Academy of Sciences of Moldova
The Academy of Sciences of Moldova, established in 1946, is the main scientific organization of the Republic of Moldova and coordinates research in all areas of science and technology. Gheorghe Duca has been the head of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova since February 5, 2004. Iachim Grosul Alexandru Jucenco Andrei Andrieş Gheorghe Duca "The annual general meeting of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova confirms the reasoned scientific opinion of philologists from the Republic and abroad, according to which the correct name of the State language of the Republic of Moldova is Romanian; this declaration is to be given to advertising. 28.02.96 „Limba Română”, nr. 2, 1996." Official website
Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Costa Rica)
The Academia Nacional de Ciencias is Costa Rica's Academy of Sciences. The ANC was created as a “permanent forum for discussion and scientific analysis,” and serves both as an honorific society as well as a source of scientific advice for the government, it has a mandate to promote scientific culture and progress within Costa Rica, to foster collaboration between national and international agencies. The ANC maintains membership in international organizations such as the International Council for Science, the InterAmerican Network of Academies of Sciences and the Third World Network; the headquarters of the ANC are in San Pedro, in the province of San José. The ANC has several key missions: 1) Promoting the distribution of scientific knowledge within the general public. For example, the ANC holds monthly conferences for Costa Rican professors to present their work to anyone who wishes to attend. 2) Promoting careers in science, for instance by sponsoring fieldtrips for young people to visit places like the Ad Astra Rocket Company and the National Laboratory of Materials and Structural Models at the University of Costa Rica.
3) Maintaining connections with Costa Ricans working abroad – in part this is carried out through “La red TICOTAL,” a program run by the ANC that creates a network of Costa Rican researchers working domestically and internationally in order to promote opportunities for collaboration. 4) Serving as a scientific advisor to the Costa Rican government. When the government has a specific science-related question, the Academy reaches out to members who are experts on the topic and prepares a formal opinion for the government´s consideration. Recent topics have included the legalization of in-vitro fertilization and the legalization of cannabis. With the creation of the University of Costa Rica in 1940 and the construction of the first research laboratories in the 1950s, Costa Ricans began the process of carrying out original and independent research within the country. In the 1980s, as the research community was becoming more established, a sense of restlessness was present among researchers to create a central forum for the exchange of ideas and scientific discussions.
The creation of the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 further fed this restlessness, in 1990, Law 7169 was passed, "Law for the Promotion of Scientific and Technological Development". In Article 66 of this law, it was established that "with the resources created in this law, the es:Consejo Nacional para Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas and the Ministry of Science and Technology will both promote the establishment and contribute to the development... of a National Academy of Sciences." The ANC was created with 26 founding members on June 1992, via an executive order. In 1994, the ANC was presented with its official headquarters in San Pedro, a building called the "National House of Science and Technology"; the legislative assembly confirmed the existence of the academy in 1995 via "Law 7544, Creation of the National Academy of Sciences". New members of the ANC are elected by current members, based on their distinguished achievements in original research; this is measured through metrics such as journal publications in prestigious journals and willingness to explore new frontiers of research.
Some distinguished members include Franklin Chang-Diaz, an astronaut, developing plasma rocket propulsion technology for NASA, Sandra Cauffman, Deputy Director of the Earth Sciences Division within the Science Mission Directorate at NASA, Giselle Tamayo, the first female president of CONICIT, Marino Protti, a seismologist famous for helping predict earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula. 1992-1994: Dr.hu:Bornemisza Elemér 1995-1998: Dr. Eugenia Flores 1998-2006: Dr. Walter Fernández 2006-2014: Dr. Gabriel Macaya Trejos 2015-present: Dr. Pedro León Azofeifa Official website
Global Geoparks Network
The Global Geoparks Network is a UNESCO assisted network established in 1998. Managed under the body’s Ecological and Earth Sciences Division, the GGN seeks the promotion and conservation of the planet’s geological heritage, as well as encourages the sustainable research and development by the concerned communities; the international network seeks the membership geoparks—geographical areas where geological heritage is the focus of local protection and development. A set of criteria as established by UNESCO must first be met for a geopark, as nominated by the corresponding government, to be included in the GGN: the existence of a management plan designed to foster socio-economic development, sustainable; the first members of the GGN were named during the first conference in 2004, it has continued to grow since then: The GGN works in close synergy with another project under UNESCO’s Ecological and Earth Sciences Division—the Man and Biosphere World Network of Biosphere Reserves—to come up with and establish different means of sustainable development in promoting the local communities’ relationship with the natural environment.
As of April 2018, 140 geoparks from 38 countries in Europe and east Asia, have been included in the GGN. Asia Pacific Geoparks Network European Geoparks Network Geotourism Geoheritage UNESCO list of Global Geoparks — Global Geoparks Network members International Union of Geological Sciences — Minutes of the 46th Executive Committee Meeting, Egypt, January 26–30, 2000. International Union of Geological Sciences — 45th Executive Committee Meeting, Austria, January 26–30, 1998
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, located in Baku, is the main state research organization and the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Azerbaijan. It was established on 23 January 1945; the President of ANAS is Acad. Akif Alizadeh and the Academician-Secretary of ANAS is Acad. Rasim Alguliyev. One section of the ANAS is Republican Seismic Survey Center of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; the Academy was based on the Azerbaijan Society for Scientific Research and Studies, first affiliated with Baku State University and with the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1923 the Azerbaijan Society for Researches and Studies that included history, ethnography and natural sciences, was established as the leading scientific institution of Azerbaijan by initiative of Nariman Narimanov. In 1929 the Society was reorganized into Azerbaijan State Scientific Research Institute. ASSRI were coordinating scientific research works, training scientific cadres for specialized high and secondary schools.
In 1932, the Azerbaijani Branch of the Transcaucasian Affiliate of the USSR Academy of Sciences, consisting of 11 divisions and several committees, was organized on the basis of ASSRI. The head of the Branch was A. Ruhulla. Famous Russian scientists such as Ivan Gubkin, Alexander Grossheim, I. Meshshaninov, Iosif Yesman, Azerbaijani scholars such as Bakir Chobanzadeh, Musa Afandiyev, Veli Khuluflu, A. Mammadov, Salman Mumtaz, A. Taghizadeh, etc. conducted scientific researches here. In 1935, Azerbaijani Branch of the Transcaucasian Affiliate of the USSR Academy of Sciences was reorganized into the Azerbaijani Affiliate of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Chemical, Zoology, History and Archeology, Language and Literature research institutions, as well as the Divisions of Energy, Physics and Soil Science were established on the base of the existing departments of the Branch. In 1945, the USSR Council of People's Commissars ordered the society to be reorganized into the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR.
During its first year, the Academy numbered 15 members. In accord with presidential decree, the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences was granted the status of "National Academy of Sciences", after 2 years ANAS was given the status of supreme state body carrying out the scientific and scientific-technical policy of Azerbaijan, its Charter was granted the state document. Following the presidential decrees dated January 12, 2004 and 5 May 2004, the Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan was a part of ANAS and the Scientific Center of the National Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan was established; the Presidium is located in the historical Ismailiyya building on Istiglaliyyat Street in the center of Baku. The functions of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science include organization of scientific activity. ANAS represents Azerbaijan in different countries and international scientific events, takes measures in order to improve the scientific infrastructure and modernize the material and technical basis of science, its functions include strengthening the relations between science and industries, to create mechanisms for the implementation of applied scientific research in line with the needs of the market, innovative environment for innovative entrepreneurship, developing new types of activities, making proposals for the transfer and acquisition of advanced technologies, suggestions on the organization of techno-parks, innovation zones, incubation services, technology transfer centers, shaping the innovation system in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences is responsible for ensuring scientific reforms. The Academy should determine the strategy and priorities of scientific and technical development, participate in preparation of state programs, make decisions, establish scientific-production-experimental plants, various economic enterprises and organize interaction between science and production. Organizing and implementing scientific researches that aimed at the protection of culture and customs, strengthening ties between science and education, representing Azerbaijan in international events related to scientific issues, participating in the organization and implementation of international scientific projects, promoting the creation of high-tech manufacturing sites and businesses based on science achievements; the Academy applies a single center-management model of research carried out in scientific research institutions, takes measures on effectiveness assessment. The Academy has rights such as follows: To prepare proposals in order to improve legislation in the field of science.
Latvian Academy of Sciences
The Latvian Academy of Sciences is the official science academy of Latvia and is an association of the country's foremost scientists. The academy was founded as the Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences, it is located in Riga. The current President of the academy is Ojārs Spārītis; the Academy of Sciences edifice was built after World War II, between 1951 and 1961, collecting the necessary financing from the newly established kolkhozes in Latvia and – as further expenses increased, collecting the finances as "voluntary donations" deducted from the salaries of the Latvian rural population. The building is decorated with several hammer and sickle symbols as well as Latvian folk ornaments and motifs; the spire was decorated with a wreath and a five pointed star, removed after Latvia regained independence in 1991. Being 108 metres tall, it was the first skyscraper in the republic and was the tallest building until the construction of the Swedbank Headquarters in Latvia, at the time, one of the highest reinforced concrete buildings in the world.
The building, designed by Osvalds Tīlmanis, Vaidelotis Apsītis, Kārlis Plūksne, is a cousin to similar Stalin-era skyscrapers, which were representative of what became known as Stalinist architecture. The architecture of the skyscraper resembles many others built in the Soviet Union at the time, most notably the main building of Moscow State University. Local nicknames include the Kremlin; the view of Riga cityscape is open for public viewing from the 17th-floor balcony. The tower is located in the suburb of Maskavas Vorstadt. All-Russia Exhibition Centre Eighth Sister Hotel Leningradskaya Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia Red Gates Administrative Building Moscow State University Palace of the Soviets Seven Sisters Triumph Palace Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science International cooperation of the Latvian Academy of Sciences
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts is the national academy of Croatia. Founded in 1866, it is the oldest national academy in Southeast Europe. HAZU was founded under patronage of the Croatian bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer under the name Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts since its founder wanted to make it the central scientific and artistic institution of all South Slavs. Today, its main goals are encouraging and organizing scientific work, applying the achieved results, development of artistic and cultural activities, carrying about the Croatian cultural heritage and its affirmation in the world, publishing the results of scientific research and artistic creativity and giving suggestions and opinions for the advancement of science and art in areas of particular importance to Croatia; the academy is divided into nine classes. The Academy started in 1866 with 16 full members which grew to today's 160. Besides full, members can be honorary, corresponding or associate; the institution was founded in Zagreb on 29 April 1861 by the decision of the Croatian Parliament as the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts.
The bishop and benefactor Josip Juraj Strossmayer, a prominent advocate of higher education during the 19th century Croatian national romanticism, set up a trust fund for this purpose and in 1860 submitted a large donation to the viceroy of Croatia Josip Šokčević for the cause of being able to After some years of deliberations by the Croatian Parliament and the Emperor Franz Joseph, it was sanctioned by law in 1866. The official sponsor was Josip Juraj Strossmayer, while the first Chairman of the Academy was the distinguished Croatian historian Franjo Rački. Đuro Daničić was elected for secretary general of the Academy, where he played a key role in preparing the Academy's Dictionary, "Croatian or Serbian Dictionary of JAZU". The Academy's creation was the logical extension of the University of Zagreb, the institution created in 1669 and renewed by bishop Strossmayer in 1874. Bishop Strossmayer initiated the building of the Academy Palace in the Zrinjevac park of Zagreb, the Palace was completed in 1880.
In 1884, the Palace became a host of The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters that contained 256 works of art. The same is today one of the most prominent art galleries in Zagreb; the Academy started publishing the academic journal Rad in 1867. In 1882, each of the individual scientific classes of the Academy started printing their own journals. In 1887, the Academy published the first "Ljetopis" as a year book, as well as several other publications in history and ethnology. Ivan Supek, Mihailo Petrović, Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger and Lavoslav Ružička were JAZU members; the Academy changed name from "Yugoslav" to "Croatian" between 1941 and 1945 during the Axis client regime of the Independent State of Croatia. It has again been renamed "Croatian" in 1991; the Academy is divided into nine departments: Department of Social Sciences Department of Mathematical and Chemical Sciences Department of Natural Sciences Department of Medical Sciences Department of Philological Sciences Department of Literature Department of Fine Arts Department of Music and Musicology Department of Technical Sciences One of the research units of the Academy is the Institute for Historical Sciences.
It is located in a Renaissance villa in Dubrovnik, holds a rich manuscript and library collection. Two peer-reviewed journals are published by the Institute, which are available online: Anali in Croatian and Dubrovnik Annals in English. There are four classes of members: Full members Associate members Honorary members Corresponding membersThe number of full members and corresponding members is limited to 160 each, while the maximum number of associate members is 100. Number of full members per department is limited to 24. Only the full members may carry the title of "academician"; the Academy has been criticized to the effect that membership and activities are based on academic cronyism and political favor rather than on scientific and artistic merit. In 2006 matters came to a head with the Academy's refusal to induct Dr. Miroslav Radman, an accomplished biologist, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, an advocate of a higher degree of meritocracy and accountability in Croatian academia.
His supporters within the Academy and the media decried the decision as reinforcing a politically motivated, unproductive status quo. Dr. Ivo Banac, a Yale University professor and a deputy in the Croatian parliament, addressed the chamber in a speech decrying a "dictatorship of mediocrity" in the Academy, while Globus columnist Boris Dežulović satirized the institution as an "Academy of stupidity and obedience." Dr. Vladimir Paar and others defended the Academy's decision, averring that it did take pains to include accomplished scientists but that, since Dr. Radman's work has taken place outside Croatia, it was appropriate that he remain a Corresponding rather than a Full Member of the Academy. Nenad Ban, a distinguished molecular biologist from ETH Zurich and a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is only a corresponding member of HAZU. Ivan Đikić, an accomplished Croatian scientist, working at the Goethe University Frankfurt, a member of Leopoldina sin
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization, or standards setting organization is an organization whose primary activities are developing, promulgating, amending, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters. Most standards are voluntary in the sense that they are offered for adoption by people or industry without being mandated in law; some standards become mandatory when they are adopted by regulators as legal requirements in particular domains. The term formal standard refers to a specification, approved by a standards setting organization; the term de jure standard refers to a standard mandated by legal requirements or refers to any formal standard. In contrast, the term de facto standard refers to a specification that has achieved widespread use and acceptance – without being approved by any standards organization. Examples of de facto standards that were not approved by any standards organizations include the Hayes command set developed by Hayes, Apple's TrueType font design and the PCL protocol used by Hewlett-Packard in the computer printers they produced.
The term standards organization is not used to refer to the individual parties participating within the standards developing organization in the capacity of founders, stakeholders, members or contributors, who themselves may function as the standards organizations. The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts. Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800, which allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time. Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization. Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first national standard by companies around the country in 1841, it came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, was adopted in other countries. By the end of the 19th century differences in standards between companies was making trade difficult and strained.
For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible. In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work"; the Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body. It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929; the national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries; the Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commission Permanente de Standardisation, both in 1918.
By the mid to late 19th century, efforts were being made to standardize electrical measurement. An important figure was R. E. B. Crompton, who became concerned by the large range of different standards and systems used by electrical engineering companies and scientists in the early 20th century. Many companies had entered the market in the 1890s and all chose their own settings for voltage, frequency and the symbols used on circuit diagrams. Adjacent buildings would have incompatible electrical systems because they had been fitted out by different companies. Crompton could see the lack of efficiency in this system and began to consider proposals for an international standard for electric engineering. In 1904, Crompton represented Britain at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri, as part of a delegation by the Institute of Electrical Engineers, he presented a paper on standardisation, so well received that he was asked to look into the formation of a commission to oversee the process.
By 1906 his work was complete and he drew up a permanent constitution for the first international standards organization, the International Electrotechnical Commission. The body held its first meeting that year with representatives from 14 countries. In honour of his contribution to electrical standardisation, Lord Kelvin was elected as the body's first President; the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations was founded in 1926 with a broader remit to enhance international cooperation for all technical standards and specifications. The body was suspended in 1942 during World War II. After the war, ISA was approached by the formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization. Standards organizations can b