University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College and Mason Science College, making it the first English civic or'red brick' university to receive its own royal charter, it is a founding member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 14th in the UK and 79th in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2019. In 2013, Birmingham was named'University of the Year 2014' in the Times Higher Education awards; the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 142nd worldwide and 10th in the UK. Birmingham is ranked 5th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018; the student population includes 22,440 undergraduate and 12,395 postgraduate students, the fourth largest in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £673.8 million of which £134.2 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £663.2 million.
The university is home to the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, housing works by Van Gogh and Monet. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, the British composer Sir Edward Elgar and eleven Nobel laureates. Although the earliest beginnings of the university were traced back to the Queen's College, linked to William Sands Cox in his aim of creating a medical school along Christian lines, unlike the London medical schools, further research has now revealed the roots of the Birmingham Medical School in the medical education seminars of Mr John Tomlinson, the first surgeon to the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary, to the General Hospital; these classes were the first held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68. The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, opened in 1779; the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825.
Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and allowed it to be styled "The Queen's Hospital". It was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the medical college became known as Queen's College. In 1870, Sir Josiah Mason, the Birmingham industrialist and philanthropist, who made his fortune in making key rings, pen nibs and electroplating, drew up the Foundation Deed for Mason Science College; the college was founded in 1875. It was this institution that would form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy; the transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the growing importance of that college and in 1896 a move to incorporate it as a university college was made. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898, with Joseph Chamberlain becoming the President of its Court of Governors.
It was due to Chamberlain's enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900. The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July; the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title; the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Mason's legacy was his Mermaid in the sinister chief of the university shield and of his college, the double-headed lion in the dexter, it became the first civic and campus university in England. The University Charter of 1900 included provision for a commerce faculty, as was appropriate for a university itself founded by industrialists and based in a city with enormous business wealth, in effect creating the first Business School in England.
The faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university, he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock. The university's own heritage archives are accessible for research through the university's Cadbury Research Library, open to all interested researchers; the Great Hall in the Aston Webb Building was converted into the 1st Southern General Hospital during World War I, with 520 beds and treated 125,000 injured servicemen. In 1939, the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Atkinson, was opened. In 1956, the first MSc programme in Geotechnical Engineering commenced under the title of "Foundation Engineering", has been run annually at the university since, it was the
University of Bristol
The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1909, although like the University of the West of England and the University of Bath, it can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, founded as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers, its key predecessor institution, University College, had been in existence since 1876. Bristol is organised into six academic faculties composed of multiple schools and departments running over 200 undergraduate courses situated in the Tyndalls Park area of the city; the university had a total income of £642.7 million in 2017/18, of which £164.0 million was from research grants and contracts. It is the largest independent employer in Bristol; the University of Bristol is ranked 44th by the QS World University Rankings 2018, is ranked amongst the top 10 of UK universities by QS, THE, ARWU. A selective institution, it has an average of 6.4 to 13.1 applicants for each undergraduate place.
It was ranked 9th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. Current academics include 21 fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences, 13 fellows of the British Academy, 13 fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 44 fellows of the Royal Society; the university has been associated with 13 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, Dorothy Hodgkin, Hans Albrecht Bethe, Max Delbrück, Gerhard Herzberg, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, Sir Paul Nurse, Harold Pinter, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio and most 2015 Economics Nobel Prize winner Angus Deaton. Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, the European-wide Coimbra Group and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the university's previous vice-chancellor, Eric Thomas, was chairman from 2005 to 2007. In addition, the university holds an Erasmus Charter, sending more than 500 students per year to partner institutions in Europe.
The earliest antecedent of the university was the engineering department of the Merchant Venturers' Technical College which became the engineering faculty of Bristol University. The university was preceded by Bristol Medical School and University College, founded in 1876, where its first lecture was attended by only 99 students; the university was able to apply for a royal charter due to the financial support of the Wills and Fry families, who made their fortunes in tobacco plantations and chocolate, respectively. The Wills Family made a vast fortune from the tobacco industry and gave generously to the city and university; the royal charter was gained in May 1909, with 288 undergraduates and 400 other students entering the university in October 1909. Henry Overton Wills III became its first chancellor; the University College was the first such institution in the country to admit women on the same basis as men. However, women were forbidden to take examinations in medicine until 1906. Since the founding of the university itself in 1909, it has grown and is now one of the largest employers in the local area, although it is smaller by student numbers than the nearby University of the West of England.
Bristol is spread over a considerable geographic area. Most of its activities, are concentrated in the area of the city centre, referred to as the "University Precinct", it is a member of the Russell Group of research-led UK universities, the Coimbra Group of leading European universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. After the founding of the University College in 1876, Government support began in 1889. After mergers with the Bristol Medical School in 1893 and the Merchant Venturers' Technical College in 1909, this funding allowed the opening of a new medical school and an engineering school—two subjects that remain among the university's greatest strengths. In 1908, gifts from the Fry and Wills families £100,000 from Henry Overton Wills III, were provided to endow a University for Bristol and the West of England, provided that a royal charter could be obtained within two years. In December 1909, the King erected the University of Bristol. Henry Wills became Conwy Lloyd Morgan the first vice-chancellor.
Wills died in 1911 and in tribute his sons George and Harry built the Wills Memorial Building, starting in 1913 and finishing in 1925. Today, it houses parts of the academic provision for earth sciences and law, graduation ceremonies are held in its Great Hall; the Wills Memorial Building is a Grade II* listed building. In 1920, George Wills bought the Victoria Rooms and endowed them to the university as a Students' Union; the building now is a Grade II * listed building. At the point of foundation, the university was required to provide for the local community; this mission was behind the creation of the Department of Extra-Mural Adult Education in 1924 to provide courses to the local community. This mission continues today. Among the famous names associated with Bristol in this early period is Paul Dirac, who graduated in 1921 with a degree in engineering, before obtaining a second degree in mathematics in 1923 from Cambridge. For his subsequent pioneering work on quantum mechanics, he was awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics.
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, used for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950; the camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum. The camp was established in 1936, it was located 35 kilometres north of Berlin, which gave it a primary position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was located in Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen became a training centre for Schutzstaffel officers. Executions took place at Sachsenhausen of Soviet prisoners of war. During the earlier stages of the camp's existence the executions were done in a trench, either by shooting or by hanging. A large task force of prisoners was used from the camp to work in nearby brickworks to meet Albert Speer's vision of rebuilding Berlin.
Sachsenhausen was not intended as an extermination camp—instead, the systematic murder was conducted in camps to the east. In 1942 large numbers of Jewish inmates were relocated to Auschwitz; however the construction of a gas chamber and ovens by camp-commandant Anton Kaindl in March 1943 in the so-called Industriehof facilitated the means to kill larger numbers of prisoners. Another option was the genickschussbaracke or neck-shooting barrack where unsuspecting victims being measured for their height and weight were shot in the back of the neck through a sliding door located behind the neck; the Main gate or Guard Tower "A", with its 8mm Maxim machine gun, the type used by the Germans in the trenches of World War I, housed the offices of the camp administration. On the front entrance gates to Sachsenhausen is the infamous slogan Arbeit Macht Frei. About 200,000 people passed through Sachsenhausen between 1936 and 1945. Anchoring the base of the triangular shaped thousand-acre site was the large Appellplatz, where tens of thousands of prisoners would line up for morning and evening roll call.
Creating a semi circular configuration, were the barracks of custody zone I which fanned out from the base of the Appellplatz. Sachsenhausen was intended to set a standard for other concentration camps, both in its design and the treatment of prisoners; the camp perimeter is an equilateral triangle with a semi circular roll call area centered on the main entrance gate in the boundary running northeast to southwest. Barrack huts lie beyond the roll call area; the layout was intended to allow the machine gun post in the entrance gate to dominate the camp but in practice it was necessary to add additional watchtowers to the perimeter. The standard barrack layout was to have a central washing area and a separate room with toilet bowls and a right and left wing for overcrowded sleeping rooms. There was an infirmary inside the southern angle of the perimeter and a camp prison within the eastern angle. There was a camp kitchen and a camp laundry; the camp's capacity became inadequate and the camp was extended in 1938 by a new rectangular area northeast of the entrance gate and the perimeter wall was altered to enclose it.
There was an additional area outside the main camp perimeter to the north. Template:KL by Nikolaus Wachsmann ISBN 978-1-4087-0774-6 The camp was secure and there were few successful escapes; the perimeter consisted of a 3-metre-high stone wall on the outside. Within that there was a space, patrolled by guards and dogs. Any prisoner venturing onto the "death strip" would be shot by the guards without warning. Officers would force prisoners to cross this strip at gun point and threaten to kill the prisoner if they did not cross, in the end the prisoner would cross the death strip and get killed anyway. Rewards such as extra leave were offered to guards who shot and killed any prisoner who entered onto the death zone. Sachsenhausen was the site of Operation Bernhard, one of the largest currency counterfeiting operations recorded; the Germans forced inmate artisans to produce forged American and British currency, as part of a plan to undermine the British and American economies, courtesy of Sicherheitsdienst chief Reinhard Heydrich.
Over one billion pounds in counterfeit banknotes were recovered. The Germans introduced fake British £5, £10, £20 and £50 notes into circulation in 1943: the Bank of England never found them. Plans had been made to drop British pounds over London by plane. Today, these notes are considered valuable by collectors. An industrial area, outside the western camp perimeter, contained SS workshops in which prisoners were forced to work. Heinkel, the aircraft manufacturer, was a major user of Sachsenhausen labour, using between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners on their He 177 bomber. Although official German reports claimed the prisoners were "working without fault", some of these aircraft crashed unexpectedly around Stalingrad and it is suspected that prisoners had sabotaged them. Other firms included Siemens. Prisoners worked in a brick factory, which some say was supposed to supply the building blocks for Hitler's dream city, Welthauptstadt Germania, to be the capital of the world once the Nazis took over
The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities, it can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist or a single country within which they do. Groups associated with an aboriginal or autochthonous ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are the focus. In reference to sociology, multiculturalism is the end-state of either a natural or artificial process and occurs on either a large national scale or on a smaller scale within a nation's communities. On a smaller scale this can occur artificially when a jurisdiction is established or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures.
On a large scale, it can occur as a result of either legal or illegal migration to and from different jurisdictions around the world. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves policies which vary widely, it has been described as as a "cultural mosaic" -- in contrast to a melting pot. In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences, it is associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", "the politics of recognition". It is a matter of economic interests and political power. In more recent times political multiculturalist ideologies have been expanding in their use to include and define disadvantaged groups such as African Americans, LGBT, with arguments focusing on ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, indigenous peoples and the disabled, it is within this context in which the term is most understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate.
Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. The arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group's culture subordination and its entire experience in contrast to a melting pot or non-multicultural societies; the term multiculturalism is most used in reference to Western nation-states, which had achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries. Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are made of a mosaic of cultures; the Canadian government has been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism.
In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today. It was adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Right-of-center governments in several European states – notably the Netherlands and Denmark – have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism. A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" terrorism. Several heads-of-state or heads-of-government have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The United Kingdom's ex-Prime Minister David Cameron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Australia's ex-prime minister John Howard, Spanish ex-prime minister Jose Maria Aznar and French ex-president Nicolas Sarkozy have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants.
Many nation-states in Africa and the Americas are culturally diverse and are'multicultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue; the policies adopted by these states have parallels with multiculturalist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building – for instance in the Malaysian government's attempt to create a'Malaysian race' by 2020. Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to express who they are within a society, more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues, they argue that culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple factors that change as the world changes. Support for modern multiculturalism stems from the changes in Western societies after World War II, in what Susanne Wessendorf calls the "human rights revolution", in which the horrors of institutionalized racism and ethnic cleansing became impossible to ignore in the wake of the Holocaust.
Moravia is a historical region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire a crown land of the Austrian Empire and also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928. Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2 and about 3 million inhabitants, 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic; the statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2. The people are named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs; the land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno.
Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital. Though abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia; the region and former margraviate of Moravia, Morava in Czech, is named after its principal river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori: "waters", or indeed any word denoting water or a marsh; the German name for Moravia is Mähren, again from the river's German name March. Interestingly, this might hint at a different etymology, as march is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier. Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west and in the east, where all the rivers rise.
Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Outer Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians, provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started. Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south, Slovakia in the southeast, Poland shortly in the north, Czech Silesia in the northeast, its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west.
The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs along the Moravice and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia. Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region, the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian and South Bohemian regions. Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians, between the Danube basin and the North European Plain, its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley, the Upper Morava Valley and the Lower Morava Valley. The first two form the westernmost part of the Outer Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin; the valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians.
The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd. Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the east, with Smrk, south from here Javorníky; the White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at Javořice; the fluvial system of Moravia is cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, thus the entire area is drained by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya from Bečva. Morav
University of Reading
The University of Reading is a public university located in Reading, England. It was founded in 1892 as Reading, a University of Oxford extension college; the institution received the power to grant its own degrees in 1926 by Royal Charter from King George V and was the only university to receive such a charter between the two world wars. The university is categorised as a red brick university, reflecting its original foundation in the 19th century, it has four major campuses. In the United Kingdom, the campuses on London Road and Whiteknights are based in the town of Reading itself, Greenlands is based on the banks of the River Thames, Buckinghamshire, it has a campus in Iskandar Puteri, Malaysia. The university has been arranged into 16 academic schools since 2016. Reading was ranked 35th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 28th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. In total, 98% of the University's research is labelled as'internationally recognised', 78% as'internationally excellent and 27% as'world leading'.
Reading was the first university to win a Queen's Award for Export Achievement, in 1989. The annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £275.3 million of which £35.4 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £297.5 million. In 2019 it was reported; the university owes its first origins to the Schools of Art and Science established in Reading in 1860 and 1870. In 1892 the College at Reading was founded as an extension college by Christ Church, a college of the University of Oxford; the first President was the geographer Sir Halford John Mackinder. The Schools of Art and Science were transferred to the new college by Reading Town Council in the same year; the new college received its first treasury grant in 1901. Three years it was given a site, now the university's London Road Campus, by the Palmer family of Huntley & Palmers fame; the same family supported the opening of Wantage Hall in 1908, of the Research Institute in Dairying in 1912. The college first was unsuccessful at that time.
However a second petition, in 1925, was successful, the charter was granted on 17 March 1926. With the charter, the college became the University of Reading, the only new university to be created in the United Kingdom between the two world wars, it was added to the Combined English Universities constituency in 1928 in time for the 1929 general election. In 1947 the university purchased Whiteknights Park, to become its principal campus. In 1984 the University started a merger with Bulmershe College of Higher Education, completed in 1989. In October 2006, the Senior Management Board proposed the closure of its Physics Department to future undergraduate application; this was ascribed to financial reasons and lack of alternative ideas and caused considerable controversy, not least a debate in Parliament over the closure which prompted heated discussion of higher education issues in general. On 10 October the Senate voted to close the Department of Physics, a move confirmed by the Council on 20 November.
Other departments closed in recent years include Music, Sociology and Mechanical Engineering. The university council decided in March 2009 to close the School of Health and Social Care, a school whose courses have been oversubscribed. In January 2008, the university announced its merger with the Henley Management College to create the university's new Henley Business School, bringing together Henley College's expertise in MBAs with the University's existing Business School and ICMA Centre; the merger took formal effect on 1 August 2008, with the new business school split across the university's existing Whiteknights Campus and its new Greenlands Campus that housed Henley Management College. A restructuring of the university was announced in September 2009, which would bring together all the academic schools into three faculties, these being the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Humanities and Social sciences, Henley Business School; the move was predicted to result in the loss of some jobs in the film and television department, which has since moved into a brand new £11.5 million building on Whiteknights Campus.
In late 2009 it was announced that the London Road Campus was to undergo a £30 million renovation, preparatory to becoming the new home of the university's Institute of Education. The Institute moved to its new home in January 2012.. The refurbishment was funded by the sale of the adjoining site of Mansfield Hall, a former hall of residence, for demolition and replacement by private sector student accommodation; the university is a lead sponsor of UTC Reading, a new university technical college which opened in September 2013. In 2016 a move to reorganise the structure of Reading University provoked student protests. On 21 March 2016, staff announced a vote of no confidence in the Vice Chancellor Sir David Bell. 88% of those who voted backed the no confidence motion. In 2019 The Guardian reported that the university was in "a financial and governance crisis" after reporting itself to regulators over a £121 million loan; the university is sole trustee of the charitable National Institute for Research in Dairying trust, after selling trust land had borrowed the £121 million proceeds from the trust, despite the potential conflict of interest in the decision making.
Including this loan, the university has debts of £300 million, as well as having an operating deficit of over £40 million for the past two years. The university maintains over 1.6 square kilometres of grounds, in four distinct c
German occupation of Czechoslovakia
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's border regions known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement. German leader Adolf Hitler's pretext for this action was the alleged privations suffered by the ethnic German population living in those regions. New and extensive Czechoslovak border fortifications were located in the same area. Following the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi Germany, in March 1938, the conquest of Czechoslovakia became Hitler's next ambition; the incorporation of the Sudetenland into Germany that began on 1 October 1938 left the rest of Czechoslovakia weak, it became powerless to resist subsequent occupation. Part of the borderland region known as Zaolzie was occupied and subsequently returned to Poland after Czechoslovakia annexed it from Poland prior during the Polish-Soviet War. On 15 March 1939, the German Wehrmacht moved into the remainder of Czechoslovakia and, from Prague Castle, Hitler proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
The occupation ended with the surrender of Germany following World War II. Sudeten German pro-Nazi leader Konrad Henlein offered the Sudeten German Party as the agent for Hitler's campaign. Henlein met with Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938, where he was instructed to raise demands unacceptable to the Czechoslovak government led by president Edvard Beneš. On 24 April, the SdP issued the Karlsbader Program, demanding autonomy for the Sudetenland and the freedom to profess National Socialist ideology. If Henlein's demands were granted, the Sudetenland would be able to align itself with Nazi Germany. I am asking neither that Germany be allowed to oppress three and a half million Frenchmen, nor am I asking that three and a half million Englishmen be placed at our mercy. Rather I am demanding that the oppression of three and a half million Germans in Czechoslovakia cease and that the inalienable right to self-determination take its place; as the tepid reaction to the German Anschluss with Austria had shown, the governments of France, the United Kingdom and Czechoslovakia were set on avoiding war at any cost.
The French government did not wish to face Germany alone and took its lead from the British government and its prime minister, Neville Chamberlain. Chamberlain contended that Sudeten German grievances were justified and believed that Hitler's intentions were limited. Britain and France, advised Czechoslovakia to concede to the German demands. Beneš resisted, on 20 May 1938 a partial mobilization was under way in response to possible German invasion, it is suggested that mobilization could have been launched on basis of Soviet misinformation about Germany being on verge of invasion, which aimed to trigger war between Western powers. On 30 May, Hitler signed a secret directive for war against Czechoslovakia to begin no than 1 October. In the meantime, the British government demanded. Not wishing to sever his government's ties with Western Europe, Beneš reluctantly accepted; the British appointed Lord Runciman and instructed him to persuade Beneš to agree to a plan acceptable to the Sudeten Germans.
On 2 September, Beneš submitted the Fourth Plan, granting nearly all the demands of the Karlsbader Programm. Intent on obstructing conciliation, the SdP held demonstrations that provoked police action in Ostrava on 7 September; the Sudeten Germans broke off negotiations on 13 September, after which violence and disruption ensued. As Czechoslovak troops attempted to restore order, Henlein flew to Germany, on 15 September issued a proclamation demanding the takeover of the Sudetenland by Germany. On the same day, Hitler met with Chamberlain and demanded the swift takeover of the Sudetenland by the Third Reich under threat of war; the Czechs, Hitler claimed, were slaughtering the Sudeten Germans. Chamberlain referred the demand to the French governments; the Czechoslovak government resisted, arguing that Hitler's proposal would ruin the nation's economy and lead to German control of all of Czechoslovakia. The United Kingdom and France issued an ultimatum, making a French commitment to Czechoslovakia contingent upon acceptance.
On 21 September, Czechoslovakia capitulated. The next day, Hitler added new demands, insisting that the claims of Poland and Hungary be satisfied. Romania was invited to share in the division of Carpathian Ruthenia, but refused, because of being an ally of Czechoslovakia; the Czechoslovak capitulation precipitated an outburst of national indignation. In demonstrations and rallies and Slovaks called for a strong military government to defend the integrity of the state. A new cabinet—under General Jan Syrový—was installed, on 23 September 1938 a decree of general mobilization was issued; the Czechoslovak army—modern and possessing an excellent system of frontier fortifications—was prepared to fight. The Soviet Union announced its willingness to come to Czechoslovakia's assistance. Beneš, refused to go to war without the support of the Western powers. Hitler gave a speech in Berlin on 26 September 1938 and declared that the Sudetenland was "the last territorial demand I have to make in Europe", he stated that he had told Chamberlain, "I have assured him further that, this I repeat here before you, once this issue has been resolved, there will no longer be any further territorial problems for Germany in Europe!"On 28 September, Chamberlain appealed to Hitler for a conference.
Hitler met the next day, at Munich, with the chiefs of governments of France and Britain. The Czechoslovak government was neither consulted. On 29 September, the Munich Agreement was signed by Germany, Italy