New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Residence Inn by Marriott
Residence Inn by Marriott is a brand of extended stay hotels. The chain was launched in 1975 in Wichita, Kansas by Jack DeBoer and Robert L. Brock, acquired by Marriott International on July 7, 1987; as of September 2017, there were over 735 Residence Inn hotels in the United States and Mexico. The brand's slogan is. It's a Residence", it was the first extended-stay brand in the United States, was a key player in launching the concept of a "suite" in a hotel. The usual appearance of a Residence Inn was a main building, called the "Gatehouse," which houses the front desk, a common area for meal service, an on-site coin-operated laundry, a swimming pool and exercise room and several outbuildings similar to condo or apartment complexes. Most had exterior corridors. More recent constructions, have moved away from the outbuilding style and instead have a more traditional layout with all suites in the same building; the suites are much larger than traditional hotel rooms, however. They are around 450 square feet for a standard suite and 750 for a two-bedroom suite.
Residence Inns feature a complimentary small hot breakfast in the morning and a complimentary reception on Monday through Wednesday evenings called "The Mix". The first Residence Inn to bear the Marriott name was in Charlotte, North Carolina. Virginia Beach and Daytona Beach Shores, Florida have the only oceanfront Residence Inns. In contrast to Marriott's other extended-stay brand, the low-cost TownePlace Suites, Residence Inn competes in the upscale industry segment, along with InterContinental's Staybridge Suites, Hyatt's HYATT House, Homewood Suites by Hilton and the former Starwood's Element. Residence Inn Official Site http://www.residenceinn.marriott.com/locations/
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world. The BASF Group comprises subsidiaries and joint ventures in more than 80 countries and operates six integrated production sites and 390 other production sites in Europe, Australia, the Americas and Africa, its headquarters is located in Germany. BASF supplies products to a wide variety of industries. Despite its size and global presence, BASF has received little public attention since it abandoned manufacturing and selling BASF-branded consumer electronics products in the 1990s. At the end of 2017, the company employed around 115,490 people, with over 52,000 in Germany alone. In 2015, BASF posted sales of €70.4 billion and income from operations before special items of about €6.7 billion. The company is expanding its international activities with a particular focus on Asia. Between 1990 and 2005, the company invested €5.6 billion in Asia, for example in sites near Nanjing and Shanghai and Mangalore, India. BASF is listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, Zurich Stock Exchange.
The company delisted its ADR from the New York Stock Exchange in September 2007. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. BASF is an initialism for Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik, it was founded by Friedrich Engelhorn on 6 April 1865 in Mannheim, in the German-speaking country of Baden. Engelhorn had been responsible for setting up a gasworks and street lighting for the town council in 1861; the gasworks produced tar as a byproduct, Engelhorn used this for the production of dyes. BASF was set up in 1865 to produce other chemicals necessary for dye production, notably soda and acids; the plant, was erected on the other side of the Rhine river at Ludwigshafen, because the town council of Mannheim was afraid that the air pollution from the chemical plant could bother the inhabitants of the town. In 1866, the dye production processes were moved to the BASF site; the discovery in 1857 by William Henry Perkin that aniline could be used to make intense colouring agents had led to the commercial production of synthetic dyes in England from aniline extracted from coal tar.
BASF recruited Heinrich Caro, a German chemist with experience of the dyestuffs industry in England, to be the first head of research. Caro developed a synthesis for alizarin, applied for a British patent on 25 June 1869. Coincidentally, Perkin applied for a identical patent on 26 June 1869, the two companies came to a mutual commercial agreement about the process. Further patents were granted for the synthesis of methylene blue and eosin, in 1880, research began to try to find a synthetic process for indigo dye, though this was not brought to the market until 1897. In 1901, some 80% of the BASF production was dyestuffs. Sodium carbonate was produced by the Leblanc process until 1880 when the much cheaper Solvay process became available. BASF bought it from the Solvay company thereafter. Sulfuric acid was produced by the lead chamber process, but in 1890, a unit using the contact process was brought on stream, producing the acid at higher concentration and a lower cost; this development followed extensive research and development by Rudolf Knietsch, for which he received the Liebig Medal in 1904.
The development of the Haber process from 1908 to 1912 made it possible to synthesize ammonia, after acquiring exclusive rights to the process, in 1913 BASF started a new production plant in Oppau, adding fertilizers to its product range. BASF acquired and began mining anhydrite for gypsum at the Kohnstein in 1917. In 1916, BASF started operations at a new site in Leuna, where explosives were produced during the First World War. On 21 September 1921, an explosion occurred in Oppau; the Oppau explosion was the biggest industrial accident in German history. Under the leadership of Carl Bosch - a critic of Nazi policies - BASF founded IG Farben with Hoechst and three other companies, thus losing its independence. BASF was the nominal survivor. Rubber and coatings were added to the range of products. Following the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor in 1933, IG Farben collaborated with the Nazi regime, profiting from guaranteed volumes and prices, from the slave labor provided by the government's Nazi concentration camps.
IG Farben achieved notoriety owing to its production of Zyklon-B, the lethal gas used to murder prisoners in German Nazi extermination camps. In 1935, IG Farben and AEG presented the magnetophon – the first tape recorder – at the Radio Exhibition in Berlin; the Ludwigshafen site was completely destroyed during the Second World War and was subsequently rebuilt. The allies dissolved IG Farben in November 1945. Both the Ludwigshafen and Oppau plants were of strategic importance for the war because the German military needed many of their products, e.g. synthetic rubber and gasoline. As a result, they were major targets for air raids. Throughout the war, Allied bombers attacked the plants 65 times. Shelling took place from the autumn of 1943 and saturation bombing inflicted extensive damage. Production stopped by the end of 1944. Due to a shortage of male workers during the war, women were conscripted to work in the factories, prisoners of war and foreign civilians. Concentration camp inmates did not work at the Oppau plants.
In July 1945, the American military administration confiscated the entire assets
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Mount Olive station
Mount Olive is a NJ Transit station in Mount Olive, New Jersey, located in the International Trade Center. The station, located on the side of Waterloo Village Road, services trains for both the Montclair-Boonton Line and the Morristown Line along trackage owned by Norfolk Southern; the line is not electrified from Hackettstown to Dover, where passengers can transfer to an electric Morristown Line train via Summit or a diesel Montclair-Boonton train via Wayne and Montclair. Trains along both lines head to Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey or New York Penn Station at 34th Street in New York City, although Montclair-Boonton trains require a transfer at Montclair State University or Newark Broad Street for electrified service to New York. After the termination of Boonton Line passenger service to Washington in 1966, service terminated at Netcong station in Netcong. In 1994, stations were constructed along Norfolk Southern's Washington Secondary at Mount Olive and Hackettstown, extending the line into Warren County and providing rail service to the International Trade Center along with tourist attraction, Waterloo Village.
Service took effect on November 1994 from Netcong to Hackettstown. The Washington Secondary was the original alignment of the Delaware and Western Railroad's Main Line via Washington and Portland, Pennsylvania. Near Mount Olive station was once the Waterloo station, named after local Waterloo, New Jersey. Waterloo station was first remained in service until being torn down in the 1920s, it continued to receive passengers, was the only regular stop with neither a building nor a shelter. Mount Olive has one mini-high side platform. Sussex Railroad Media related to Mount Olive at Wikimedia Commons