN has used the term "intergovernmental organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity. The first and oldest intergovernmental organization is the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna.
The role of international organizations is helping to set the international agenda, mediating political bargaining, providing a place for political initiatives and acting as catalysts for coalition- formation. International organizations define the salient issues and decide which issues can be grouped together, thus help governmental priority determination or other governmental arrangements. Not all international organizations seek economic and social cooperation and integration. Headquarters of International Organisation List of International Organisation and their Headquarters Procedural history and related documents on the'Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law World News related documents on the World News related documents