MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Andre Brandon deWilde was an American theater and television actor. Born into a theatrical family in Brooklyn, he debuted on Broadway at the age of seven and became a national phenomenon by the time he completed his 492 performances for The Member of the Wedding, he won a Donaldson Award for his performance, becoming the youngest actor to win one and starred in the subsequent film adaptation. DeWilde is best known for his performance as Joey Starrett in the film Shane for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, he starred in his own sitcom Jamie on ABC and became a household name making numerous radio and TV appearances before being featured on the cover of Life magazine on March 10, 1952, for his second Broadway outing, Mrs. McThing, he continued acting in stage and television roles into adulthood before his death at age 30 in a car crash in Colorado on July 6, 1972. Andre Brandon deWilde was the son of Eugenia deWilde. Fritz deWilde was the only son of Dutch immigrants who changed their surname from Neitzel-de Wilde to "deWilde" when they emigrated to the United States.
He was a descendant of the Dutch merchant and seigneur Andries de Wilde, married to Cornelia Henrica Neitzel. Fritz deWilde became an actor and Broadway production stage manager. Eugenia was a part-time stage actress. After deWilde's birth, the family moved from Brooklyn to Long Island. DeWilde made his much-acclaimed Broadway debut at the age of seven in The Member of the Wedding, he was the first child actor to win the Donaldson Award, his talent was praised by John Gielgud the following year. He starred in the 1952 film version of the play, directed by Fred Zinnemann. In 1952 deWilde acted in the film Shane as Joey Starrett and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance, becoming the youngest nominee for the time in a competitive category, he had the lead role in his own television series, Jamie which aired in 1953 and 1954. Although the series was popular, it was canceled due to a contract dispute. In 1956 he was featured with Walter Brennan, Phil Harris, Sidney Poitier in the coming-of-age Batjac movie production of Good-bye, My Lady, adapted from James Street's book.
This film showcased the then-rare dog breed Basenji, the African barkless dog, to American audiences. Brooklyn-born, deWilde's soft-spoken manner of speech in his early roles was more akin to a Southern drawl. In 1956 deWilde narrated classical music works Peter and the Wolf by Sergei Prokofiev and The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra by Benjamin Britten, he recorded a reading of Huckleberry Finn on the album The Stories of Mark Twain, along with his Good-bye, My Lady co-star, Walter Brennan. DeWilde shared an onscreen camaraderie with both James Stewart and Audie Murphy in the 1957 western Night Passage. In 1958 deWilde continued his career, starring in The Missouri Traveler sharing lead billing with Lee Marvin in another coming-of-age film, this one set in the early 1900s, he made a mark on screen at age 17 as an adolescent father in the 1959 drama Blue Denim, co-starring Carol Lynley, with the then-mature theme of abortion though the word is never used in the film. He guest-starred including Alcoa Theatre and the popular Western, Wagon Train.
In the 1959 Wagon Train episode, "The Danny Benedict Story", deWilde starred in the title role as the estranged, musically-inclined son of a stern Army colonel. In 1961 deWilde appeared in the Alfred Hitchcock Presents episode "The Sorcerer's Apprentice", he portrayed a mentally impaired youth who could not separate fact from fantasy. After seeing a magician saw a woman in half at a carnival, Hugo emulates the trick and kills a girl by sawing her in half; the episode never aired on NBC because the finale was deemed "too gruesome" by 1960s television standards. The episode was included in Alfred Hitchcock Presents syndication and was released in public-domain VHS, DVD and video on demand releases; the following year, deWilde appeared in All Fall Down, opposite Warren Beatty and Eva Marie Saint, in Martin Ritt's Hud co-starring with Paul Newman, Patricia Neal and Melvyn Douglas. Although the only lead actor not to be Oscar-nominated for Hud, deWilde accepted the Best Supporting Actor trophy on behalf of co-star Melvyn Douglas.
That same year, he appeared on The Greatest Show on Earth. DeWilde signed a two-picture deal with Disney in 1964, he first starred in The Tenderfoot, a three-part comedy Western for Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color TV show with Brian Keith. The following year he and Keith did Those Calloways for theatrical release, reuniting deWilde with his Good-bye, My Lady star Walter Brennan. In 1965, deWilde played a young PT boat officer, Esn. Jere Torry, the estranged son serving under his US Navy Admiral father played by John Wayne in the Pacific theater WWII drama, In Harm's Way. After 1965, many of his roles were limited to television guest appearances. "Being small for his age and a bit too pretty... in his favour as a child... worked against him as an adult", wrote author Linda Ashcroft after talking with deWilde at a party. "He spoke of giving up movies until he could come back as a forty-year-old character actor". DeWilde's final western role was in Dino De Laurentiis' 1971 spaghetti western The Deserter, one year before his death.
He played adjutant Lieutenant Ferguson. He made his last screen appearance in Wild In The Sky. DeWilde had hoped to embark on a music career, he asked his friend, Gram Parsons, his band at the time, International Submarine Band, to back him in a recording sess
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Joe Osborn was an American bass guitar player known for his work as a session musician in Los Angeles and Nashville during the 1960s through the 1980s. Osborn began his career working in local clubs played on a hit record by singer Dale Hawkins, he moved to Las Vegas at age 20, spent a year playing backup for country singer Bob Luman. With legendary guitar player Roy Buchanan among his bandmates, Osborn switched from guitar to electric bass. In 1960, with Allen "Puddler" Harris, a native of Franklin Parish in northeastern Louisiana, James Burton from Webster Parish, he joined pop star Ricky Nelson's backup band, where he spent four years, his playing on such Nelson hits as "Travellin' Man" began attracting wider notice, he found opportunities to branch out into studio work with artists such as Johnny Rivers. When the Nelson band dissolved in 1964, Osborn turned to studio work in Los Angeles full-time. For the next ten years, he was considered a "first-call" bassist among Los Angeles studio musicians, he worked with well-known producers such as Lou Adler and Bones Howe in combination with drummer Hal Blaine and keyboardist Larry Knechtel—the combination of Blaine and Knechtel have been referred to as the Hollywood Golden Trio.
His bass can be heard on many of the hit records cut in Los Angeles during that time, along with numerous film scores and television commercials. His playing can be heard on records by such well-known groups as The Mamas & the Papas, The Association, The Grass Roots and The 5th Dimension. Osborn can be heard on Simon & Garfunkel's "Bridge over Troubled Water" and the 5th Dimension's version of "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In". A song featuring prominently mixed bass in melodic counterpoint to acoustic guitars is the 1972 hit single "Ventura Highway" by the group America, he played on several Johnny Rivers records. Osborn played on many of Neil Diamond's major hits in the late 1960s and early to middle 1970s, including the hauntingly unique bass lines on "Holly Holy" in 1969. Osborn is known for his discovery and encouragement of the popular brother-and-sister duo, the Carpenters, on whose albums he played bass throughout their career, he can be heard playing on several of Nancy Sinatra's 1970's recordings and he was the bassist on the 1977 Christian album Forgiven by Don Francisco.
In 1974, Osborn moved to the country and western capital, Nashville. He continued an active studio career, playing behind such vocalists as Kenny Rogers, Mel Tillis, Hank Williams, Jr. One count listed Osborn as bassist on fifty-three number one hits on the country charts and at least 197 that were in the top 40's. Osborn's musical gift has been credited to over 242 different songs, with many performances going uncredited in his early years. Osborn left Nashville in 1988 and settled in Keithville in Caddo Parish near Shreveport in northwestern Louisiana. From 2005 until December 2018, he continued to live in record occasionally, he enjoyed continuing to create new charts and recordings with Richard Carpenter, as well as playing bass at his local church. Joe continued to inspire and work in the studio locally through May 2017, with his most recent credit being given on the album by Micah and the Jazzgrass Apocalypse, released in August 2018. Osborn died on December 14, 2018 at his home. Osborn's instrument throughout most of his recording career was a 1960 Fender stack-knob Fender Jazz Bass, given to him by Fender just prior to touring Australia with Nelson.
Osborn said he was disappointed that Fender had not sent him a Fender Precision Bass, which he had been using, but he said he grew to like the Jazz Bass because the narrower neck made it easier for his short fingers. He strung the bass with LaBella flatwound bass strings that he did not change for 20 years and his style was distinctive, with a resonant, bright tone produced, in part, by his use of a plectrum; this bass is on permanent display at The Musicians Hall of Fame & Museum in Nashville, TN. Many producers and arrangers chose to spotlight his contributions by mixing the bass line more prominently than had been customary, incorporating brief bass solos into their arrangements, he had a signature bass, the "Joe Osborn Signature", made by American guitar manufacturer Lakland, although it is now called the "44-60 Vintage J Bass". In 2012, Fender Guitar built a custom Fender Jazz Bass for Osborn according to his desired specifications, he recorded with this bass for the first time when producing and playing bass on teen musician Matthew Davidson's debut recording.
Joe Osborn was nominated for Bass Player of the Year by the Academy of Country Music in 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, winning the honor 4 out of 6 times. 1980 Bass Player of the Year, Academy of Country Music 1981 Bass Player of the Year, Academy of Country Music 1982 Bass Player of the Year, Academy of Country Music 1983 Bass Player of the Year, Academy of Country Music 1984 Bass Player of the Year, Academy of Country Music 1985 Bass Player of the Year, Academy of Country Music 2010 The Louisiana Music Hall of Fame. "Travelin' Man" "Memphis" "California Dreamin'" "Windy" "MacArthur Park" "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In" "The Only Living Boy in New York" "For All We Know" "It's Going to Take Some Time" "Bridge over Troubled Water" "Midnight Confessions" "Ventura Highway" Joe Osborn at AllMusic Joe Osborn discography at Disc
Peter Henry Fonda is an American actor. He is the son of Henry Fonda, younger brother of Jane Fonda, father of Bridget and Justin Fonda. Fonda was a part of the counterculture of the 1960s, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Easy Rider, the Academy Award for Best Actor for Ulee's Gold. For the latter, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama. Fonda won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film for The Passion of Ayn Rand. Fonda was born in New York City, the only son of actor Henry Fonda and his wife Frances Ford Seymour, he and Jane had a maternal half-sister, Frances de Villers Brokaw, from their mother's first marriage. Their mother committed suicide in a mental hospital when Peter, her youngest, was ten, although he did not discover the circumstances or location of her death until he was 55 years old. On his eleventh birthday, he accidentally shot himself in the abdomen and nearly died.
He stayed for a few months for recovery. Years he referred to this incident while with John Lennon and George Harrison while taking LSD, he said, "I know what it's like to be dead." This inspired The Beatles' song "She Said She Said". Early on, Fonda studied acting in Omaha, his father's home town. While attending the University of Nebraska Omaha, Fonda joined the Omaha Community Playhouse, where many actors had begun their careers. Before he attended the University of Nebraska Omaha, Peter attended the Fay School in Southborough and was a member of the class of 1954, he matriculated to Westminster School, a Connecticut boarding school in Simsbury where he graduated in 1958. Fonda performed at the Cecilwood Theatre in New York in 1960. Fonda found work on Broadway and gained notice in Blood and Stanley Poole, written by James and William Goldman which ran for 84 performances in 1961. Fonda began guest starring on TV shows like Naked City, The New Breed, Wagon Train, The Defenders. Fonda's first film came when producer Ross Hunter was looking for a new male actor to romance Sandra Dee in Tammy and the Doctor.
Fonda was cast in what was a minor hit. He followed this with a support part in The Victors, a bleak look at American soldiers in World War Two, directed by Carl Foreman. Fonda's performance won him a Golden Globe Award for most promising newcomer. Fonda continued to work in television, guest starring in Channing and Trial, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, 12 O'Clock High, he tested for the role of John F. Kennedy in PT-109. Fonda impressed Robert Rossen, he cast Fonda in what would be Rossen's last movie, alongside Warren Beatty, Jean Seberg and Gene Hackman. Fonda's performance was well reviewed. Rossen signed Fonda to a seven-film contract, to start with an adaptation of Bang the Drum Slowly but Rossen passed away. Fonda graduated to starring roles in The Young Lovers, about out-of-wedlock pregnancy, the sole directorial effort of Samuel Goldwyn Jr. and not popular. By the mid-1960s, Peter Fonda was not a conventional "leading man" in Hollywood; as Playboy magazine reported, Fonda had established a "solid reputation as a dropout".
He had become outwardly nonconformist and grew his hair long and took LSD alienating the "establishment" film industry. Desirable acting work became scarce. Through his friendships with members of the band Byrds, Fonda visited The Beatles in their rented house in Benedict Canyon in Los Angeles in August 1965. While John Lennon, Ringo Starr, George Harrison, Fonda were under the influence of LSD, Lennon heard Fonda say, "I know what it's like to be dead." Lennon used this phrase as the tag line for his song, "She Said She Said", included on the Revolver album. In 1966, Fonda was arrested in the Sunset Strip riot; the band Buffalo Springfield protested the department's handling of the incident in their song "For What It's Worth". Fonda did some singing and in 1968, recorded a 45 for the Chisa label: "November Night" b/w "Catch The Wind", produced by Hugh Masekela. Fonda's first counterculture-oriented film role was as a biker in Roger Corman's B-movie, The Wild Angels. Fonda was to support George Chakiris but graduated to the lead when Chakiris revealed he could not ride a motorcycle, Fonda helped name his character "Heavenly Blues", with Bruce Dern, Nancy Sinatra and Diane Ladd appearing in the film.
In the film, Fonda delivered a "eulogy" at a fallen Angel's funeral service. This was sampled by Psychic TV on their recording "Jack the TAB" LP, it was sampled in the Primal Scream recording "Loaded", in other rock songs. The movie was a massive hit at the box office, screened at the Venice Film Festival, launched the biker movie genre, established Fonda as a movie name. Fonda made a TV pilot, High Noon: The Clock Strikes Noon Again, filmed in December 1965, it was based on the film starring Gary Cooper with Fonda in the role. However it did not become a series. Fonda next played the male lead in Corman's popular film The Trip, a take on the experience and "consequences" of consuming LSD, written by Jack Nicholson, his co stars included Bruce Dern and Jack Nicholson. The movie was another big hit. Fonda travelled to France to appear in the portmanteau horror movie Spirits of the Dead, his segment co-starred Fo
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
The Flying Burrito Brothers
The Flying Burrito Brothers are an American country rock band, best known for their influential 1969 debut album, The Gilded Palace of Sin. Although the group is best known for its connection to band founders Gram Parsons and Chris Hillman, the group underwent many personnel changes and has existed in various incarnations. A lineup with no original members performs as The Burrito Brothers. Ian Dunlop and Mickey Gauvin of Gram Parsons' International Submarine Band, founded the original Flying Burrito Brothers and named it after Parsons informed them of his new country focus; this incarnation of the band never recorded as such, after heading East allowed Gram Parsons to take the name. With the original incarnation of the band out of the picture, the "West Coast" Flying Burrito Brothers were founded in 1968 in Los Angeles, California by Gram Parsons and Chris Hillman. Bassist/keyboardist Chris Ethridge, pedal steel guitarist Sneaky Pete Kleinow and session drummer "Fast" Eddie Hoh rounded out the lineup.
Though Hillman and Roger McGuinn had fired Parsons from the Byrds in July 1968, the bassist and Parsons reconciled that year after Hillman left the group. Parsons had refused to join his Byrds bandmates for a tour of South Africa, citing his disapproval of the apartheid policy of that nation's government. Hillman doubted the sincerity of Parsons' gesture, believing instead that the singer wanted to remain in England with Mick Jagger and Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, whom he had befriended; the Flying Burrito Brothers recorded their debut album, The Gilded Palace of Sin, without a regular drummer. Hoh proved to be unable to perform adequately due to an incipient substance abuse problem and was dismissed after recording two songs, leading the group to employ a variety of session players, including former International Submarine Band drummer Jon Corneal and Popeye Phillips of Dr. Hook & the Medicine Show. Before commencing their first tour, the group settled upon original Byrd Michael Clarke as a permanent replacement.
Michael Clarke remained the band's permanent drummer until 1971. Critically acclaimed upon its release in February 1969 for its pioneering amalgamation of country, soul music and psychedelic rock, The Gilded Palace of Sin only managed to peak at #164 in Billboard. Although the band declined an invitation to perform at Woodstock, a comprehensive train tour of the United States ended in disaster due to drug and alcohol use. Dissatisfied by the band's lack of success and unable to reconcile his predilection for R&B and groove-based music with the more conservative tastes of Parsons and Hillman, Ethridge departed the group in the autumn of 1969. Hillman reverted to bass after the band hired lead guitarist Bernie Leadon, a Dillard and Clark veteran who had played with Hillman in the early 1960s bluegrass scene; this iteration of the band performed at the ill-fated Altamont Free Concert in December 1969, as documented in the film Gimme Shelter. The audience remained peaceful throughout their performance.
With mounting debt incurred from the first album and tour and a failed single, A&M Records hoped to recoup some of their losses by marketing the Burritos as a straight country group. To this end, manager Jim Dickson instigated a loose session where the band recorded several traditional country staples from their live act, contemporary pop covers in a countrified vein, Williams's rock and roll classic "Bony Moronie." This was soon scrapped in favor of a second album of originals on an reduced budget. Several of the tracks from the abandoned sessions would see the light of day in 1976 on Sleepless Nights, which featured outtakes from Parsons's post-Burritos solo career. Released in April 1970, Burrito Deluxe juxtaposed the band's inability to develop compelling new material with prominent covers of the Rolling Stones's hitherto unreleased "Wild Horses," Dylan's "If You Gotta Go, Go Now" and the Southern gospel standard "Farther Along." Unlike Gilded Palace, the album failed to chart entirely.
A month Parsons showed up for a band performance only minutes before they were to take the stage. Visibly intoxicated, he began singing songs which differed from what the rest of the band were performing. A furious Hillman fired him after the show, to which Parsons responded, "You can't fire me, I'm Gram!" According to Hillman, this incident was the final straw. Now fronted by Hillman and Leadon, the band appeared in June–July 1970 on the Festival Expr