Riddlesdown Common

Riddlesdown Common or Riddlesdown is a 43 hectare area of green space in Kenley, towards the northern end of the North Downs in the London Borough of Croydon. It is owned and maintained by the City of London Corporation, apart from two small areas, one of, operated by the London Wildlife Trust and the other by Croydon Council. An area of 32 hectares is a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest; the name Riddlesdown applies to the local district of residential housing. Discoveries of Neolithic stone axes and possible traces of Iron Age fields show that occupation goes back thousands of years; the name Riddlesdown is first recorded in 1331 as Ridelsdoune meaning'cleared woodland on a hill'. In medieval time Riddlesdown and the neighbouring Kenley Common formed part of the waste land of the manor of Watendone, the commoners rights included pasture for their livestock and gathering of materials for fuel. In the nineteenth century the coming of the railways increased the value of the land, the lord of the manor, Edmund Byron, began enclosing the area.

One local landowner, William Hall, refused to sell his land to Byron, in 1877 Hall and his brother brought a case against Byron in the Court of Chancery for encroaching on Common Land. They were successful, William Hall asked the Corporation of London to purchase the land to preserve it as open space. In 1883 the Corporation bought Kenley Common, they became part of the City Commons, seven green spaces in south London managed by the City Corporation of London. An area of 32 hectares is the Riddlesdown Site of Special Scientific Interest, it is the largest area of calcareous scrub in Greater London, with a herb-rich chalk grassland. It includes a disused chalk quarry, not open to the public, it has Taxus baccata. It is one of the few places in London with juniper Juniperus communis. There are early gentian and round-headed rampion. Invertebrate species include the scarce Roesel's bush-cricket; the site forms part of the Riddlesdown to Whyteleafe countryside area, managed by wardens working for the City of London, Croydon Council and Tandridge District Council.

There is access from Godstone Road. List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London List of parks and open spaces managed by the City of London Corporation Croydon parks and open spaces London Gardens Online, Riddlesdown London Borough of Croydon, Riddlesdown "Map of Riddlesdown SSSI". Natural England. Natural England, Riddlesdown SSSI citation Natural England, Riddlesdown Unit 1 Natural England, Riddlesdown Unit 2 Natural England, Riddlesdown Unit 3 City of London Corporation, Riddlesdown City of London Corporation, Map of Riddlesdown Common

Personal data

Personal data known as personal information or identifiable information is any information relating to an identifiable person. The abbreviation PII is accepted in the United States, but the phrase it abbreviates has four common variants based on personal / and identifiable / identifying. Not all are equivalent, for legal purposes the effective definitions vary depending on the jurisdiction and the purposes for which the term is being used. Under European and other data protection regimes, which centre around the General Data Protection Regulation, the term "personal data" is broader, determines the scope of the regulatory regime. National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-122 defines identifiable information as "any information about an individual maintained by an agency, including any information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual's identity, such as name, social security number and place of birth, mother's maiden name, or biometric records.

So, for example, a user's IP address is not classed as PII on its own, but is classified as a linked PII. However, in the European Union, the IP address of an Internet subscriber may be classed as personal data. Personal data is defined under the GDPR as "any information which related to an identified or identifiable natural person"; the concept of PII has become prevalent as information technology and the Internet have made it easier to collect PII leading to a profitable market in collecting and reselling PII. PII can be exploited by criminals to stalk or steal the identity of a person, or to aid in the planning of criminal acts; as a response to these threats, many website privacy policies address the gathering of PII, lawmakers such as the European Parliament have enacted a series of legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation to limit the distribution and accessibility of PII. Important confusion arises around whether PII means information, identifiable or identifying. In prescriptive data privacy regimes such as HIPAA, PII items have been defined.

In broader data protection regimes such as the GDPR, personal data is defined in a non-prescriptive principles-based way. Information that might not count as PII under HIPAA can be personal data for the purposes of GDPR. For this reason, "PII" is deprecated internationally; the U. S. government used the term "personally identifiable" in 2007 in a memorandum from the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, that usage now appears in US standards such as the NIST Guide to Protecting the Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information. The OMB memorandum defines PII as follows: A term similar to PII, "personal data" is defined in EU directive 95/46/EC, for the purposes of the directive: However, in the EU rules, there has been a clearer notion that the data subject can be identified through additional processing of other attributes—quasi- or pseudo-identifiers. In the GDPR Personal Data is defined as: Any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person.

Information, such as a name, that lacks context cannot be said to be SB1386 "personal information", but it must be said to be PII as defined by OMB. For example, the name John Smith has no meaning in the current context and is therefore not SB1386 "personal information", but it is PII. A Social Security Number without a name or some other associated identity or context information is not SB1386 "personal information", but it is PII. For example, the SSN 078-05-1120 by itself is PII, but it is not SB1386 "personal information"; however the combination of a valid name with the correct SSN is SB1386 "personal information". The combination of a name with a context may be considered PII. However, it is not necessary for the name to be combined with a context in order for it to be PII; the reason for this distinction is that bits of information such as names, although they may not be sufficient by themselves to make an identification, may be combined with other information to identify persons and expose them to harm.

According to the OMB, it is not always the case that PII is "sensitive", context may be taken into account in deciding whether certain PII is or is not sensitive. In Australia, the Privacy Act 1988 deals with the protection of individual privacy, using the OECD Privacy Principles from the 1980s to set up a broad, principles-based regulatory model. Section 6 has the relevant definition; the critical detail is that the definition of'personal information' applies to where